Congratulations to Trump, on efforts in establishing peace with Russia!

Just like the title says, congratulations!

From these articles:

From ZeroHedge:

https://www.zerohedge.com/news/2018-07-16/trump-putin-arrive-helsinki-ahead-historic-summit

https://www.zerohedge.com/news/2018-07-16/putin-admits-i-wanted-trump-win-full-highlights-historic-summit

From Infowars:

https://www.infowars.com/live-president-trump-meets-with-putin-in-helsinki/

Also minor details:

https://www.infowars.com/putin-denies-russia-interference-in-2016-u-s-election/

This is more than a bit minor:

https://www.infowars.com/putin-bombshell-deep-state-moved-400-million-from-russia-to-hillary-campaign/

https://www.infowars.com/meltdown-left-seething-over-trump-putin-summit/

Also I’d like to congratulate Infowars for it’s good reporting:

Especially this article:

https://www.infowars.com/the-creeping-global-censorship-of-the-chicoms/

It’s way underrated. This needs to be on the as relevant as the other news from today.

 

And the congratulations is not over yet.

To Bradley Loves and it’s blog, lovetruthsite.wordpress.com.

Especially this article:

https://lovetruthsite.wordpress.com/2018/07/16/the-circuit-board-question-the-worship-energy-etc-part-three-2/

You are keeping up a good series that lately, the subjects you covered I did not have the time to write about. And you’re right on point. Thank you very much for your efforts ūüôā .

I really appreciate it.

PS: If you want me to donate, please accept bitcoin or anything related, I don’t touch paypal and usually credit card systems with a 10ft pole, in the online area.

You, the writer of the blog lovetruthsite, managed to put the bad guys in the crosshairs, and it’s a thing that we, and a certain majority to do it.

The main issue is how to actually do it, bring it up. While I have some ideas, it will take time to get them implemented, and as things and people have a low attention span (see how the electronics and smartphones actually decrease this next generation, attention span, from 12 seconds to 9 seconds on average), we need to do things fast. Things that can be done in 1 day or less, it seems. Long term planning is good, but it needs short term action, and the other thing to look out in terms of short term action, is burnout.

People working in multinational corporations, or anything similar, might reach a state called burnout, if it becomes too stressful. Look at the word, ‘stressful’. If you’re enjoying whatever you’re doing, the burnout isn’t as likely.

What we eat is relevant in terms of long term health but it might take time to get used to. Another thing, the most important, is the state of flow, and the state of meditation. Both these states at their best give the individual the capacity to do what it needs to be done. This is why, sometimes, meditation is seen as important to me (despite not practicing it constantly, yet). Another thing, is yoga, tai chi, and then bodybuilding. If done right, they will keep a healthy body for a long period of time.

As for the current generation…

One article points how generation z is better than generation y (millennials):

https://www.zerohedge.com/news/2018-07-01/step-aside-millennials-here-comes-generation-z

https://lovetruthsite.wordpress.com/2018/07/14/you-gotta-love-those-millennials/

So, if people/you want to blame millennials, you should blame the generations before them. Especially those who ‘raised’ them. Look at those baby boomers, and generation x, who gave them the knowledge, the model and the platform to become who they are today.

Disney, anything animation. It deeply affects the subconscious and it reinforces those psychological patterns seen in those garbage tv cartoons. Those who made the cartoons, those are the major destroyers of this civilization. People are bad, mostly, because of the way they were brainwashed by TV, in their childhood. This is the main reason that the majority of millennials, just like gen X, became who they are today.

Only vicious role models were thrown at the millennials:

-smokers, drinkers, tattoos, arrogant attitudes, criminal behavior seen acceptable, all of it.

It all came from the TV Shows. The TV Shows that indoctrinated an entire generation, not only from United States, but ‘All States across the World’. In each country, you will find these products that are really the poison that affects the majority of people. Why are the gen z, a bit different? Because they were in the computer age, and that’s a bit better than tv, but not perfect. Not all young gen z have computers, and would mostly be dependent on smartphones.

So, the biggest poison that still affects the majority of people, like a drug, is TV. Some cartoons with subliminal messages. Others with making the audience to imitate that behavior in real life. That’s how the majority of kids grew up. Like Tom & Jerry and others. I liked those, a bit, when I was like 4 or 5 years old. But had the luck to find animation called ‘anime’ that is Japanese, and which takes the seriousness, and honesty of the Japanese people and puts it into an animation. Those are closer to ‘entertaining documentaries’ instead of ridiculous cartoons. Of course, it also depends what you watch.

But to recap, how the majority of ‘Millennials’ failed:

-indoctrinated by age 3-9 years old by Disney productions like Tom & Jerry, Mickey Mouse, which all imitates or pushes snowflake behavior into their minds. The examples could be endless, but the main point is that they lack one vibration: “wisdom”.

-indoctrinated by age 5- 20+ years in countless Movies, TV Shows, mostly peddled by the media to achieve one goal -> to create a generation that takes things easy, it is usually never serious, and vulnerable to be manipulated throughout it’s age, and later in life, thanks to all their deeds in the period of 3-20+ years old, the result of who they are in life, was mostly defined by their entire brainwashing done in that period of life since they were born.¬†And another damaging, dehumanizing aspect, that was also introduced by baby boomers and gen x, is none other than ‘porn’, through it’s magazines and later tapes. It ruined and continues to ruin marriages and minds of future husbands and wives and it’s one of the main reasons of infertility and why people don’t have many kids nowadays.

-From 20+ years old, people change, but usually slower. Habits remain and are much harder to break down. So there you have it.

To recap, who are the main perpetrators that destroyed the ‘Millennials’?

It was none other than…… The Mainstream Media.

Run by…. Baby boomers and Gen X ‘ers, mostly. But that isn’t as relevant, as the fact that they themselves (baby boomers and gen x), were manipulated by a ruthless and most likely dumb elite, who created a road which led to the slow but predictable destruction of humanity, by amplifying and programming humans with the single most deadly virus humans have ever faced: ” Vice “.

That was all their goal.

This article was supposed to be about Congratulating other people… instead it showed some reflections that I wanted to write about.

We can talk and congratulate all day long, but never forget,

The reason this society turned out sick, is because it was fed ‘SICK’.

And the only way to undo all this damage, is, well, more work that one could ever hope. The best start would be to read conservative oriented websites like infowars. Or going to church, and not those fake ones full of corrupt priests, but those who usually follow the Bible to the letter, and are open to healthy philosophy.

As for churches, it seems there are those without sharp like needle structures that absorb energy as people say. Maybe those are not bad, but who knows…

I might enter into the category of ‘Millennial’, but one should put me as an ‘outlier’, for the simple reason that I chose always to take a different and better path in life. ‘Outlier Millennial’. Out with the Lies I guess ūüôā

To end this article, thank you again.

I’ll post about the “Millennials”, then the “Congratulations”, to be on the main page.

Have a nice day and thank you for reading this!

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Why the majority of Millennials Failed, the TV generation

As for the current generation…

One article points how generation z is better than generation y (millennials):

https://www.zerohedge.com/news/2018-07-01/step-aside-millennials-here-comes-generation-z

It might be true, but people forgot who the culprits were (people who raised them).

https://lovetruthsite.wordpress.com/2018/07/14/you-gotta-love-those-millennials/

So, if people/you want to blame millennials, you should blame the generations before them. Especially those who ‘raised’ them. Look at those baby boomers, and generation x, who gave them the knowledge, the model and the platform to become who they are today.

Disney, anything animation. It deeply affects the subconscious and it reinforces those psychological patterns seen in those garbage tv cartoons. Those who made the cartoons, those are the major destroyers of this civilization. People are bad, mostly, because of the way they were brainwashed by TV, in their childhood. This is the main reason that the majority of millenials, just like gen X, became who they are today.

Only vicious role models were thrown at the millenials:

-smokers, drinkers, tattoos, arrogant attitudes, criminal behavior seen acceptable, all of it.

It all came from the TV Shows. The TV Shows that indoctrinated an entire generation, not only from United States, but ‘All States across the World’. In each country, you will find these products that are really the poison that affects the majority of people. Why are the gen z, a bit different? Because they were in the computer age, and that’s a bit better than tv, but not perfect. Not all young gen z have computers, and would mostly be dependent on smartphones.

So, the biggest poison that still affects the majority of people, like a drug, is TV. Some cartoons with subliminal messages. Others with making the audience to imitate that behavior in real life. That’s how the majority of kids grew up. Like Tom & Jerry and others. I liked those, a bit, when I was like 4 or 5 years old. But had the luck to find animation called ‘anime’ that is Japanese, and which takes the seriousness, and honesty of the Japanese people and puts it into an animation. Those are closer to ‘entertaining documentaries’ instead of ridiculous cartoons. Of course, it also depends what you watch.

But to recap, how the majority of ‘Millenials’ failed:

-indoctrinated by age 3-9 years old by Disney productions like Tom & Jerry, Mickey Mouse, which all imitates or pushes snowflake behavior into their minds. The examples could be endless, but the main point is that they lack one vibration: “wisdom”.

-indoctrinated by age 5- 20+ years in countless Movies, TV Shows, mostly peddled by the media to achieve one goal -> to create a generation that takes things easy, it is usually never serious, and vulnerable to be manipulated throughout it’s age, and later in life, thanks to all their deeds in the period of 3-20+ years old, the result of who they are in life, was mostly defined by their entire brainwashing done in that period of life since they were born. And another damaging, dehumanizing aspect, that was also introduced by baby boomers and gen x, is none other than ‘porn’, through it’s magazines and later tapes. It ruined and continues to ruin marriages and minds of future husbands and wives and it’s one of the main reasons of infertility and why people don’t have many kids nowadays.

-From 20+ years old, people change, but usually slower. Habits remain and are much harder to break down. So there you have it.

To recap, who are the main perpetrators that destroyed the ‘Millenials’?

It was none other than…… The Mainstream Media.

Run by…. Baby boomers and Gen X ‘ers, mostly. But that isn’t as relevant, as the fact that they themselves (baby boomers and gen x), were manipulated by a ruthless and most likely dumb elite, who created a road which led to the slow but predictable destruction of humanity, by amplifying and programming humans with the single most deadly virus humans have ever faced: ” Vice “.

That was all their goal.

We can talk and congratulate all day long, but never forget,

The reason this society turned out sick, is because it was fed ‘SICK’.

And the only way to undo all this damage, is, well, more work that one could ever hope. The best start would be to read conservative oriented websites like infowars. Or going to church, and not those fake ones full of corrupt priests, but those who usually follow the Bible to the letter, and are open to healthy philosophy.

As for churches, it seems there are those without sharp like needle structures that absorb energy as people say. Maybe those are not bad, but who knows…

The main reason the vast majority of Millennials failed, is BECAUSE of the ‘Cartoons’. It is, indeed, “A Cartoon World” the majority lives in.

“They”, the ones who created and peddled bad programming into the minds of young children on tv, “They” are all guilty for the failures of Millennials. And ‘They’ did, through a soft like way of mind control, called the Tee Vee, managed to disable Hundreds of Millions of people, and it has become way more effective than an entire genocide, or war, for the simple reason, that the people were programmed not to think and fight back against it. Think about it. A war tool, deployed on hundreds of millions of people, without anyone shouting back “we want vengeance”, “we want retribution”. The only reason one would deploy such a weapon, is to do a massive attack on all of humanity!

I might enter into the category of ‘Millennial’, but one should put me as an ‘outlier’, for the simple reason that I chose always to take a different and better path in life. ‘Outlier Millennial’. Out with the Lies I guess ūüôā

Thank you for reading this small article!

I hope it shares some insight to you!

 

Further creation of slaughterhouses will not make battlefields go away in most cases (see Middle East)

Further creation of slaughterhouses will not make battlefields go away in most cases.

Just like the title says. And yet, people group, move up and create more slaughterhouses.

And it applies both to the animal slaughterhouses, and the wars, which are nothing more than human slaughterhouses. For people who think some form of karma does not exist, they are likely to be wrong. Just look at the world. I myself dislike the following correlation or connection which I’ll show, but it has to be shown. There is a correlation between the suffering of animals and the suffering of humans. All that suffering that animals go through, beating and destroying, in those human slaughterhouses is reflected and shown later on, as wars, in parts of the world where humanity resides. Like it or not, wars are human slaughterhouses. Created by those who fund those wars. By those leaders people look up to. Do you want to know why, there is the tendency of warfare, for all these nations? Just look at your ‘institutions’, be it governments, departments, and see what symbolism they stand up for. Humans are seen as the smartest of all creatures on Earth, by humans themselves, but, their government puts a different symbol. That of a vulture. Those of bears. Those of owls, in some cases. This is by far, not a symbol of wisdom. These symbols are partially, the source of the corruption. The vultures are carnivores. Putting birds of prey to represent groups of people is a bad idea. Why don’t we put good birds, or good animals? What if we put humans to represent ourselves? Are ‘totems’ real? Some ancient religions did the idolatry of animals, isn’t that the case for our current systems? Just look at the world. Lions, vultures, eagles, 2 headed eagles, phoenixes, animals that are either real or mythological. Is the totem religion, alive, through these symbols, right under our noses?

And we kept wondering why we have wars… Put a zebra on an army logo, and see if they’re this bad to do acts of evil…

If all warfare armies do this, does it mean… they’re all corrupt? Yes. They are creators of slaughterhouses that continue to live on, through their existence. To end all wars on this planet, animals that are carnivorous, must be imprisoned, as to do no harm. If they survive with vegetables, good; If not, then in most cases they will suffer a natural death. Sharks need to be imprisoned. All these carnivorous animals. Don’t kill them. God said, ‘Thou shalt not kill!”. This applies to animals too. They cannot speak, but they have their own rudimentary reason. Some animals can be educated, and this is a proof of that.

Encourage people to give up on their slaughterhouses, and battlefields might go away.

Creating further battlefields is always a risky option, that usually creates more slaughterhouses.

I dislike a site who says that ‘the survival rate for everyone goes to zero’. It might apply to a vast majority, but not to everyone. And it might not apply at all in the future. This topic was covered in one of my past posts.

Let’s see the articles, from zerohedge.com:

Title and link: Dear President Trump: Please Read This Before Bombing Syria

Content, below, from the article:

——-




 

Dear Mr. President,

You’ve said you’re a smart man.

Now’s the time to prove it …

You’ve said that you’ll¬†get to the bottom¬†of who carried out the latest Syrian chemical weapons attack.

We can help …

Instead of bombing Syria for a chemical weapons attack, please prove that you are smart enough to learn the facts.

If you spend 5 minutes reading, you’ll learn that Syria has been “framed” for more than 50 years, that the U.S. first carried out a¬† “regime change” operation against Syria¬†in 1949 and has been drooling to do it again¬†ever since, that the Ruskies have framed other countries to justify war … and that you’re too smart to fall for the “Oldest Trick In the Book”.

Presidents, Prime Ministers, Congressmen, Generals, Spooks, Soldiers and Police ADMIT to False Flag Terror

Scores of government officials throughout the world have¬†admitted¬†(either orally, in writing, or through photographs or videos) to carrying out ‚Äď or seriously proposing ‚Äď false flag attacks:

(1) Japanese troops set off a small explosion on a train track in 1931, and falsely blamed it on China in order to justify an invasion of Manchuria. This is¬†known as¬†the ‚ÄúMukden Incident‚ÄĚ or the ‚ÄúManchurian Incident‚ÄĚ. The Tokyo International Military Tribunal¬†found: ‚ÄúSeveral of the participators in the plan, including Hashimoto [a high-ranking Japanese army officer],¬†have on various occasions¬†admitted¬†their part in the plot and have stated that the object of the ‚ÄėIncident‚Äô was to afford an excuse for the occupation of Manchuria by the Kwantung Army ‚Ķ.‚ÄĚ And see¬†this, this and this.

(2) A major with the Nazi SS¬†admitted¬†at the Nuremberg trials that ‚Äď under orders from the chief of the Gestapo ‚Äď he and some other Nazi operatives faked several attacks on their own people and resources which they blamed on the Poles, to justify the invasion of Poland. The staged attacks¬†included:

  • The German radio station at Gleiwitz [details below]
  • The strategic railway at JabŇāonk√≥w Pass, located on the border between Poland and Czechoslovakia
  • The German customs station at Hochlinden
  • The forest service station in Pitschen
  • The communications station at Neubersteich
  • The railroad station in Alt-Eiche
  • A woman and her companion in Katowice

The details of the Gleiwitz radio station incident include:

On the night of 31 August 1939, a small group of German operatives dressed in Polish uniforms and led by Naujocks seized the Gleiwitz station and broadcast a short anti-German message in Polish (sources vary on the content of the message). The Germans’ goal was to make the attack and the broadcast look like the work of anti-German Polish saboteurs.

To make the attack seem more convincing, the Germans used human corpses to pass them off as Polish attackers. They murdered Franciszek Honiok, a 43-year-old unmarried German Silesian Catholic farmer known for sympathizing with the Poles. He had been arrested the previous day by the Gestapo. He was dressed to look like a saboteur, then killed by lethal injection, given gunshot wounds, and left dead at the scene so that he appeared to have been killed while attacking the station. His corpse was subsequently presented to the police and press as proof of the attack.

(3) The minutes of the high command of the Italian government ‚Äď subsequently approved by Mussolini himself ‚Ästadmitted¬†that violence on the Greek-Albanian border was carried out by Italians and falsely blamed on the Greeks, as an excuse for Italy‚Äôs 1940 invasion of Greece.

(4) Nazi general Franz Halder also testified at the Nuremberg trials that Nazi leader Hermann Goering admitted to setting fire to the German parliament building in 1933, and then falsely blaming the communists for the arson.

(5) Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev¬†admitted¬†in writing that the Soviet Union‚Äôs Red Army shelled the Russian village of Mainila in 1939 ‚Äď while blaming the attack on Finland ‚Äď as a basis for launching the ‚ÄúWinter War‚ÄĚ against Finland. Russian president Boris Yeltsin¬†agreed¬†that Russia had been the aggressor in the Winter War.

(6) The Russian Parliament, current Russian president Putin and former Soviet leader Gorbachev all admit that Soviet leader Joseph Stalin ordered his secret police to execute 22,000 Polish army officers and civilians in 1940, and then falsely blamed it on the Nazis.

(7) The British government¬†admits¬†that ‚Äď between 1946 and 1948 ‚Äď it bombed 5 ships carrying Jews who were Holocaust survivors attempting to flee to safety in Palestine right after World War II, set up a fake group called ‚ÄúDefenders of Arab Palestine‚ÄĚ, and then had the psuedo-group falsely claim responsibility for the bombings (and see¬†this,¬†this¬†and¬†this).

(8) Israel¬†admits¬†that in 1954, an Israeli terrorist cell operating in Egypt planted bombs in several buildings, including U.S. diplomatic facilities, then left behind ‚Äúevidence‚ÄĚ implicating the Arabs as the culprits (one of the bombs detonated prematurely, allowing the Egyptians to identify the bombers, and several of the Israelis later confessed) (and see¬†this¬†and¬†this).

The U.S. Army does not believe this is an isolated incident. For example, the U.S. Army’s School of Advanced Military Studies said of Mossad (Israel’s intelligence service):

‚ÄúRuthless and cunning. Has capability to target U.S. forces and¬†make it look like a Palestinian/Arab act.‚ÄĚ

And former Israeli Prime Moshe Minister admitted in his diary:

I have been meditating on the long chain of false incidents and hostilities we have invented, and on the many clashes we have provoked which cost us so much blood ….

(9) The CIA admits that it hired Iranians in the 1950′s to pose as Communists and stage bombings in Iran in order to turn the country against its democratically-elected prime minister.

(10) The Turkish Prime Minister¬†admitted¬†that the Turkish government carried out the 1955 bombing on a Turkish consulate in Greece ‚Äď also damaging the nearby birthplace of the founder of modern Turkey ‚Äď and blamed it on Greece, for the purpose of inciting and justifying anti-Greek violence.

The Economist notes:

Starting in the 1950s Turkey‚Äôs deep state sponsored killings, engineered riots, colluded with drug traffickers, staged ‚Äúfalse flag‚ÄĚ attacks and organised massacres of trade unionists. Thousands died in the chaos it fomented.

(11) The British Prime Minister admitted to his defense secretary that he and American president Dwight Eisenhower approved a plan in 1957 to carry out attacks in Syria and blame it on the Syrian government as a way to effect regime change.

(12) The former Italian Prime Minister, an Italian judge, and the former head of Italian counterintelligence admit that NATO, with the help of the Pentagon and CIA, carried out terror bombings in Italy and other European countries in the 1950s through the 1980s and blamed the communists, in order to rally people’s support for their governments in Europe in their fight against communism.

As one participant in this formerly-secret program stated:¬†‚ÄúYou had to attack civilians, people, women, children, innocent people, unknown people far removed from any political game. The reason was quite simple. They were supposed to force these people, the Italian public, to turn to the state to ask for greater security‚Ä̬†‚Ķ¬†so that ‚Äúa state of emergency could be declared, so people would willingly trade part of their freedom for the security‚Ä̬†(and see¬†this) (Italy and other European countries subject to the terror campaign had joined NATO before the bombings occurred). And watch¬†this BBC special. They also allegedly carried out terror attacks in¬†France, Belgium, Denmark, Germany, Greece, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, the UK, and other countries.

The CIA also stressed to the head of the Italian program that Italy needed to use the program to control internal uprisings.

False flag attacks carried out pursuant to this program include ‚Äď by way of example only:

(13) In 1960, American Senator George Smathers¬†suggested¬†that the U.S. launch ‚Äúa false attack made on Guantanamo Bay which would give us the excuse of actually fomenting a fight which would then give us the excuse to go in and [overthrow Castro]‚ÄĚ.

(14) Official State Department documents show that, in 1961, the head of the Joint Chiefs and other high-level officials discussed blowing up a consulate in the Dominican Republic in order to justify an invasion of that country. The plans were not carried out, but they were all discussed as serious proposals.

(15) As admitted by the U.S. government, recently declassified documents show that in 1962, the American Joint Chiefs of Staff signed off on a plan to blow up AMERICAN airplanes (using an elaborate plan involving the switching of airplanes), and also to commit terrorist acts on American soil, and then to blame it on the Cubans in order to justify an invasion of Cuba. See the following ABC news report; the official documents; and watch this interview with the former Washington Investigative Producer for ABC’s World News Tonight with Peter Jennings. This plan was subsequently admitted again in other declassified government documents.

Provocations considered by the Joint Chiefs of Staff included:

Sink ship near harbor entrance. Conduct funerals for mock-victims ….

***

3. A ‚ÄúRemember the Maine‚ÄĚ incident could be arranged in several forms:

a. We could blow up a US ship in Guantanamo Bay and blame Cuba.

b. We could blow up a drone (unmanned) vessel anywhere in the Cuban waters. We could arrange to cause such incident in the vicinity of Havana or Santiago as a spectacular result of Cuban attack from the air or sea, or both. The presence of Cuban planes or ships merely investigating the intent of the vessel could be fairly compelling evidence that the ship was taken under attack. The nearness to Havana or Santiago would add credibility especially to those people that might have heard the blast or have seen the fire. The US could follow up with an air/sea rescue operation covered by US fighters to ‚Äúevacuate‚ÄĚ remaining members of the non-existent crew. Casualty lists in US newspapers would cause a helpful wave of national indignation.

4. We could develop a Communist Cuban terror campaign in the Miami area, in other Florida cities and even in Washington.
The terror campaign could be pointed at Cuban refugees seeking haven in the United States. We could sink a boatload of Cubans enroute to Florida (real or simulated). We could foster attempts on lives of Cuban refugees in the United States even to the extent of wounding in instances to be widely publicized. Exploding a few plastic bombs in carefully chosen spots, the arrest of Cuban agents and the release of prepared documents substantiating Cuban involvement also would be helpful in projecting the idea of an irresponsible government.

***

6. Use of MIG type aircraft by US pilots could provide additional provocation. Harassment of civil air, attacks on surface shipping and destruction of US military drone aircraft by MIG type planes would be useful as complementary actions. An F-86 properly painted would convince air passengers that they saw a Cuban MIG, especially if the pilot of the transport were to announce such fact. The primary drawback to this suggestion appears to be the security risk inherent in obtaining or modifying an aircraft. However, reasonable copies of the MIG could be produced from US resources in about three months.

***

8. it is possible to create an incident which will demonstrate convincingly that a Cuban-aircraft has attacked and shot down a chartered civil airliner en route from the United States to Jamaica, Guatemala, Panama or Venezuela. The destination would be chosen only to cause the flight plan route to cross Cuba, The passengers could be a group of college students off on a holiday or any grouping of persons with a common interest to support chartering a non-scheduled flight.

a. An aircraft at Eglin AFB would be painted and numbered as an exact duplicate for a civil registered aircraft belonging to a CIA proprietary organization in the Miami area. At a designated time the duplicate would be substituted for the actual civil aircraft and would be loaded with the selected passengers, all boarded under carefully prepared aliases. The actual registered aircraft would be converted to a drone.

b. Take off times of the drone aircraft and the actual aircraft will be scheduled to allow a rendezvous south of Florida. From the rendezvous point the passenger-carrying aircraft will descend to minimum altitude and go directly into an auxiliary field at Eglin AFB where arrangements will have been made to evacuate the passengers and return the aircraft to its original status. The drone aircraft meanwhile will continue to fly the filed flight plan. When over Cuba the drone will being transmitting on the inter-national distress frequency a ‚ÄúMAY DAY‚ÄĚ message stating he is under attack by Cuban MIG aircraft. The transmission will be interrupted by destruction of the aircraft which will be triggered by radio signal. This will allow ICAO radio stations in the Western Hemisphere to ‚Äútell‚ÄĚ the US what has happened to the aircraft instead of the US trying to ‚Äúsell‚ÄĚ the incident.

9. It is possible to create an incident which will make it appear that Communist Cuban MIGs have destroyed a USAF aircraft over international waters in an unprovoked attack.

a. Approximately 4 or 5 F-101 aircraft-will be dispatched in trail from Homestead AFB, Florida, to the vicinity of Cuba. Their mission will be to reverse course and simulate fakir aircraft for an air defense exercise in southern Florida. These aircraft would conduct variations of these flights at frequent intervals. Crews would be briefed to remain at least 12 miles off the Cuban coast; however, they would be required to carry live ammunition in the event that hostile actions were taken by the Cuban MiGs.

b. On One such flight, a pre-briefed pilot would fly tail-end Charley at considerable interval between aircraft. While near the Cuban Island this pilot would broadcast that he had been Jumped by MIGs and was going down. No other calls would be made. The pilot would then fly directly west at extremely low altitude and land at a secure base, an Eglin auxiliary. The aircraft would be met by the proper people, quickly stored and given a new tail number. The pilot who had performed the mission under an alias, would resume his proper identity and return to his normal place of business. The pilot and aircraft would then have disappeared.

c. At precisely the same time that the aircraft was presumably shot down a submarine or small surface craft would disburse F-101 parts, parachute, etc., at approximately 15 to 20 miles off the Cuban coast and depart.

U.S. government documents declassified in October 2017¬†admitted¬†that a very high-level 1962 meeting of U.S. government officials ‚Äď separate from the Joint Chiefs of Staff ‚Äď also discussed:

The possibility of U.S. manufacture or acquisition of Sovietaircraft …. There is a possibility that such aircraft could be used in a deception operation designed to confuse enemy planes in the air, to launch a surprise attack against enemy installations or in a provocation operation in which Soviet aircraft would appear to attack U.S. or friendly installations in order to provide an excuse for U.S. intervention.

And see this.

(16) In 1963, the U.S. Department of Defense wrote a paper¬†promoting¬†attacks on nations within the Organization of American States ‚Äď such as Trinidad-Tobago or Jamaica ‚Äď and then falsely blaming them on Cuba.

(17) The U.S. Department of Defense also¬†suggested¬†covertly paying a person in the Castro government to attack the United States: ‚ÄúThe only area remaining for consideration then would be to bribe one of Castro‚Äôs subordinate commanders to initiate an attack on Guantanamo.‚ÄĚ

(18) A U.S. Congressional committee¬†admitted¬†that ‚Äď as part of its ‚ÄúCointelpro‚ÄĚ campaign ‚Äď the FBI had used¬†many¬†provocateurs in the 1950s through 1970s to carry out violent acts and falsely blame them on political activists.

(19) A¬†top¬†Turkish general¬†admitted¬†that Turkish forces burned down a mosque on Cyprus in the 1970s and blamed it on their enemy. He¬†explained: ‚ÄúIn Special War, certain¬†acts of sabotage are staged and blamed on the enemy¬†to increase public resistance. We did this on Cyprus; we even burnt down a mosque.‚ÄĚ In response to the surprised correspondent‚Äôs incredulous look the general said, ‚ÄúI am giving an example‚ÄĚ.

(20) A declassified 1973 CIA document reveals a program to train foreign police and troops on how to make booby traps, pretending that they were training them on how to investigate terrorist acts:

The Agency maintains liaison in varying degrees with foreign police/security organizations through its field stations ….

[CIA provides training sessions as follows:]

a. Providing trainees with basic knowledge in the uses of commercial and military demolitions and incendiaries as they may be applied in terrorism and industrial sabotage operations.

b. Introducing the trainees to commercially available materials and home laboratory techniques, likely to he used in the manufacture of explosives and incendiaries by terrorists or saboteurs.

c. Familiarizing the trainees with the concept of target analysis and operational planning that a saboteur or terrorist must employ.

d. Introducing the trainees to booby trapping devices and techniques giving practical experience with both manufactured and improvised devices through actual fabrication.

***

The program provides the trainees with ample opportunity to develop basic familiarity and use proficiently through handling, preparing and applying the various explosive charges, incendiary agents, terrorist devices and sabotage techniques.

(21) The German government¬†admitted¬†(and¬†see this) that, in 1978, the German secret service detonated a bomb in the outer wall of a prison and planted ‚Äúescape tools‚ÄĚ on a prisoner ‚Äď a member of the Red Army Faction ‚Äď which the secret service wished to frame the bombing on.

(22) A Mossad agent admits that, in 1984, Mossad planted a radio transmitter in Gaddaffi’s compound in Tripoli, Libya which broadcast fake terrorist transmissions recorded by Mossad, in order to frame Gaddaffi as a terrorist supporter. Ronald Reagan bombed Libya immediately thereafter.

(23) The South African Truth and Reconciliation Council¬†found¬†that, in 1989, the Civil Cooperation Bureau (a covert branch of the South African Defense Force) approached an explosives expert and asked him ‚Äúto participate in an operation aimed at discrediting the ANC [the African National Congress] by bombing the police vehicle of the investigating officer into the murder incident‚ÄĚ, thus framing the ANC for the bombing.

(24) An Algerian diplomat and several officers in the Algerian army admit that, in the 1990s, the Algerian army frequently massacred Algerian civilians and then blamed Islamic militants for the killings (and see this video; and see Agence France-Presse, 9/27/2002, French Court Dismisses Algerian Defamation Suit Against Author).

(25) In 1993, a bomb in Northern Ireland killed 9 civilians. Official documents from the Royal Ulster Constabulary (i.e. the British government) show that the mastermind of the bombing was a British agent, and that the bombing was designed to inflame sectarian tensions. And see this and this.

(26) The United States Army‚Äôs 1994 publication¬†Special Forces Foreign Internal Defense Tactics Techniques and Procedures for Special Forces¬†‚Äď updated in 2004 ‚Ästrecommends¬†employing terrorists and using false flag operations to destabilize leftist regimes in Latin America. False flag terrorist attacks were carried out in Latin America and other regions as part of the CIA‚Äôs ‚ÄúDirty Wars‚Äú. And¬†see this.

(27) Similarly, a CIA ‚Äúpsychological operations‚ÄĚ manual prepared by a CIA contractor for the Nicaraguan Contra rebels¬†noted¬†the value of assassinating someone on your own side to create a ‚Äúmartyr‚ÄĚ for the cause. The manual was¬†authenticated¬†by the U.S. government. The manual received so much publicity from Associated Press, Washington Post and other news coverage that ‚Äď during the 1984 presidential debate ‚Äď President Reagan was¬†confronted¬†with the following question on national television:

At this moment, we are confronted with the extraordinary story of a CIA guerrilla manual for the anti-Sandinista contras whom we are backing, which advocates not only assassinations of Sandinistas but the hiring of criminals to assassinate the guerrillas we are supporting in order to create martyrs.

(28) Official German intelligence service documents¬†admitted¬†(original¬†German) that, in 1994, the German intelligence services planted plutonium on an airplane coming from Russia, as a way to¬†frame¬†Russia for exporting dangerous radioactive materials which could end up in the hands of terrorists and criminals.¬† This frame-up job was so successful at¬†whipping up fear¬†that it got German Chancellor Kohl re-elected, and the U.S. used it as an excuse to ‚Äúhelp‚ÄĚ secure Russia‚Äôs nuclear facilities, as a way to get access to Russian nuclear secrets.

(29) A Rwandan government inquiry¬†admitted¬†that the 1994 shootdown and murder of the Rwandan president, who was from the¬†Hutu¬†tribe ‚Äď a murder blamed by the Hutus on the rival¬†Tutsi¬†tribe, and which led to the massacre of more than 800,000 Tutsis by Hutus ‚Äď was committed by¬†Hutu¬†soldiers and falsely blamed on the Tutis.

(30) An Indonesian government fact-finding team investigated violent riots which occurred in 1998, and determined that ‚Äúelements of the military had been involved in the riots, some of which were deliberately provoked‚ÄĚ.

(31) Senior Russian Senior military and intelligence officers admit that the KGB blew up Russian apartment buildings in 1999 and falsely blamed it on Chechens, in order to justify an invasion of Chechnya (and see this report and this discussion).

(32) As reported by the¬†New York Times,¬†BBC¬†and¬†Associated Press, Macedonian officials admit that in 2001, the government murdered 7 innocent immigrants in cold blood and pretended that they were Al Qaeda soldiers attempting to assassinate Macedonian police, in order to join the ‚Äúwar on terror‚ÄĚ. They lured foreign migrants into the country, executed them in a staged gun battle, and then claimed they were a unit backed by Al Qaeda intent on attacking Western embassies‚ÄĚ. Specifically, Macedonian authorities had lured the immigrants into the country, and then ‚Äď after killing them ‚Äď posed the victims with planted evidence ‚Äď ‚Äúbags of uniforms and semiautomatic weapons at their side‚ÄĚ ‚Äď to show Western diplomats.

(33) At the July 2001 G8 Summit in Genoa, Italy, black-clad thugs were¬†videotapedgetting out of police cars, and were¬†seen¬†by an Italian MP carrying ‚Äúiron bars inside the police station‚ÄĚ. Subsequently, senior police officials in Genoa¬†admitted¬†that police planted two Molotov cocktails and faked the stabbing of a police officer at the G8 Summit, in order to justify a¬†violent crackdown¬†against protesters.

(34) The U.S.¬†falsely blamed Iraq¬†for playing a role in the 9/11 attacks ‚Äď as shown by a¬†memo from the defense secretary¬†‚Äď as one of the¬†main justifications¬†for launching the Iraq war.

Even after the 9/11 Commission¬†admitted¬†that there was no connection, Dick Cheney¬†said¬†that the evidence is ‚Äúoverwhelming‚ÄĚ that al Qaeda had a relationship with Saddam Hussein‚Äôs regime, that Cheney ‚Äúprobably‚ÄĚ had information unavailable to the Commission, and that the media was not ‚Äėdoing their homework‚Äô in reporting such ties. Top U.S. government officials now¬†admit¬†that the Iraq war was really launched for oil ‚Ķ not 9/11 or weapons of mass destruction.

Despite previous ‚Äúlone wolf‚ÄĚ claims, many U.S. government officials now¬†say¬†that 9/11 was state-sponsored terror; but Iraq was¬†not¬†the state which backed the hijackers. (Many U.S. officials have¬†alleged¬†that 9/11 was a false flag operation by rogue elements of the U.S. government; but such a claim is beyond the scope of this discussion. The key point is that the U.S. falsely blamed it on Iraq, when it¬†knew¬†Iraq had nothing to do with it.).

(Additionally, the same judge who has shielded the Saudis for any liability for funding 9/11 has awarded a default judgment against Iran for $10.5 billion for carrying out 9/11 … even though no one seriously believes that Iran had any part in 9/11.)

(35) Although the FBI now admits that the 2001 anthrax attacks were carried out by one or more U.S. government scientists, a senior FBI official says that the FBI was actually told to blame the Anthrax attacks on Al Qaeda by White House officials(remember what the anthrax letters looked like). Government officials also confirm that the white House tried to link the anthrax to Iraq as a justification for regime change in that country. And see this.

(36) According to the Washington Post, Indonesian police admit that the Indonesian military killed American teachers in Papua in 2002 and blamed the murders on a Papuan separatist group in order to get that group listed as a terrorist organization.

(37) The well-respected former Indonesian president also admits that the government probably had a role in the Bali bombings.

(38) Police outside of a 2003 European Union summit in Greece were filmed planting Molotov cocktails on a peaceful protester.

(39) In 2003, the U.S. Secretary of Defense admitted that interrogators were authorized to use the following method:

False Flag: Convincing the detainee that individuals from a country other than the United States are interrogating him.

While not a traditional false flag¬†attack, this deception could lead to former detainees ‚Ästmany of whom were tortured¬†‚Äď attacking the country falsely blamed for the interrogation and torture.

(40) Former Department of Justice lawyer John Yoo¬†suggested¬†in 2005 that the US should go on the offensive against al-Qaeda, having ‚Äúour intelligence agencies create a¬†false terrorist organization. It could have its own websites, recruitment centers, training camps, and fundraising operations. It could¬†launch¬†fake terrorist operations¬†and claim credit for real terrorist strikes, helping to sow confusion within al-Qaeda‚Äôs ranks, causing operatives to doubt others‚Äô identities and to question the validity of communications.‚ÄĚ

(41) Similarly, in 2005, Professor John Arquilla of the Naval Postgraduate School ‚Äď a renowned US defense analyst credited with developing the concept of ‚Äėnetwar‚Äô ‚Ästcalled for¬†western intelligence services to¬†create new ‚Äúpseudo gang‚ÄĚ terrorist groups, as a way of undermining ‚Äúreal‚ÄĚ terror networks. According to Pulitzer-Prize winning journalist Seymour Hersh, Arquilla‚Äôs ‚Äėpseudo-gang‚Äô strategy was, Hersh reported,¬†already being implemented¬†by the Pentagon:

“Under Rumsfeld’s new approach, I was told, US military operatives would be permitted to pose abroad as corrupt foreign businessmen seeking to buy contraband items that could be used in nuclear-weapons systems. In some cases, according to the Pentagon advisers, local citizens could be recruited and asked to join up with guerrillas or terrorists…

The new rules will enable the Special Forces community to set up what it calls ‚Äėaction teams‚Äô in the target countries overseas which can be used to find and eliminate terrorist organizations.¬†‚ÄėDo you remember the right-wing execution squads in El Salvador?‚Äô the former high-level intelligence official asked me, referring to the military-led gangs that committed atrocities in the early nineteen-eighties. ‚ÄėWe founded them and we financed them,‚Äô he said. ‚ÄėThe objective now is to recruit locals in any area we want. And we aren‚Äôt going to tell Congress about it.‚Äô A former military officer, who has knowledge of the Pentagon‚Äôs commando capabilities, said, ‚ÄėWe‚Äôre going to be riding with the bad boys.‚Äô‚ÄĚ

(42) United Press International reported in June 2005:

U.S. intelligence officers are reporting that some of the insurgents in Iraq are using recent-model Beretta 92 pistols, but the pistols seem to have had their serial numbers erased. The numbers do not appear to have been physically removed; the pistols seem to have come off a production line without any serial numbers. Analysts suggest the lack of serial numbers indicates that the weapons were intended for intelligence operations or terrorist cells with substantial government backing. Analysts speculate that these guns are probably from either Mossad or the CIA. Analysts speculate that agent provocateurs may be using the untraceable weapons even as U.S. authorities use insurgent attacks against civilians as evidence of the illegitimacy of the resistance.

(43) In 2005,¬†British soldiers¬†dressed as Arabs were caught by Iraqi police after a shootout against the police. The British soldiers shot two Iraqi policemen,¬†killing one. The soldiers apparently¬†possessed explosives, and were¬†accused¬†of attempting to¬†set off bombs. While none of the soldiers admitted that they were carrying out attacks, British soldiers and a column of 10 British tanks stormed the jail they were held in,¬†broke down a wall of the jail, and busted them out. The extreme measures used to free the soldiers ‚Äď rather than have them face questions and potentially stand trial ‚Äď could be considered an admission.

(44) Undercover Israeli soldiers admitted in 2005 to throwing stones at other Israeli soldiers so they could blame it on Palestinians, as an excuse to crack down on peaceful protests by the Palestinians.

(45) A very high-level French counterterrorism official, Paul Barril,  admits that French, US and UK intelligence services worked together to poison Russian spy Alexander Litvinenko with radioactive polonium in 2006 in order to frame and discredit Russia. And see this.

(46) Quebec police admitted that, in 2007, thugs carrying rocks to a peaceful protest were actually undercover Quebec police officers (and see this).

(47) A 2008 US Army special operations field manual¬†recommends¬†that the U.S. military use surrogate non-state groups such as ‚Äúparamilitary forces, individuals, businesses, foreign political organizations, resistant or insurgent organizations, expatriates,¬†transnational terrorism adversaries, disillusioned transnational terrorism members, black marketers, and other social or political ‚Äėundesirables.‚Äô‚ÄĚ The manual specifically acknowledged that U.S. special operations can involve both counterterrorism and ‚ÄúTerrorism‚ÄĚ (as well as ‚Äútransnational criminal activities, including narco-trafficking, illicit arms-dealing, and illegal financial transactions.‚ÄĚ)

(48) The former Italian Prime Minister, President, and head of Secret Services(Francesco Cossiga) advised the 2008 minister in charge of the police, on how to deal with protests from teachers and students:

He should do what I did when I was Minister of the Interior … infiltrate the movement with agents provocateurs inclined to do anything …. And after that, with the strength of the gained population consent, … beat them for blood and beat for blood also those teachers that incite them. Especially the teachers. Not the elderly, of course, but the girl teachers yes.

(49) An undercover officer¬†admitted¬†that he infiltrated environmental, leftwing and anti-fascist groups in 22 countries. Germany‚Äôs federal police chief¬†admitted¬†that ‚Äď while the undercover officer worked for the German police ‚Äď he acted illegally during a G8 protest in Germany in 2007 and committed arson by setting fire during a subsequent demonstration in Berlin. The undercover officer spent many years¬†living with¬†violent ‚ÄúBlack Bloc‚ÄĚ anarchists.

(50) Denver police¬†admitted¬†that uniformed officers deployed in 2008 to an area where alleged ‚Äúanarchists‚ÄĚ had planned to wreak havoc outside the Democratic National Convention ended up getting into a melee with two undercover policemen. The uniformed officers didn‚Äôt know the undercover officers were cops.

(51) At the G20 protests in London in 2009, a British member of parliament saw plain clothes police officers attempting to incite the crowd to violence.

(52) The oversight agency for the Royal Canadian Mounted Police¬†admitted¬†that ‚Äď at the G20 protests in Toronto in 2010 ‚Äď undercover police officers were arrested with a group of protesters. Videos and photos (see¬†this¬†and¬†this, for example) show that violent protesters wore very similar boots and other gear as the police, and carried police batons. The Globe and Mail¬†reports¬†that the undercover officers planned the targets for violent attack, and the police failed to stop the attacks.

(53) Egyptian politicians admitted (and see this) that government employees looted priceless museum artifacts 2011 to try to discredit the protesters.

(54) Austin police¬†admit¬†that 3 officers infiltrated the Occupy protests in that city. Prosecutors¬†admit¬†that one of the undercover officers purchased and constructed illegal ‚Äúlock boxes‚ÄĚ which ended up getting many protesters arrested.

(55) In 2011, a Colombian colonel¬†admitted¬†that he and his soldiers had lured 57 innocent civilians and killed them ‚Äď after dressing many of them in uniforms ‚Äď as part of a scheme to claim that Columbia was eradicating left-wing terrorists. And¬†see this.

(56) Rioters who discredited the peaceful protests against the swearing in of the Mexican president in 2012 admitted that they were paid 300 pesos each to destroy everything in their path. According to Wikipedia, photos also show the vandals waiting in groups behind police lines prior to the violence.

(57) On November 20, 2014, Mexican agent provocateurs were transported by army vehicles to participate in the 2014 Iguala mass kidnapping protests, as was shown by videos and pictures distributed via social networks.

(58) The highly-respected writer for the Telegraph Ambrose Evans-Pritchard says that the head of Saudi intelligence ‚Äď Prince Bandar ‚Äď recently¬†admitted¬†that the Saudi government controls ‚ÄúChechen‚ÄĚ terrorists.

(59)¬†Two members of the Turkish parliament,¬†high-level American sources¬†and others admitted that the Turkish government ‚Äď a NATO country ‚Äď carried out the chemical weapons attacks in Syria and falsely blamed them on the Syrian government; and high-ranking Turkish government¬†admitted¬†on tape plans to carry out attacks and blame it on the Syrian government.

(60) The former Director of the NSA and other American government officials¬†admitsaid that the U.S. is a huge supporter of terrorism. Jimmy Carter‚Äôs National Security Adviser Zbigniew Brzezinski¬†admitted¬†on CNN that the U.S.¬†organized and supported Bin Laden and the other originators of ‚ÄúAl Qaeda‚ÄĚ in the 1970s¬†to fight the Soviets. The U.S. and its allies have been¬†supporting¬†Al Qaeda and other Islamic terrorist groups for many decades, and providing them arms, money and logistical support in¬†Libya,¬†Syria,¬†Mali,¬†Bosnia,¬†Chechnya,¬†Iran, and¬†many other countries. U.S. allies are also directly responsible for¬†creating¬†and¬†supplying¬†ISIS.

It‚Äôs gotten so ridiculous that a U.S. Senator has introduced a ‚ÄúStop Arming Terrorists Act‚ÄĚ, and U.S. Congresswoman ‚Äď who introduced a similar bill in the House ‚Ästsays: ‚ÄúFor years, the U.S. government has been supporting armed militant groups working directly with and often under the command of terrorist groups like ISIS and al-Qaeda in their fight to overthrow the Syrian government.‚ÄĚ

(61) Government officials on¬†both sides¬†of the conflict, as well as the snipers who actually pulled the trigger, all¬†admit¬†that shots were fired on¬†both¬†sides ‚Äď killing both government officials and anti-government protesters in Ukraine ‚Äď to create maximum chaos and destabilization.

(62) Speaking of snipers, in a secret recording, Venezuelan generals admit that they will deploy snipers to shoot protesters, but keep the marksmen well-hidden from demonstrator and the reporters covering the events so others would be blamed for the deaths.

(63) Burmese government officials admitted that Burma (renamed Myanmar) used false flag attacks against Muslim and Buddhist groups within the country to stir up hatred between the two groups, to prevent democracy from spreading.

(64) Israeli police were again filmed in 2015 dressing up as Arabs and throwing stones, then turning over Palestinian protesters to Israeli soldiers.

(65) Britain‚Äôs spy agency has¬†admitted¬†(and¬†see this) that it carries out ‚Äúdigital false flag‚ÄĚ attacks on targets,¬†framing people¬†by writing offensive or unlawful material ‚Ķ and blaming it on the target.

(66) The CIA has admitted that it uses viruses and malware from Russia and other countries to carry out cyberattacks and blame other countries.

(67) U.S. soldiers have¬†admitted¬†that if they kill innocent Iraqis and Afghanis, they then ‚Äúdrop‚ÄĚ automatic weapons near their body so they can¬†pretend¬†they were militants.

(68) German prosecutors admit that a German soldier disguised himself as a Syrian refugee and planned to shoot people so that the attack would be blamed on asylum seekers.

(69) Police frame innocent people for crimes they didn’t commit. The practice is so well-known that the New York Times noted in 1981:

In police jargon, a throwdown is a weapon planted on a victim.

Newsweek reported in 1999:

Perez, himself a former [Los Angeles Police Department] cop, was caught stealing eight pounds of cocaine from police evidence lockers. After pleading guilty in September, he bargained for a lighter sentence by telling an appalling story of attempted murder and a¬†‚Äúthrowdown‚ÄĚ‚Äďpolice slang for a weapon planted by cops to make a shooting legally justifiable. Perez said he and his partner, Officer Nino Durden, shot an unarmed 18th Street Gang member named Javier Ovando, then¬†planted a semiautomatic rifle on the unconscious suspect and claimed that Ovando had tried to shoot them¬†during a stakeout.

Wikipedia notes:

As part of his plea bargain, Pérez implicated scores of officers from the Rampart Division’s anti-gang unit, describing routinely beating gang members, planting evidence on suspects, falsifying reports and covering up unprovoked shootings.

(As a side note ‚Äď and while not technically false flag attacks ‚Äď police have been busted¬†framing innocent people in many other ways, as well.)

(70) A former U.S. intelligence officer recently alleged:

Most terrorists are false flag terrorists or are created by our own security services.

He has himself admitted to carrying out a false flag attack.

(71) The head and special agent in charge of the FBI’s Los Angeles office said that most terror attacks are committed by the CIA and FBI as false flags.

(72) The Director of Analytics at the interagency Global Engagement Center housed at the U.S. Department of State, also an adjunct professor at George Mason University, where he teaches the graduate course National Security Challenges in the Department of Information Sciences and Technology, a former branch chief in the CIA’s Counterterrorism Center, and an intelligence advisor to the Secretary of Homeland Security (J.D. Maddox) notes:

Provocation is one of the most basic, but confounding, aspects of warfare. Despite its sometimes obvious use, it has succeeded consistently against audiences around the world, for millennia, to compel war. A well-constructed provocation narrative mutes even the most vocal opposition.

***

The culmination of a strategic provocation operation invariably reflects a narrative of victimhood: we are the victims of the enemy’s unforgivable atrocities.

***

In the case of strategic provocation the deaths of an aggressor’s own personnel are a core tactic of the provocation.

***

The persistent use of strategic provocation over centuries ‚Äď and its apparent importance to war planners ‚Äď begs the question of its likely use by the US and other states in the near term.

(73) Leaders throughout history have acknowledged the ‚Äúbenefits‚ÄĚ of of false flags to justify their political agenda:

‚ÄúTerrorism is the best political weapon¬†for nothing drives people harder than a fear of sudden death‚ÄĚ.
‚Äď Adolph Hitler

‚ÄúWhy of course the people don‚Äôt want war ‚Ķ But after all it is the leaders of the country who determine the policy, and it is always a simple matter to drag the people along, whether it is a democracy, or a fascist dictatorship, or a parliament, or a communist dictatorship ‚Ķ Voice or no voice, the people can always be brought to the bidding of the leaders. That is easy. All you have to do is to¬†tell them they are being attacked, and denounce the pacifists for lack of patriotism and exposing the country to danger. It works the same in any country.‚ÄĚ
‚Äď Hermann Goering, Nazi leader.

‚ÄúThe easiest way to gain control of a population is to¬†carry outacts of terror. [The public] will clamor for such laws if their personal security is threatened‚ÄĚ.
‚Äď Josef Stalin

Postscript 1: It is not just ‚Äúmodern‚ÄĚ nations which have launched false flag attacks. For example, a Native American from one tribe (Pomunkey) murdered a white Englishwoman living in Virginia in 1697 and then falsely blamed it on¬†second¬†tribe (Piscataway). But he later¬†admitted¬†in court that he was not really Piscataway, and that he had been paid by a provocateur from a¬†third¬†tribe (Iroquois) to kill the woman as a way to start a war between the English and the Piscataway, thus protecting the profitable Iroquois monopoly in trade with the English.

Postscript 2: On multiple occasions, atrocities or warmongering are falsely blamed on the enemy as a justification for war ‚Ķ when¬†no such event ever occurred. This is more like a ‚Äúfake flag‚ÄĚ than a ‚Äúfalse flag‚ÄĚ, as no actual terrorism occurred.

For example:

  • The NSA¬†admits¬†that it¬†lied¬†about what really happened in the¬†Gulf of Tonkin incident¬†in 1964 ‚Ķ manipulating data to make it look like North Vietnamese boats fired on a U.S. ship so as to create a false justification for the Vietnam war
  • One of the central lies used to justify the 1991 Gulf War against Iraq after Iraq invaded Kuwait was the¬†false statement¬†by a young Kuwaiti girl that¬†Iraqis murdered Kuwaiti babies¬†in hospitals. Her statement was arranged by a Congressman who knew that she was actually the daughter of the Kuwaiti Ambassador to the U.S. ‚Äď who was desperately trying to lobby the U.S. to enter the war ‚Äď but the Congressman¬†hid that fact from the public and from Congress
  • Pulitzer prize-winning journalist Ron Suskind¬†reported¬†that the White House ordered the CIA to forge and backdate a document falsely linking Iraq with Muslim terrorists and 9/11 ‚Ķ and that the CIA complied with those instructions and in fact created the forgery, which was then used to justify war against Iraq. And see¬†this¬†and¬†this
  • Time magazine¬†points out¬†that the claim by President Bush that Iraq was attempting to buy ‚Äúyellow cake‚ÄĚ Uranium from Niger:

had been checked out ‚ÄĒ and debunked ‚ÄĒ by U.S. intelligence a year before the President repeated it.

  • Everyone knew¬†that Iraq didn‚Äôt have weapons of mass destruction.¬†More
  • The ‚Äúhumanitarian‚ÄĚ wars in Syria, Libya and Yugoslavia were all justified by highly¬†exaggerated reports¬†that the leaders of those countries were committing atrocities against their people. And¬†see this



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Next, is this article:
Content, below:
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Commentary would only be redundant. Watch.




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Here is another article:
Article is big so the link is enough.
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And now a list of chronological links and headlines (from 10 april 2018):

 

As long as there are slaughterhouses there will always be battlefields.

Let’s begin this article by seeing some quotes from many famous people about being vegetarian.

Pythagoras (570-490 BC)¬†‚Äď For as long as man continues to be the ruthless destroyer of lower living beings, he will never know health or peace. For as long as men massacre animals, they will kill each other. Indeed, he who sows the seeds of murder and pain cannot reap joy and love.

Buddha (563-483 BC)¬†‚Äď To become vegetarian is to step into the stream which leads to nirvana.

socrates_bustSocrates, as written in Plato‚Äôs¬†The Republic(469-399 ¬†BC)¬†‚ÄstSocrates: Would this habit of eating animals not require that we slaughter animals that we knew as individuals, and in whose eyes we could gaze and see ourselves reflected, only a few hours before our meal?¬†Glaucon: This habit would require that of us.

Socrates: Wouldn’t this [knowledge] hinder us in achieving happiness? Glaucon: It could so hinder us in our quest for happiness.

Socrates: And, if we pursue this way of living, will we not have need to visit the doctor more often? Glaucon: We would have such need.

Socrates: If we pursue our habit of eating animals, and if our neighbor follows a similar path, will we not have need to go to war against our neighbor to secure greater pasturage, because ours will not be enough to sustain us, and our neighbor will have a similar need to wage war on us for the same reason? Glaucon: We would be so compelled.

Socrates: Would not these facts prevent us from achieving happiness, and therefore the conditions necessary to the building of a just society, if we pursue a desire to eat animals? Glaucon: Yes, they would so prevent us.

Hippocrates (460-370 BC)¬†‚Äď The soul is the same in all living creatures, although the body of each is different.

Plato (428-347 BC)¬†‚Äď The Gods created certain kinds of beings to replenish our bodies; they are the trees and the plants and the seeds.

PlutarchPlutarch (46-120): A human body in no way resembles those that were born for ravenousness; it hath no hawk’s bill, no sharp talon, no roughness of teeth, no such strength of stomach or heat of digestion, as can be sufficient to convert or alter such heavy and fleshy fare . . . There is nobody that is willing to eat even a lifeless and a dead thing even as it is; so they boil it, and roast it, and alter it by fire and medicines, as it were, changing and quenching the slaughtered gore with thousands of sweet sauces, that the palate being thereby deceived may admit of such uncouth fare.

Voltaire (1694-1778)¬†‚Äď How pitiful, and what poverty of mind, to have said that the animals are machines deprived of understanding and feeling . . . Judge (in the same way as you would judge your own) the behaviour of a dog who has lost his master, who has searched for him in the road barking miserably, who has come back to the house restless and anxious, who has run upstairs and down, from room to room, and who has found the beloved master at last in his study, and then shown his joy by barks, bounds and caresses. There are some barbarians who will take this dog, that so greatly excels man in capacity for friendship, who will nail him to a table, and dissect him alive, in order to show you his veins and nerves. And what you then discover in him are all the same organs of sensation that you have in yourself. Answer me, mechanist, has Nature arranged all the springs of feeling in this animal to the end that he might not feel? Has he nerves that he may be incapable of suffering?

benjamin_franklin_oil_paintingBenjamin Franklin (1706-1790)¬†‚ÄstMy refusing to eat meat occasioned inconveniency, and I have been frequently chided for my singularity. But my light repast allows for greater progress, for greater clearness of head and quicker comprehension.

Charles Darwin (1809-1882)¬†‚Äď There is no fundamental difference between man and the higher animals in their mental faculties . . . The lower animals, like man, manifestly feel pleasure and pain, happiness, and misery.

Henry David Throeau (1817-1862)¬†‚Äď One farmer says to me, ‚ÄúYou cannot live on vegetable food solely, for it furnishes nothing to make the bones with;‚ÄĚ and so he religiously devotes a part of his day to supplying himself with the raw material of bones; walking all the while he talks behind his oxen, which, with vegetable-made bones, jerk him and his lumbering plow along in spite of every obstacle.

I have no doubt that it is a part of the destiny of the human race, in its gradual improvement, to leave off eating animals, as surely as the savage tribes have left off eating each other.
-Henry David Thoreau

Fyodor Dostoyevsky (1821-1881)¬†‚Äď Love animals: God has given them the rudiments of thought and joy untroubled. Do not trouble their joy, don‚Äôt harass them, don‚Äôt deprive them of their happiness, don‚Äôt work against God‚Äôs intent. Man, do not pride yourself on superiority to animals; they are without sin, and you, with your greatness, defile the earth by your appearance on it, and leave the traces of your foulness after you ‚Äď alas, it is true of almost every one of us!

Leo Tolstoy (1828-1910)¬†‚Äď A man can live and be healthy without killing animals for food; therefore, if he eats meat, he participates in taking animal life merely for the sake of his appetite. And to act so is immoral.

Mark Twain (1835-1910)¬†‚Äď Of all the creatures, man is the most detestable. Of the entire brood, he‚Äôs the one that possesses malice. He is the only creature that inflicts pain for sport, knowing it to be pain. The fact that man knows right from wrong proves his intellectual superiority to the other creatures; but the fact that he can do wrong proves his moral inferiority to any creature that cannot.

Thomas Edison (1847-1931)¬†‚Äď Non-violence leads to the highest ethics, which is the goal of all evolution. Until we stop harming all other living beings, we are still savages.

George Benard Shaw (1856-1950)¬†‚Äď Think of the fierce energy concentrated in an acorn! You bury it in the ground, and it explodes into an oak! Bury a sheep, and nothing happens but decay.

Animals are my friends and I don’t eat my friends.
-George Bernard Shaw

Sir Arthur Conan Doyle (1859-1930)¬†‚Äď At the moment our human world is based on the suffering and destruction of millions of non-humans. To perceive this and to do something to change it in personal and public ways is to undergo a change of perception akin to a religious conversion. Nothing can ever be seen in quite the same way again because once you have admitted the terror and pain of other species you will, unless you resist conversion, be always aware of the endless permutations of suffering that support our society.

Dmitry Sergeyevich Merezhkovsky (Russian, 1865-1941), from¬†The Romance of Leonardo da Vinci¬†‚Äď Truely man is the king of beasts, for his brutality exceeds theirs. We live by the death of others: we are burial places! I have from an early age abjured the use of meat, and the time will come when men such as I will look on the murder of animals as they now look on the murder of men.

Mahatma Gandhi (1869-1955)¬†‚Äď It ill becomes us to invoke in our daily prayers the blessings of God, the Compassionate, if we in turn will not practice elementary compassion towards our fellow creatures.

The greatness of a nation and its moral progress can be judged by the way its animals are treated.
-Mahatma Gandhi

Albert Schweitzer (1875-1965)¬†‚Äď Until he extends the circle of his compassion to all living things, man will not himself find peace.

Albert Einstein (1879-1955)¬†‚Äď It is my view that the vegetarian manner of living, by its purely physical effect on the human temperament, would most beneficially influence the lot of mankind.

H.G. Wells (1886-1946)¬†‚Äď In all the round world of Utopia there is no meat. There used to be, but now we cannot stand the thought of slaughterhouses. And it is impossible to find anyone who will hew a dead ox or pig. I can still remember as a boy the rejoicings over the closing of the last slaughterhouse.

Ruth Harrison (1920-2000)¬†‚Äď In fact, if one person is unkind to an animal it is considered to be cruelty, but where a lot of people are unkind to animals, especially in the name of commerce, the cruelty is condoned and, once large sums of money are at stake, will be defended to the last by otherwise intelligent people.

William Roberts, MD (1932-present) ‚ÄstWhen we kill the animals to eat them, they end up killing us because their flesh, which contains cholesterol and saturated fat, was never intended for human beings.

Carl_Sagan_Planetary_SocietyCarl Sagan (1934-1996)¬†‚Äď Humans‚Äďwho enslave, castrate, experiment on, and fillet other animals‚Äďhave had an understandable penchant for pretending animals do not feel pain. A sharp distinction between humans and ‚Äúanimals‚ÄĚ is essential if we are to bend them to our will, make them work for us, wear them, eat them‚Äďwithout any disquieting tinges of guilt or regret. It is unseemly of us, who often behave so unfeelingly toward other animals, to contend that only humans can suffer. The behavior of other animals renders such pretensions specious. They are just too much like us.

Colin Campbell, MD (1934-present)¬†‚Äď [W]hat we have come to consider as ‚Äúnormal‚ÄĚ illnesses of aging are really not normal. In fact, these findings indicate that the vast majority, perhaps 80 to 90% of all cancers, cardiovascular diseases, and other forms of degenerative illness can be prevented, at least until very old age, simply by adopting a plant-based diet.

The Dalai Lama (1935-present)¬†‚ÄstI do not see any reason why animals should be slaughtered to serve as human diet when there are so many substitutes. After all, man can live without meat. It is only some carnivorous animals that have to subsist on flesh. Killing animals for sport, for pleasure, for adventures, and for hides and furs is a phenomenon which is at once disgusting and distressing. There is no justification in indulging in such acts of brutality . . . Life is as dear to a mute creature as it is to a man. Just as one wants happiness and fears pain, just as one wants to live and not to die, so do other creatures.

Paul McCartney (1942-present)¬†‚Äď If slaughterhouses had glass walls, everyone would be a vegetarian.

Neal D. Barnard, MD (1953-present)¬†‚Äď The beef industry has contributed to more American deaths than all the wars of this century, all natural disasters, and all automobile accidents combined. If beef is your idea of ‚Äúreal food for real people,‚ÄĚ you‚Äôd better live real close to a real good hospital.

k.d. lang (1961-present)¬†‚Äď We all love animals. Why do we call some ‚Äúpets‚ÄĚ and others ‚Äúdinner?‚ÄĚ

Source:¬†Vegan Quotes ‚Äď Socrates, Buddha, Einstein and Others on Going Vegan

Pythagoras

Greek philosopher and mathematician. He founded a religious brotherhood, which followed a life of strict asceticism and greatly influemced the development of mathematics and its application to music and astronomy.

from a review of ‘The Heretics Feast‘ by Colin Spencer:

The first prominent modern vegetarian was the Greek philosopher Pythagoras who lived towards the end of the 6th century BC. The Pythagorean diet came to mean an avoidance of the flesh of slaughtered animals. Pythagorean ethics first became a philosophical morality between 490-430 BC with a desire to create a universal and absolute law including injunctions not to kill “living creatures,” to abstain from “harsh-sounding bloodshed,” in particular animal sacrifice, and “never to eat meat.”

Quotes (according to Ovid):
from The Extended Circle by Jon Wynne-Tyson.

Alas, what wickedness to swallow flesh into our own flesh, to fatten our greedy bodies by cramming in other bodies, to have one living creature fed by the death of another! In the midst of such wealth as earth, the best of mothers, provides, nothing forsooth satisfies you, but to behave like the Cyclopes, inflicting sorry wounds with cruel teeth! You cannot appease the hungry cravings of your wicked, gluttonous stomachs except by destroying some other life. РDepicted in Ovid: The Metamorphoses, translated by Mary M.Innes

As long as man continues to be the ruthless destroyer of lower living beings he will never know health or peace. For as long as men massacre animals, they will kill each other. Indeed, he who sows the seed of murder and pain cannot reap joy and love. –¬†attributed by Ovid

Animals share with us the privilege of having a soul. –¬†attributed by Ovid

If men with fleshly mortals must be fed,
And chew with bleeding teeth the breathing bread;
What else is this but to devour our guests,
And barbarously renew Cyclopean feasts?
While Earth not only can your needs supply,
But, lavish of her store, provides for luxury;
A guiltless feast administers with ease,
And without blood is prodigal to please.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .attributed by Ovid.


Pythagoras and the Pythagoreans: Passages in the Doxographists

The souls of animals called unreasoning are reasonable, not however with active reasoning powers, because of an imperfect mixture of the bodies and because they do not have the power of speech, as in the case of apes and dogs; for these have intelligence but not the power of speech.

And it is said that Zaratas forbade men to eat beans because he said that at the beginning and composition of all things when the earth was still a whole, the bean arose. And he says that the proof of this is that if one chews a bean to a pulp and exposes it to the sun for a certain time (for the sun will affect it quickly), it gives out the odour of human seed. And he says that there is another and clearer proof: if when a bean is in flower we were to take the bean and its flower, and putting it into a pitcher moisten it and then bury it in the earth, and after a few days dig it up again, we should see in the first place that it had the form of a womb, and examining it closely we should find the head of a child growing with it.

Pythagoras laid down the doctrine of the monad and of foreknowledge and the interdict on sacrificing to the gods then believed on, and he bade men not to partake of beings that had life, and to refrain from wine. And he drew a line between the things from the moon upwards, calling these immortal, and those below, which he called mortal; and he taught the transmigration of souls from bodies into bodies even as far as animals and beasts.

Pythagoras the Samian, son of Mnesarchos, said that the monad is god, and that nothing has been brought into being apart from this. He was wont to say that wise men ought not to sacrifice animals to the gods, nor yet to eat what had life, or beans, nor to drink wine. And he was wont to say that all things from the moon downward were subject to change, while from the moon upward they were not. And he said that the soul goes at death into other animals.

– from the 1957 IVU Congress souvenir book:

PYTHAGORAS (570-470 B.C.) Philosopher Рmathematician Рmusician. None of his writings are extant, but we know of him through Philolaus (450 B.C.) Iamblichus, Ovid, Plutarch, and other Greek writers.

“It has always been asserted that he had already abandoned the orthodox diet at the age of nineteen or twenty.” “As the natural and necessary result of his pure living we are told by Iamblichus, that ‘his sleep was brief, his soul vigilant and pure, and his body confirmed in a state of perfect and invariable health.’ ” “As for his own diet, ‘he was satisfied (says Porphyry) ‘with honey or the honeycomb, or with bread only, and he did not taste wine from morning to night; or his principal dish was often kitchen herbs, cooked or uncooked. Fish he ate rarely.’ “

“Amongst other reasons, Pythagoras” (says Iamblichus) “enjoined abstinence from the flesh of animals, because it is conducive to peace; for those who are accustomed to abominate the slaughter of other animals. as iniquitous and unnatural, will think it still more unjust and unlawful to kill a man or to engage in war.”

“Specially, he exhorted those politicians who are legislators to abstain. For if they were willing to act justly in the highest degree, it was indubitably incumbent upon them not to injure any of the lower animals. Since how could they persuade others to act justly, if they themselves were proved to be indulging an insatiable avidity by devouring these animals that are allied to us. For through the communion of life and the same elements, and the sympathy thus existing, they are, as it were, conjoined to us by a fraternal alliance.”

Source: Ancient Greece and Rome: Pythagoras

The comment that replies to this article:

HOW ‚ÄúOBEDIENT‚ÄĚ CAN YOU BE ‚ÄúCITIZEN‚ÄĚ ??

It took you a while. Maybe even 6 months (from sept 2017 to march 2018) to realize China isn’t what it looked like to be. From this time:
https://justworldview.wordpress.com/2017/09/11/a-reply-to-what-is-your-point-china-is-likely-the-main-driver-for-nwo/

Now, at least the parts that are bad are seen more clearly in the open. It’s a good thing the relevant aspects are clearly seen. I like the Islam-Masonry connection to Communism.

So out of this, what remains is to limit the bad guys movements. But there is one more thing. Much more important. You can expose and limit evil, but if you don’t increase the forces of good, both in power and it’s structure(Ethics, Truth) then you are like a car wheel who manages to sift dirt from the ground, but it’s stuck and can’t move.

So here’s what’s next. It’s time to focus on veganism. It is very important. Also just being on a raw vegan diet, cured several cases of cancer! This means that ‘cooked’ food in general is not good! It might even be the real cause that creates cancer! This is big! But who has a mind that makes good decisions, based on what they see and hear? And out of this ‘cooked’, ‘fried’, ‘roasted’, ‘boiled’ terms, it also applies to meat. Meat can’t really be eaten raw, which means it should not be eaten at all, even if cooked. You can choose to be vegan because of two reasons, one being health and the other being the ethical and moral side.

To add some quotes, from Ovid:
—-
As long as man continues to be the ruthless destroyer of lower living beings he will never know health or peace. For as long as men massacre animals, they will kill each other. Indeed, he who sows the seed of murder and pain cannot reap joy and love. – attributed by Ovid

Animals share with us the privilege of having a soul. – attributed by Ovid
—-
Also, some great sayings by Pythagoras:
—-
Pythagoras and the Pythagoreans: Passages in the Doxographists
The souls of animals called unreasoning are reasonable, not however with active reasoning powers, because of an imperfect mixture of the bodies and because they do not have the power of speech, as in the case of apes and dogs; for these have intelligence but not the power of speech.

And it is said that Zaratas forbade men to eat beans because he said that at the beginning and composition of all things when the earth was still a whole, the bean arose. And he says that the proof of this is that if one chews a bean to a pulp and exposes it to the sun for a certain time (for the sun will affect it quickly), it gives out the odour of human seed. And he says that there is another and clearer proof: if when a bean is in flower we were to take the bean and its flower, and putting it into a pitcher moisten it and then bury it in the earth, and after a few days dig it up again, we should see in the first place that it had the form of a womb, and examining it closely we should find the head of a child growing with it.

Pythagoras laid down the doctrine of the monad and of foreknowledge and the interdict on sacrificing to the gods then believed on, and he bade men not to partake of beings that had life, and to refrain from wine. And he drew a line between the things from the moon upwards, calling these immortal, and those below, which he called mortal; and he taught the transmigration of souls from bodies into bodies even as far as animals and beasts.

Pythagoras the Samian, son of Mnesarchos, said that the monad is god, and that nothing has been brought into being apart from this. He was wont to say that wise men ought not to sacrifice animals to the gods, nor yet to eat what had life, or beans, nor to drink wine. And he was wont to say that all things from the moon downward were subject to change, while from the moon upward they were not. And he said that the soul goes at death into other animals.
—-

Out of all these, one can fairly conclude why not eating meat, or even better, eating only Raw, plant based food is better for health. They call the term ‘Vegans’, this term can also be associated to star ‘Vega’ out of Lyra constellation. Coincidence? The term Fruitarian is the best, both to be used in name and activity.

The reason I made this comment?
It is up to you whether you want to promote Fruitarianism.
This way of life is needed if people really want ‘Justice’, and the best ‘Judgement’. It can’t be done without. If an individual eats or helps groups that are in the business of killing animals, and talks or wants to talk about justice, he/she is a bit of a hypocrite.

I talked about ‘China’ 6 months ago (even though the issues from there were known to me for more than a year), and it took you close to 6 months to write articles regarding how bad China is. I thank you for your effort there. Though subjects like fruitarianism or veganism should not be postponed by you for at least 6 months ( hopefully ).

To end this comment, I’ll quote something that will be used as a title for the future article that is now a comment. The quote goes like this:

‚ÄúAs long as there are slaughter houses there will always be battlefields.‚ÄĚ
‚Äē Leo Tolstoy, What I Believe

Living on Prana

Before I start, the idea is that some people can live off being a breatharian, meaning to live off prana. The concept and the idea is not new. There were several cases of inedia, reported and documented, in various countries. You can find these reports if you click this link :
Spirituality And Food – A Path From Omnivore To Breatharian

In the image below, it is self explanatory, from the left to the right, the best diet.

While it is rather coincidental, it can also be seen as a scale to classify leftist people and rightist people. Leftists would almost always be omnivores. These are the people who would have no care in the world if animals are killed. People who accept more easily the murder of animals, by default, would also be indulgent in the murder of humans. There is a scientific study to confirm this, and another one, who shows that vegetarians on average score a 10% higher IQ score than their non-vegetarian counterparts.

Here are the links:
Animal Abuse and Human Abuse: Partners in Crime
Why Vegetarians Are More Intelligent than Meat Eaters

Some links claim that humans were ‘omnivorous’ (see text in second article).

Actually that is not the case. In hindu religion and stories, humans are actually herbivores, and people who are/were omnivorous were seen as inferior, in hindu culture.

Since the argument that food and spirituality are intertwined, now it’s time to show a scale, that one can progressively go, in order to achieve the benefits of this food system.

I also encourage exercising, which involves doing pushups, situps, squats, cable curls, running and also meditation, tai chi and energy focus.

But the food system, diet, can actually improve results both in fitness, mental awareness and possibly energy focus.

Here’ s the scale and it’s rewards:

-Above Breatharians, while this is only a deduction or presumption, is that you can find there, the Creator, God, and possibly angels

-Breatharians / Inedia; People who live off prana and would do dry fasting, or at least water fasting; Sometimes eating( once a week or less) but only if certain minerals cannot be obtained via meditaton (with attempt to focus to transform prana into matter)

-Liquidarian; People who drink only plant or fruit juice and water; One classification puts fruits above plants, because some say/ or studies show that plants have feelings, and it might be correct, considering that each cell has a certain frequency; Thus fruits, but not seeds, can be good to eat, or at least better than plants and seeds, from a certain moral perspective. An example would be apricots, without their seed.

-Mono-fruitarian; People who eat only one fruit for a certain period of time ( weeks, months or more)

-Fruitarian; People who eat only fruits. And in my opinion, without their seeds, thus no nuts, no seeds

-Raw Vegan; People who do not cook their vegan food, be it fruits, vegetables, plants or seeds

-Vegan; People who do not eat from the Animalia kingdom and also not eating from Fungi kingdom. This opinion depends from one vegan community to another. Fungi and Animalia have a common ancestor, that being Protista. Vegans generally eat from the Plantae kingdom

-Pescetarian/Vegetarian; People who eat fish, sometimes milk and eggs, but not meat;

-Omnivore;

Also, as a bonus link, plants do feel pain.

To quote from this article:

Do plants feel pain?

A study in Germany used a laser microphone to detect the stress level in plants. The gases that the plants emitted when they reacted to various stimuli were picked up by the microphone as sounds. According to the researchers, the stress levels plants exhibited when parts were cut off translated as the plants crying out in pain. The scientists use this information to devise ways to monitor the condition of plants so they can be shipped from place to place without rotting. Farmers can also theoretically use plant sound monitors to detect early pest infestation.

Because plants feel pain in their own way, we should avoid doing damage to them in the long term, live in harmony with nature. This is why one should attempt to become a Fruitarian (remains to be seen if it’s really good for bodybuilders) and focus on the path where one becomes a Breatharian.

This might be one way towards ‘Road to Infinity’ metaphor posted in a previous article, if not, possibly, to become mandatory.

We must carefully cultivate who and what we are, what we eat, what are our thoughts and what actions they develop.

I hope this inspires you, the reader, in your path!

 

Timelines…

This article is more about revisiting facts and has a relevance to contemplate past history.

Here, it is mostly about the timelines of religions, such as Judaism, Hinduism, Christianity and Islam. Also the timelines of specific countries like China.

The first purpose, is to review and check how the Timelines compare with the Biblical timeline, whether the Flood of Noah occurred and to attempt to determine a more complete timeline.

For starters, the timeline from the Bible, narrated by the representatives of the religion of Judaism:

Source: https://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/timeline-for-the-history-of-judaism

Dawn of History
(3800-2001 BCE)

October 7, 3761
The beginning date of the Hebrew calendar, according to scholar Rabbi Yossi ben Halafta, a 2nd century Rabbi. Adam & Eve created (Year 1 of Jewish calendar).
3630
Seth born
3525
Enosh born
ca. 3500
Chalcolithic Period, first settlement
3435
Kenan born
3365
Mehalalel born
3300
Yered born
3300
First confirmed settlement of Gaza at Tell as-Sakan
3138
Enoch born
3074
Methusaleh born
2886
Lemech born
2831
Adam dies
ca. 2800
Early Dynastic period (Akkad)
2704
Noah born
ca. 2700-2400
Old Kingdom period (Egypt)
ca. 2500-2200
Ebla flourishes
ca. 2500
First houses built in Jerusalem
ca. 2300-2200
Priestess Enheduanna, first known author in the world
2203
Shem born
2150
The Flood
2100-1700
Middle Kingdom period (Egypt)

Ancient Israelite Religion
(2000-587 BCE)

2000-1750 Old Babylonian period
2000-1700 Israel’s Patriarchal period
ca. 1900-1400 Old Assyrian period
1882 Terach born
1813 Abraham born
ca. 1850/1750/1700 Abraham & Sarah, Isaac & Ishmael, famine forces Israelites to migrate to Egypt
1800 First Jerusalem city wall built
ca. 1792-1750 Hammurabi
ca. 1750-1200 Hittite empire
1765 The Tower of Babel
1743 Origin of traditions of the “Abrahamic covenant”
1713 Isaac born; Abraham circumcises himself; Sodom & Gomorrah destroyed
ca. 1700-1550 Hyksos in Egypt
1677 Isaac prepared as sacrifice; Sarah dies
1653 Jacob born
1638 Abraham dies
ca. 1600-1150 Kassite period (Babylonia)
1590 Isaac blesses Jacob instead of Esau.
ca. 1570-1085 New Kingdom period (Egypt)
1569 Jacob marries Leah
1565 Levi born
1562 Joseph born
1546 Joseph sold into slavery
1533 Isaac dies
1532 Joseph becomes viceroy of Egypt
1523 Jacob and his family join Joseph in Egypt
ca. 1500-1200 Ugaritic texts
1452 Joseph dies
1429 Egyptian enslavement of the Hebrews begins
ca. 1400-900 Middle Assyrian period
ca. 1400-1300 Amarna period (Egypt)
1393 Moses born.
1355 Joshua born.
1314 Moses sees the burning bush.
ca. 1300-1200 Mosaic period (Israel)
1280 Exodus from Egypt, Sinai Torah, Canaan Entry
1240 After setting up the Ark at Shiloh near Shechem (Nablus), Joshua launches foray into Jerusalem (Joshua 10:23, 15:63)
ca. 1200 Sea Peoples invade Egypt and Syro-Palestine
ca. 1200-1050/1000 Period of the Judges (Israel)
ca. 1200-1000 Jerusalem is a Canaanite city
ca. 1150-900 Middle Babylonian period:
ca. 1106 Deborah judges Israel.
ca. 1100 The Philistines¬†take over Gaza. They called it Philistia (from which the modern name Palestine is derived), and made it one of their civilization’s most important cities.
ca. 1050-450 Hebrew prophets (Samuel-Malachi)
ca. 1000-587 Monarchical period in Israel
ca. 1030-1010 Saul (transitional king)
ca. 1010-970 David conquers the Jebusites and makes Jerusalem his capital
ca. 970-931 Solomon builds the First Temple on Mount Moriah
ca. 931 Secession of Northern Kingdom (Israel) from Southern Kingdom (Judah)
931-913 Rehoboam rules Judah
931-910 Jeroboam I rules Israel, choses Shechem as his first capital, later moves it to Tirzah
913-911 Abijah rules Judah
911-870 Asa rules Juda
910-909 Nadab (son of Jeroboam) rules Israel
909-886 Baasha kills Nadab and rules Israel
900-612 Neo-Assyrian period
886-885 Elah, son of Baasha, rules Israel
885 Zimri kills Elah, but reigns just seven days before committing suicide, Omri chosen as King of Israel
885-880(?) War between Omri and Tibni
885-874 Omri kills Tibni, rules Israel
879 Omri moves capital of Israel from Tirzah to Samaria
874-853 Ahab, Omri’s son, is killed in battle, Jezebel reigns as Queen. Athaliah, Ahab and Jezebel’s daughter, marries Jehoram, crown prince of Judah
870-848 Jehoshapha rules Judah
853-851 Ahaziah, son of Ahab, rules Israel, dies in accident
750-725 Israelite Prophets Amos, Hosea, Isaiah
722/721 Northern Kingdom (Israel) destroyed by Assyrians; 10 tribes exiled (10 lost tribes)
720 Ahaz, King of Judah dismantles Solomon’s bronze vessels and places a private Syrian altar in the Temple
716 Hezekiah, King of Jerusalem, with help of God and the prophet Isaiah resists Assyrian attempt to capture Jerusalem (2 Chronicles 32). Wells and springs leading to the city are stopped
701 Assyrian ruler Sennacherib beseiges Jerusalem
612-538 Neo-Babylonian (‚ÄúChaldean‚ÄĚ) period
620 Josiah (Judean King) and ‚ÄúDeuteronomic Reforms‚ÄĚ
ca. 600-580 Judean Prophets Jeremiah and Ezekiel
587/586 Southern Kingdom (Judah) and First Temple destroyed-Babylonian exile
ca. 550 Judean Prophet ‚ÄúSecond Isaiah‚ÄĚ
541 First Jews return from Babylon in small numbers to rebuild the city and its walls. Seventy years of exile terminated. (Daniel 9, Haggai 2:18-19)
539 Persian ruler Cyrus the Great conquers Babylonian Empire

After the Babylonian Exile
(538 BCE-70 CE)

538-333 B.C.E. Persian Period.
538 B.C.E. Edict of Cyrus (first return from Exile).
520-515 B.C.E. Jerusalem¬†(“Second”)¬†Temple¬†rebuilt.
520 B.C.E. Judean Prophet Haggai.
500 B.C.E. The notion of a Messiah, a political/military-religious/moral leader, develops.
450-400 B.C.E. Reformation led by Ezra and Nehemiah.
ca. 450 B.C.E. Torah (Pentateuch = first division of Jewish Scriptures) begins to gain recognition as Scripture.
438 B.C.E. Achashverosh becomes king of Persia.
426 B.C.E. First decrees by Haman; fast ordered by Esther, Haman’s downfall and execution.
425 B.C.E. Haman’s ten sons executed; Purim celebration.
424 B.C.E. Megillah recorded.
411 B.C.E. Bagoas, a Persian, is made governor of Jerusalem.
333-63 B.C.E. Hellenistic (Greek) period.
333/331 B.C.E. Alexander the Great conquers the Land of Israel.
ca. 320-168 B.C.E. Judaism under Greek Ptolemies & Seleucids.
ca. 250 B.C.E. “Septuagint” translation of¬†Torah¬†into Greek.
ca. 230-146 B.C.E. Coming of Rome to the east Mediterranean.
ca. 201 B.C.E. Prophets (second division of Jewish Scriptures) recognized by some as Scripture
ca. 200 B.C.E.-135 C.E. Jewish Qumran community.
175 B.C.E. Selicid, king of Syria, plunders Jerusalem, murdering many.
166-160 B.C.E. Jewish Maccabean revolt against restrictions on practice of Judaism and desecration of the Temple.
142-129 B.C.E. Jewish autonomy under Hasmoneans.
63 B.C.E. Rome (Pompey) annexes the land of Israel.
66-73 C.E. First Jewish Revolt against Rome.
69 C.E. Vespasian gives Yochanan ben Zakkai permission to establish a Jewish center for study at Yavneh that will become the hub for rabbinic Judaism.
70 C.E. Destruction of Jerusalem and the second Temple.

Rule of Rome
(230 BCE-400 CE)

ca. 230-146 B.C.E. Coming of Rome to the east Mediterranean.
142-129 B.C.E. Jewish autonomy under Hasmoneans.
63 B.C.E. Rome (Pompey) annexes the land of Israel.
37-4 B.C.E. Herod the Great (Jewish Roman ruler of the land of Israel).
34 B.C.E. Mark Antony deeds the city of Gaza to his lover, Queen Cleopatra.
37 B.C.E. Herod captures Jerusalem, has Antigonus II executed, and marries the Hasmonean princess Mariamne I.
20 B.C.E. Herod creates Temple Mount and begins to rebuild the Temple in Jerusalem. Project continues until 72 C.E..
ca. 4 B.C.E.-ca. 30 C.E. Joshua/Jesus¬†‚Äúthe Christ.‚ÄĚ

MODERN ERA

Hillel & Shammai (Jewish sages).
6 C.E. Rome establishes direct rule of prefects in Judea.
ca. 13 B.C.E.- 41 C.E. Philo Judaeus of Alexandria.
ca. 30 C.E. Jesus is crucified.
36-64 C.E. Paul ‚Äúthe apostle‚ÄĚ (Jewish ‚ÄúChristian‚ÄĚ).
ca. 37-100 C.E. Josephus (Jewish leader, historian).
ca. 40 C.E. Gamliel/Gamaliel I (Jewish leader-scholar).
ca. 50-125 C.E. Christian Testament (NT) writings.
66-73 C.E. First Jewish Revolt against Rome.
69 C.E. Vespasian gives Yochanan ben Zakkai permission to establish a Jewish center for study at Yavneh that will become the hub for rabbinic Judaism.
70 Destruction of Jerusalem and the second Temple.
December 21, 72 Thomas the Apostle is murdered by Hindu priests of Kali.
73 Last stand of Jews at Masada.
ca. 90-100 Gamaliel II excludes sectarians (including Christians) from the synagogues.
ca. 90-150 Writings (third and last division of Jewish Scriptures) discussed and accepted as sacred scripture.
114-117 Jewish Revolts against Rome in Cyprus, Egypt and Cyrene. The Great Synagogue and the Great Library in Alexandria are destroyed as well as the entire Jeiwsh community of Cyprus. Afterwards, Jews were forbidden on Cyprus.
120-135 Rabbi Akiva active in consolidating Rabbinic Judaism.
132-135 Bar Kokhba rebellion (Second Jewish Revolt). Roman forces kill an estimated half a million Jews and destroy 985 villages and 50 fortresses.
136 Hadrian renames Jerusalem Aelia Capatolina and builds a Pagan temple over the the site of the Second Temple. He also forbids Jews to dwell there. Judea (the southern portion of what is now called the West Bank) was renamed Palaestina in an attempt to minimize Jewish identification with the land of Israel.
138-161 Antoninus Pius, Hadrian’s sucessor, repeals many of the previously instituted harsh policies towards Jews.
193-211 Roman emperor Lucious Septimus Severus treats Jews relatively well, allowing them to participate in public offices and be exempt from formalities contrary to Judaism. However, he did not allow the Jews to convert anyone
ca. 200 Mishnah (Jewish oral law) compiled/edited under Judah the Prince.
200-254 Origen (Christian scholar, biblical interpreter).
203 Because of his health, Judah HaNasi relocates the center of Jewish learning from Beth Shearim to Sepphoris.
212 Roman Emperor Caracalla allows free Jews within the empire to become full Roman citizens.
220 Babylonian Jewish Academy founded at Sura by Rab.
220-470  

Amoraim, or¬†Mishna¬†scholars, flourish. The Amoraim’s commentary, along with the Mishna, comprises the¬†Talmud.

222-235 Emperor Alexander Severus allowed for a revival of Jewish rights, including permission to visit Jerusalem.
240-276 Rise of Mani/Manichaean World Religion synthesis.
ca. 250 Babylonian Jews flourish (as does Manichaeism) under Persian King Shapur I
250-330 Early development of Christian monasticism in Egypt.
263-339 Eusebius (Christian author, historian)
303 Violent persecution of Christians by Emperor Diocletian.
To 311 Sporadic persecution of Christianity by Rome.
306 One of the first Christian councils, the Council of Elvira, forbids intermarriage and social interaction with Jews
312/313 Emperor Constantine embraces Christianity, announces Edict of Toleration
315 Code of Constantine limits rights of non-Christians, is Constantine’s first anti-Jewish act.
368 Jerusalem Talmud compiled.

Rabbinic Period of Talmud Development
(70 BCE-500 CE)

66-73 First Jewish Revolt against Rome.
69 Vespasian gives Yochanan ben Zakkai permission to establish a Jewish center for study at Yavneh that will become the hub for rabbinic Judaism.
70 Destruction of Jerusalem and the second Temple,
73 Last stand of Jews at Masada.
ca. 90-100 Gamaliel II excludes sectarians (including Christians) from the synagogues.
ca. 90-150 Writings (third and last division of Jewish Scriptures) discussed and accepted as sacred scripture.
114-117 Jewish Revolts against Rome in Cyprus, Egypt and Cyrene. The Great Synagogue and the Great Library in Alexandria are destroyed as well as the entire Jeiwsh community of Cyprus. Afterwards, Jews were forbidden on Cyprus.
120-135 Rabbi Akiva active in consolidating Rabbinic Judaism.
132-135 Bar Kokhba rebellion (Second Jewish Revolt). Roman forces kill an estimated half a million Jews and destroy 985 villages and 50 fortresses.
136 Hadrian renames Jerusalem Aelia Capatolina and builds a Pagan temple over the the site of the Second Temple. He also forbids Jews to dwell there. Judea (the southern portion of what is now called the West Bank) was renamed Palaestina in an attempt to minimize Jewish identification with the land of Israel.
138-161 Antoninus Pius, Hadrian’s sucessor, repeals many of the previously instituted harsh policies towards Jews.
193-211 Roman emperor Lucious Septimus Severus treats Jews relatively well, allowing them to participate in public offices and be exempt from formalities contrary to Judaism. However, he did not allow the Jews to convert anyone
ca. 200 Mishnah (Jewish oral law) compiled/edited under Judah the Prince.
203 Because of his health, Judah HaNasi relocates the center of Jewish learning from Beth Shearim to Sepphoris.
212 Roman Emperor Caracalla allows free Jews within the empire to become full Roman citizens.
220 Babylonian Jewish Academy founded at Sura by Rab.
220-470 Amoraim, or¬†Mishna¬†scholars, flourish. The Amoraim’s commentary, along with the Mishna, comprises the¬†Talmud.
222-235 Emperor Alexander Severus allowed for a revival of Jewish rights, including permission to visit Jerusalem.
ca. 250 Babylonian Jews flourish (as does Manichaeism) under Persian King Shapur I.
306 One of the first Christian councils, the Council of Elvira, forbids intermarriage and social interaction with Jews.
315 Code of Constantine limits rights of non-Christians, is Constantine’s first anti-Jewish act.
359 Hillel creates a new calendar based on the lunar year to replace the dispersed Sanhedrin, which previously announced the festivals.
368 Jerusalem Talmud compiled.
370-425 Hillel founds Beit Hillel, a school emphasizing tolerance and patience. Hillel, a descendant of King David, is one of the first scholars to devise rules to interpret the Torah.
410 Rome sacked by Visigoths.
425 Jewish office of Nasi/Prince abolished by Rome.
426 Babylonian Talmud compiled.
439 Theodosis enacts a code prohibiting Jews from holding important positions involving money. He also reenacts a law forbidding the building of new synagogues.
500 Babylonian Talmud recorded. After conquering Italy in 493, Ostrogoth king Theodoric issues an edict safeguarding the Jews and ensuring their right to determine civil disputes and freedom of worship.

Consolidation & Dominance of Christianity
(325-590 CE)

325 Christian First Ecumenical Council, at Nicea (Asia Minor), changes the date of Easter from Passover and forbids Jews from owning Christian slaves or converting pagans to Judaism.
330 Jerusalem¬†becomes part of Constantine’s¬†Byzantine¬†Empire.
ca. 325-420 Jerome (Christian author, translator).
339 Constantine forbids intermarriage with Jews and the circumcision of heathen or Christian slaves, declaring death as the punishment.
354-430 Augustine (Christian author in North Africa).
359 Hillel creates a new calendar based on the lunar year to replace the dispersed Sanhedrin, which previously announced the festivals.
368 Jerusalem Talmud compiled.
370-425 Hillel founds Beit Hillel, a school emphasizing tolerance and patience. Hillel, a descendant of King David, is one of the first scholars to devise rules to interpret the Torah.
380/391 Christianity becomes THE religion of Roman Empire.
401 Christianity takes root in Gaza thanks to Bishop Porphyry.
410 Rome sacked by Visigoths.
415 St. Cyril, the Bishop of Alexandria, champions violence against the city’s Jews and incites the Greeks to kill or expel them. Some Jews return within a few years, but many return only after the¬†Muslims¬†conquer¬†Egypt.
425 Jewish office of Nasi/Prince abolished by Rome.
426 Babylonian Talmud compiled.
439 Theodosis enacts a code prohibiting Jews from holding important positions involving money. He also reenacts a law forbidding the building of new synagogues.
451 Christian Ecumenical Council of Chalcedon.
500 After conquering Italy in 493, Ostrogoth king Theodoric issues an edict safeguarding the Jews and ensuring their right to determine civil disputes and freedom of worship.
501 An earthquake hits Israel, partially destroying Acre and incuring damage as far east as Jersusalem.
511 Rebellion leader Mar Zutra usurps power from Kobad the Zenduk, establishing an independant Jewish state in Babylon that would last for seven years, until Zutra’s forces defeated Zutra’s army, killing him and instituted a harsh policy toward the remaining Jews.
516 Southern Arabian king Ohu Nuwas adopts Judaism, possibly as a rampart against the spread of Christianity. King Eleboas of Abyssinia, with the help of Justin I, later defeated Nuwas.
519 After Ravenna residents burnt down local synagogues, Ostrogoth ruler Theodoric orders the Italian town to rebuild the synagogues at their own expense.
587 Recared of Spain adopts Catholicism, banning Jews from slave ownership, intermarriage and holding positions of authority. Recared also declares that children of mixed marriages be raised Christian.
570 Birth of Prophet Muhammad, Makkah.
590 Pope Gregory the Great formulates the official Papal policy towards Jews, objecting to forced baptism and tolerating them according to the previous council’s regulations.

Development of Muhammad’s Islamic Message
(570-1258 CE)

ca. 570-632 Muhammad¬†(“the Prophet” of¬†Islam).
ca. 610 Prophetic call and start of Quranic revelations.
614 Persian invasion, Jews allowed to controll Jerusalem.
617 Persians change policy toward Jews, forbid them from living within three miles of Jerusalem.
622 The hijra (emigration) from Mecca to Medina.
624-627 Muhammad attacks Jewish Arabian tribes for refusing to convert to Islam. Eventually the Southern Arabian tribes are destroyed.
626 While proselytizing Arabia, Muhammad captures the Banu Kurara tribe and forces the group of about 600 to chose between conversion and death. After spending all night praying, all but three or four Banu Kurarans are beheaded.
627-629 Emperor Heraclius breaks his promise of protection to Jews, massacring any he found and forbidding them from entering Jerusalem. Hundreds of Jews were killed and thousands exhiled to¬†Egypt, ending the Jewish towns in the Galilee and¬†Judea. Heraclius’ decree remained in effect until the¬†Muslim¬†conquest of¬†Jerusalem.
630 Capitulation of Mecca, rededication of Kaba.
632 The Jewish tribe Kaibar defends itself against Muslim forces, negotiating a settlement in which half of their crops would go to Mohammed in exchange for peace. Other Jewish tribes, including Fadattr, Tedma and Magna reached similar deals.
590-604 Pope Gregory the Great.
ca. 600-1300 Period of the Jewish Rabbinic Geonim.
632-661 Muhammad dies, creating the four “rightly guided caliphs” of¬†Islam.
634 Gaza becomes the first city in Palestine to be captured by Muslims. Many Christians and Jews remained despite the Muslim takeover.
637 Muslim forces capture¬†Caesarea, forcing the city’s estimated 100,000 Jews to follow the Pact of Omar, which meant they had to pray quietly, not build new synagogues and not prevent Jews from converting to Islam. The Jews were also forbidden from riding horses and holding judicial or civil posts, and were forced to wear a yellow patch for identification.
638 Caliph Umar conquers Jerusalem and Jews are permitted to return to the city under Islam.
661 Assassination of Ali (last of the four).
661-750 Umayyad Dynasty of Islam in Damascus (Syria).
669, 674 Muslim Attacks on Christian Constantinople.
680 Massacre of Ali’s son Husayn and Shiites (Iraq).
685 Muslims extend Jerusalem and rebuild walls and roads.
692 Dome of the Rock built on site of First and Second Temples by Caliph Abd el-Malik.
November 9, 694 The 17th Council of Toledo convenes, passing a wide-ranging array of restrictions on the local Jewish community.
711 Muslim Forces Attack Spain Successfully.
715 Al-Aqsa Mosque built, Jerusalem.
732 Islam repulsed at Tours (France), gateway to Europe.
750 Abbasid caliphate founded.
ca. 760 Karaism founded (Jewish reaction to Rabbinic Judaism).
762 Baghdad founded by Abbasids.
767 Anan Ben David, organizer of the Karaite sect that only believed in the literal Biblical writings and not the Oral law.
742-814 Charlemagne, French Holy Roman Emperor, protected and helped develop Jewish culture in his kingdom, seeing Jews as an asset.
740-1259 Jewish Kingdom of Khazar lasts over 500 years, defending itself from the Muslims, Byzantines and Russians, finally subdued by Mongols under Genghis Khan.
750-1258 Abbasid Dynasty¬†of¬†Islam¬†in Baghdad (Iraq)‚ÄĒthe “golden age” of Islamic culture.
?-767 Abu Hanifa (Muslim theologian and jurist in Iraq).
710-795 Malik ibn Anas (jurist, collector of hadiths, Medina).
800 Caliph Harun al-Rashid rules in “1001 Nights” style.
ca. 800-950 Mutazilite rationalism developed and debated.
807 Harun Al Rashid, Caliph of the Abbasids forces Baghdad Jews to wear a yellow badge and Christians to wear a blue badge.
825 Caliph Mamun sponsors translations of Greek learning into Arabic (Arabic science flourishes).
814-840 Charlemagne’s son, Louis the Pius, who succeeded his father as king, expanded his father’s positive policies towards the Jews, like changing “market day” from Saturday (Shabbat) to Sunday.
855 Ibn Hanbal (jurist, collector of hadiths, Baghdad).
868 Palestine annexed to Egypt.
870, 875 Bukhari and Muslim (collectors of hadiths).
874 Shiite¬†“twelvers” arise.
?-935 Al-Ashari (ex-Mutazilite Muslim scholar).
882-942 Saadia Gaon (Rabbinic Jewish sage).
942 Office of the Exilarch was abolished after seven centuries, primarily because of dissention with the Muslims. David ben-Zaccai held the postion.
922 Execution of Hallaj, radical Persian Muslim mystic/sufi.
ca. 950-1150 ‚ÄúGolden Age‚ÄĚ in Spain (Islamic Umayyad dynasty).
969 Founding of Cairo (and soon thereafter Azhar University) by the Islamic Shiite Fatimid dynasty in Egypt.
969 Caliph al-Aziz defeated the Turkish princes at Ramleh, marking the beginning of Fatamid rule over Eretz-Israel.
972 Al-Azhar University Founded, Cairo.
ca. 1000 Rabbi Gershon of Mainz, Germany, publishes a ban on bigamy. This marks the beginning of Ashkenazi (Franco-German) halachic creativity.
1001 Ibn al-Bawwab produces earliest exist Qur’an copy on paper, Baghdad.
990-1055 Diplomat and poet, as well as vizier to King Habus of Granada and author of a Biblical Hebrew dictionary, Samuel Ibn Nagrela.
1008 Egyptian Caliph Hakkim, who claimed to be divine, pressured all¬†non-Muslims¬†to convert and forced all Jews to wear a “golden calf” around their necks.
1009 Oldest existing text of full Hebrew Bible is written.
1016 Earthquake causes structrual damage on Temple Mount.
1021-1069 Messianic poet and philosopher, Solomon Ibn Gabirol.
1027 Samuel Hanagid becomes vizier of Granada. He is the first of the poets of the Golden Age of Spain, and symbolic of both the political power and literary creativity of Jews in Spain at the time.
1032 Rebel Abul Kamal Tumin conquered Fez and decimated the Jewish community, killing 6,000 Jews.
1066 Final split (“schism”) between Latin (Roman) and Greek (Byzantine) Classical Christian Churches: 1053/54 William the Conqueror (Norman) takes England.
1056 Abraham Ibn Daud: On Saumuel Ha-Nagid, Vizier of Granada.
1040-1105 Rashi (Rabbi Solomon ben Isaac; Jewish sage): .
1058-1111 Ghazali (Persian Muslim scholar and mystic): .
1065-1173 Benjamin of Tudela, Jewish traveller and historian, who wrote a famous journal called Sefer Hamassa’ot (Book of Travels).
1070 Rashi, a French-Jewish thinker, completes his commentaries on most parts of the Bible.
1070-1139 Poet and philiospher Moses Ibn Ezra.
1071 Seljuk occupation of Jerusalem.
1099 First Crusade Begins rule in Jerusalem.
1100 The Crusaders seize Gaza from the Fatimid Caliphs, returning it to Christian rule.
1181 Philip expels Jews from France.
1187 Salah al-Din returns Jerusalem to Muslim rule.
1192 Philip expands his kingdom and allows Jews to return, for a fee and under strict conditions.

Medieval Period in the West
(600-1500 CE)

610 Visigothic ruler Sesbut prohibits¬†Judaism¬†after several anti-Jewish edicts are ignored. Exiled Jews return to Byzantine¬†Spain¬†under Sesbut’s successor, Swintilla.
614 Persian General Romizanes captures Jerusalem and allows Jews to run the city. At this time, aproximately 150,000 Jews are living in 43 settlements in Eretz-Israel.
617 The Persians renege on their promises and forbid Jews to settle within a three mile radius of Jerusalem.
638 Although Chintilla decrees that only Catholics are permitted to live in Visogoth Spain, many Jews continue to live there.
638 Islamic conquest of Jerusalem.
682 Visigoth King Erwig continues oppression of Jews, making it illegal to practice any Jewish rites and pressing for the conversion or emigration of the remaining Jews.
691 First account of Jews in England.
712 Jews help Muslim invaders capture Spain, ending Visogoth rule and beginning a 150 year period of relative peace, in which Jews were free to study and practice religion as they wished.
722 In the wake of a narrow military defeat over Muslim forces, Leo III of Constantinople decided his nation’s weakness lay in its heterogenious population, and began the forcible conversion of the Jews, as well as the “New Christians.” Most converted under Leo III clandestinely continued their Jewish practices.
1040 Birth of Rashi.
1066 In the wake of the Norman conquest of England, Jews left Normandy and settled in London and later in York, Norwich, Oxford, Bristol and Lincoln.
1078 Pope Gregory VII prohibited Jews from holding offices in Christendom.
1086-1145 The greatest Hebrew poet of his time, Judah Halevi.
1090 Iban Iashufin, King of the Almoravides, captured Granada and destroyed the Jewish community, the survivors fled to Toledo.
1095 Henry IV of Germany, who granted Jews favorable conditions whenever possible, issued a charter to the Jews and a decree against forced baptism.
1131 Birth of Rambam.
1171 In the town of Blois, southwest of Paris, Jews are falsely accused of committing ritual murder ((killing of a Christian child) and blood libel. The adult Jews of the city are arrested and most are executed after refusing to convert. Thirty-one or 32 of the Jews are killed. The Jewish children are forcibly baptized.
1210 Group of 300 French and English rabbis make aliyah and settle in Israel.
1215 The Church’s Fourth Lateran Council decrees that Jews be differentiated from others by their type of clothing to avoid intercourse between Jews and Christians. Jews are sometimes required to wear a badge; sometimes a pointed hat.
1227-1274 Christian theologian, who called for the slavery of all Jews, Saint Thomas Aquinas.
1229 King Henry III of England forced Jews to pay half the value of thier property in taxes.
1242 Burning of the Talmud in Paris.
1244 Tartars capture Jerusalem.
1253 King Henry III of England ordered Jewish worship in synagogue to be held quietly so that Christians passing by do not have to hear it. e also ordered that Jews may not employ Christian nurses or maids, nor may any Jew prevent another from converting to Christianity.
1254 French King Louis IX expelled the Jews from France, ending the Tosaphists period. Most Jews went to Germany and further east.
1255 Seeing himself as the “master of the Jews,” King Henry II of England transferred his rights to the Jews to his brother, Richard, for 5,000 marks.
1267 In a special session, the Vienna city council forced Jews to wear the Pileum cornutum, a cone-shaped headress prevelent in many medieval woodcuts illustrating Jews. This form of distinctive dress was an additon to badge Jews were forced to wear.
1267 Ramban (Nachmanides) arrives in Israel.
1275 King Edward of England banned usury and unsuccessfully encouraged Jews in agriculture, crafts and local trades. He also forced Jews over the age of seven to wear an indentifying badge.
1282 The Archbishop of Canterbury, John Pectin, ordered all London synagogues to closed and prohibited Jewish physicians from practicing on Christians.
1285 Blood libel in Munich, Germany results in the death of 68 Jews. An additional 180 Jews are burned alive at the synagogue.
1287 A mob in Oberwesel, Germany kills 40 Jewish men, women and children after a ritual murder accusation.
1290 Bowing political pressure, English King Edward I expels the Jews from England. They were only allowed to take what they could carry and most went to France, paying for thier passage only to be robbed and cast overboard by the ship captains.
1306 Philip IV orders all Jews expelled from France, with their property to be sold at public auction. Some 125,000 Jews are forced to leave.
1321 Similar to accusations made during the Black Plague, Jews were accused of encouraging lepers to poison Christian wells in France. An estimated five thousand Jews were killed before the king, Philip the Tall, admitted the Jews were innocent.
1321 Henry II of Castile forces Jews to wear yellow badges.
1322 Charles IV of France expels all French Jews without the one year period he had promised them.
1348-1349 Much of Europe blames the Black Plague on the Jews and tortured to confess that they poisoned the wells. Despite the pleas of innocence of Pope Clement VI, the accusations resulted in the destruction of over 60 large and 150 small Jewish communities.
1348 Basle burns 600 Jews at the stake and forcibly baptizes 140 children, expelling the city’s other Jews. The city’s Christian residents convert the synagogue into a church and destroy the Jewish cemetery.
1348 Pope Clement VI issues an edict repudiating the libel against Jews, saying that they too were suffering from the Plague.
1360 Samuel ben Meir Abulafia is arrested and tortured to death by King Pedro without any explination. The king also confiscated his great wealth.
1385-1386 German Emperor Wenceslaus arrests Jews living in the Swabian League, a group of free cities in S. Germany, and confiscates their books. Later, he expelled the Jews of Strassburg after a community debate.
1386 Emperor Wenceslaus expelles the Jews from Strassbourg and confiscate their property.
1389 After a priest was hit with some sand from a few small Jewish boys playing in the street, he insisted that the Jewish community was plotting against him and began a virulent campaign against the city’s Jews, resulting in the massacre of thousands and the destruction of the city’s¬†synagogue¬†and Jewish cemetery. King Wenceslaus refused to condemn the act, insisting that the responsibility lay with the Jews for going outside during the Holy Week.
1389 Pope Boniface continues the policy of Clement VI, forbidding the Christians to harm Jews, destroy their cemeteries or forcibly baptize them.
1391 Ferrand Martinez, archdeacon of Ecija, begins a campaign against Spanish Jewry, killing over 10,000 and destroying the Jewish quarter in Barcelona. The campaign quickly spreads throughout Spain, except for Granada, and destroys Jewish communities in Valencia and Palma De Majorca.
1391 King Pedro I orders Spain not to harm the remaining Jews and decrees that synagogues not be converted into churches.
1392 King Pedro I announces his compliance with the Bull of Pope Boniface IX, protecting Jews from baptism. He extends this edict to Spanish Jewish refugees.
1415 Benedict XIII bans the study of the Talmud in any form, institutes forced Christian sermons and tries to restrict Jewish life completely.
1420 Pope Martin V favorably reinstates old privleges of the Jews and orders that no child under the age of 12 can be forcibly baptized without parental consent.
1420 All Jews are expelled from Lyons, including the refugees from Paris who were expelled 20 years earliers. Jews now only remain in Provence (until 1500) and in the possessions of the Holy See.
1422 Pope Martin V issues a bull reminding Christians that Christianity was derived from Judaism and warns the Friars not to incite against the Jews. The Bull was withdrawn the following year, alleging that the Jews of Rome attained the Bull by fraud.
1480 Inquisition established in Spain.

The Crusades
(1095-1258 CE)

1096 Participants in the First Crusade massacre Jews in several Central European cities, beginning centuries of pogroms linked to the Crusades.
1096 More than 5,000 Jews were murdered in Germany in several different attacks.
May 3, 1096 Count Emico of Leiningen, on his way to join a Crusade, attacked the synagogue at Speyers and killed all the defenders.
May 27, 1096 1,200 Jews commit suicide in Mayence to escape Count Emico, who tried to forcibly convert them.
1085-1140 Judah Halevi (Jewish author).
1099 Crusaders (European Christians) capture¬†Jerusalem¬†and massacre tens of thousands of the city’s Jews.
1100 Germans, including German Jews, migrate to¬†Poland. It is seen as ‚Äúthe land of opportunity.‚ÄĚ
1107 Moroccan Almoravid ruler Yoseph Ibn Tashfin orders all Moroccan Jews to convert or leave.
1109 Tiberias falls to the Crusaders.
1115 After reconquering Toledo, Spain from the Muslims, Alphonso I invited all Jews to return.
1120 Jews from Muslim countries begin to settle in Byzantium.
1124 Records of a Jewish gate in Kiev attest to the presence of a Jewish community there.
1135-1204 Maimonides (Rabbi Moses ben Maimon; Jewish scholar).
1139 Judah Halevi completes his influential philosophy of Judaism known as The Kuzari. He is a friend of commentator Abraham Ibn Ezra, who also left Spain for the life of a wandering Jewish scholar.
1143 150 Jews killed in Ham, France.
1144 Jews in Norwich, England, are accused of murdering a Christian child in what is believed to be the first ritual murder charge. The blood libel, as well as others in England that follow in the 12th century, incites anti-Jewish violence.
1160-1173 Benjamin of Toledo, The Itinerary of Benjamin of Toledo.
1163 Benjamin of Toledo writes of 40,000 Jews living in Baghdad, complete with 28 synagogues and 10 Torah academies.
1171 Saladin (1138-1193) overthrows Fatimid dynasty in Egypt.
1187 Saladin recaptures Jerusalem from Crusaders grants Jews permission to re-enter.
March 16, 1190 Jews attacked, over 150 die after a six day standoff in York, England.
1190 Approximately 2,500 Jews live in England, enjoing more rights than Jews on the continent.
1191 French King Phillip starts the Third Crusade, cancels debts to Jews, drives many Jews out of France, confiscates their property.
1194-1270 Scholar and Jewish leader Moses Ben Nachman (Nachmanides).
1195 Moses Maimonides completes The Guide to the Perplexed, considered the most important work of medieval Jewish thought.
1211 A group of 300 rabbis from France and England settle in Palestine (Eretz Yisrael), beginning what might be interpreted as Zionist aliyah.
1198-1216 Pope Innocent III (Christian).
1204 First synagogue built in Vienna, a city where Jews enjoyed more freedom than in other areas of Austria.
1215 Fourth Lateran Council expands anti-Jewish decrees in Europe, forces Jews to wear the Yellow Patch, the “Badge of Shame.
1222 Deacon Robert of Reading, England, was burned for converting to Judaism, setting a precedent for the burning of “heretics”.
1222 Stephen Langton, Archbishop of Canterbury and a prime mover of the Lateran Council, forbids Jews from building new synagogues, owning slaves or mixing with Christians.
ca. 13th cen. The Zohar (a Jewish kabbalistic book): .
1227 Death of Genghis Khan (roving Mongol conqueror).
ca. 1230 Inquisition by Christians in Spain.
1232 The Jewish community of Marrakech, Morocco, is reestablished, leading to massacres of Jews caused by Islamic political revolt and grassroots hatred.
1239 Pope Gregory IX orders the kings of France, England, Spain and Portugal to confiscate Hebrew books, Following this edict, the Talmud is condemned and burned in France and Rome.
1225-1274 Thomas Aquinas (Christian scholar).
1240-1292 Spanish Kabbalist Abraham Abulafia.
1243 First accusation of desecration of the Host (the wafers used is Christian Mass) – the blood libel – in Berlitz, Germany.
1244-1517 Rule by Tartars, Mongols, Ayybids, and Mamelukes.
1247 Pope Innocent IV issued a Bull refuting blood libels and sent it throughout Germany and France.
1254-1517 Mamluk Islamic rule (new dynasty) in Egypt.
1258 Fall of Islamic Abbasid dynasty to Hulagu (Mongol).

Transition & Rebuilding of Political Islam
(1258-1500 CE)

1258 Mongols sack Baghdad.
1260 Mongols led by Hulagu Khan overrun Gaza, they are beaten back by Egyptian Mamluk General Baibars. Gaza becomes the capital of a Mamluk Province.
1278 The Edict of Pope Nicholas III requires compulsory attendance of Jews at conversion sermons.
1286 Moses de Leon of Spain completes a commentary of the Torah. The Zohar remains a central text of Jewish mysticism.
1290/1291 Expulsion of Jews from England.
1291 Expulsion of Christian Crusaders from Syria.
1348 Black Death reaches Europe.
July 6, 1348 Pope Clement VI clarifies that the Jews are not behind the Black Death, tells Christians not to blame Jews for the disease sweeping Europe.
1445 Gutenberg prints Europe’s first book with movable type.
1453 Ottomans begin rule from Constantinople.
1492 The Alhambra Decree ordered the expulsion of the Jews from Castile and Aragon, Spain. The edict was not formally revoked until December 16, 1968.
1492 End of Muslim states in Spain.
1492 Columbus sets sail.

Mamluk Rule
(1291-1516 CE)

1300-1517 Italian Renaissance.
1306-1394 Expulsions of Jews from France.
1328-1384 John Wycliffe (Christian dissident leader).
14th century Rise of the Ottoman Muslim dynasty in Turkey.
1333 Casimir the Great takes power in Poland and brings with him a sympathetic attitude toward the Jews, who benfit as a result.
September 30, 1338 The Deggendorf Massacre. Residents of¬†Deggendorf, Germany, burned the homes of and massacred the town’s approximately 50 Jews.
1348 Black Death reaches Europe and Jews are accused of poisoning Christian wells.
1336-1405 Timurlane/Tamurlane, Turkic ruler in central Asia.
1360 King Pedro of¬†Portugal¬†arrests and tortures to death¬†Samuel Ben Meir Abulafia. No charges were ever given and the King confiscated Abulafia’s lands and great wealth.
1400 Damascus sacked by Timurlane.
1424 Jewish physician, Y’en Ch’eng is given the surname “Chao” as an honor by the Emperor. This family, which probably originated in India and Babylon, became on of the leading Chinese Jewish families.
1437-1509 Philosopher, financier and scholar, Don Isaac Abarbanel intercedes many times on behalf of his fellow Jews, including trying to stop Ferdinand from expelling them. This time he was foiled by Torquemada and he followed them into exile. His commentaries cover the major and minor¬†Prophets. Consistent with his belief that the¬†Messiah¬†would come in his lifetime, he also wrote three messianic texts called Migdal Yeshu’ot (Tower of Salvation).
1452-1454/55 Gutenberg prints Europe’s first book with movable type.
1447 Following a fire in Posen where the original charter (written by Casimir the Great) granted the Jews “privileges,” Casimir IV renews all their rights and makes his charter one of the most liberal in Europe. This charter lasted less than a decade before it was revoked.
1452-1515 Astronomer and historian, Abraham Zacuto creates tables used by Columbus. After the explusion of 1492, Zacuto went to Portugal where he developed the metal Astrolab used by Vasco Da Gama. In 1498 he was forced to flee or convert. He left and reached Tunis where he wrote a history of the Jews from creation until the sixteenth century.
1453 Fall of Constantinople (Istanbul) to Ottoman Muslims.
1454 Casimir IV of Poland revokes the Jewish charter, at the insistence of Bishop Zbignev. The Bishop had correctly predicted Casimir’s defeat by the Teutonic Knights backed by the Pope, and succeeded in convincing the King that it was due to the Jews.
1463 Pope Nicholas V authorized the establishment of the Inquisition to investigate heresy among the Marranos.
1479-15 Isabella’s severe anti-Jewish learnings influence Ferdinand and lead to the final expulsion of the Jews from Spain.
1486 First prayer book published in Soncino, Italy.
1488 The first complete edition of the Hebrew Bible is printed in Soncino, Italy.
1492 Christian expulsion of Muslim Moors from Spain.
1492 Columbus sets sail.
1492 Christian expulsion of Jews from Spain, sending over 200,000 Jews fleeing: 137,000 Jews forced to leave Sicily.
1494 Polish King Jan Olbracht’s orders Jews to leave to leave¬†Crakow¬†for Kazimierz after they are blamed for a large fire that destroyed part of the city.
1496 Manuel of Portugal expels Jews from Portugal.
1516 The closed Jewish Quarter in¬†Venice,¬†Italy, is dubbed the Geto Nuovo (New Foundry). “Geto” will later become the basis for the word “ghetto”.
1516 The Ottoman’s fight the Mamluks out of Gaza, Gaza is ruled for the next 100 years by the Ridwan family.
1505-1584 Kabbalist¬†and author of “Lecha Dodi” (Come My Beloved),¬†Solomon ben Moses Alkabetz.

Christian Reformation Period
(1517-1569 CE)

1510 38 Jews were burned at the stake in Berlin.
1516 Jews in Venice are relegated to a ghetto, the most extreme segregation to which Jews had been submitted. Over time, Jews in many lands are similarly segregated.
1483-1546 Martin Luther.
1517 Luther posts “95 theses” in Wittenburg, Germany
1520-1579 Cracow¬†Rosh Yeshiva whose major work was an adaptation of¬†Caro’s¬†Shulchan Aruch¬†to Europoean Jewry,¬†Moses Isserles.
1525-1609 Brilliant Talmudist, mathematician and astronomer, popular with Emperor Randolh II. Judah Loew Ben Bezalel, the Maharal of Prague also created the Golem, a man from clay who protected the Jewish community.
1534 First Yiddish book published in Cracow, Poland.
1534-1572 Talmud¬†and¬†Kabbalah¬†scholar,¬†Isaac Ben Solomon Luria, given the name “The Ari” (The Lion).
1543 Luther writes¬†“About the Jews and Their Lies,”¬†considered the first modern anti-Semitic tract.
ca. 1500-1650 Protestant Christian Reformation.
1509-1564 John Calvin.
1516 Jewish ghetto instituted in Venice.
1526 The Prague Haggadah, which contains the oldest known printed Yiddush poem, is published.
November 22, 1547 Jews in the small community of Asolo, Italy were victims of a massacre, leaving 10 of the 37 Jewish residents dead.
1547 Ivan the Terrible becomes ruler of Russia and refuses to allow Jews to live in his kingdon.
1555 Jewish ghetto instituted in Rome.
1559 Pope Paul IV allows the first printing of the Zohar, a Jewish mystical text.
1567/1571 Shulhan Arukh (code of Jewish law by Joseph Caro).published.
1569 Isaac Luria¬†writes the¬†Kabbalist¬†in¬†Safed. Luria’s ideas give rise to a new form of Jewish mysticism.

Dominance of Ottoman Muslim Empire
(1500-1920 CE)

1517 Victory of (Muslim Ottoman Turk) Selim I over Egypt.
Ottoman¬†Muslim rulers (later) claim the title “caliph”.
1520-1566 Sulayman I, “the Magnificent,” rules.
ca. 1500-1800 Dominance of Safavid Shiite Muslim dynasty in Iran.
ca. 1500-1800 Dominance of Mughal Muslim dynasty in India.
1550-1619 Rabbi, preacher and biblical commentator known for his brilliant sermons calling for self improvement, Ephraim Solomon of Lunshits.
1550 Dr. Jospeh Hacohen was chased out of Genoa for practicing medicine, and soon after, all the Jews were expelled.
1553 Under the direction of Cardinal Caraffa, later Pope Paul IV, the Talmud was confiscated and publicaly burned in Rome on Rosh Hashanah, starting a wave of Talmud burning throughout Italy.
1554 Cornelio da Montalcino, a Franciscan Friar who converted to Judaism, is burned alive in Rome.
1555 In his Bull Cum Nimis Absurdum, Pope Paul IV renewed all anti-Jewish legislation and installed a ghetto in Rome. The Bull also forced Jews to wear a special cap, forbade them from owning real estate or practicing medicine on Christians. It also limited Jewish communities to only one synagogue.
1555-1631 Talmudic commentator, author of Chidushei Halachot, Samuel Eliezer Aidles, also known as “Maharsha.” .
1558 In Recanti, Italy, under the protection of Pope Paul IV, Joseph Paul More, a baptized Jew, entered a synagogue on Yom Kippur, the Day of Atonement, and tried to preach a conversion sermon. The congregation evicted him and a near massacre occured. Soon after, the Jews were expelled from Recanti.
1585 First known Jew to step on American soil, Joachim Gaunse (Ganz), lands on Roanoke Island.
1596-1650 Rene Descartes (scholar-philosopher): .
1564 In Brest Litovsk, the son of a wealthy Jewish tax collector, is accused of killing the family’s Christian servant for ritual purposes. He is tortured and killed.
1566 Three months into his reign, Pope Pius V rejects Pope Pius IV leniency towards Jews and reinstates the restrictions of Pope Paul IV which forced Jews to wear a special cap, forbade them from owning real estate or practicing medicine on Christians. It also limited Jewish communities to only one synagogue.
1569 Brest Litovsk welcomes Jewish settlement. In 80 years the Jewish population surges from 4,000 to more than 50,000.
1586 Pope Sixtus V rejects Pope Gregory XIII policies and forbids Jews from living in the Papal states and to print the Talmud.
1587-1643 The leading Jewish composer of the late Italian Renaissance and the musical director of court of Mantua, Salamone de Rossi.
1588 England defeats the Spanish Armada, weakening Spain and decreasing the reach of the Inquisition, espcially in the Netherlands.
1590 Built of wood, the entire Jewish quarter of Posen burned while then gentile population watched and pillaged. 15 people died and 80 Torah scrolls were burned.
1591 Rabbi, encyclopedist, physician and pupil of Galileo, Jose Solomon Delmedigo wrote over 30 works in math, geometry, chemistry, mechanics, philosophy and medicine.
1592 Esther Chiera, who held considerable influence in Sultan Murad III’s court, was executed because of jealousy and the Sultan’s desire for her assets.
1593 Pope Clement VIII expelled Jews from all Papal states except Rome and Ancona.
1596 Official Yom Kippur services are held for the first time in Amsterdam, though not without controversy.
1603 Frei Diogo Da Assumpacao, a partly Jewish friar who embraced Judaism, was burned alive in Lisbon. His arguments against Christianity were published and gained wide popularity.
1605 A Jesuit missionary in China meets with Al T’Ien, a Chinese Jewish teacher. Thier correspondence is the basis for most known information regarding the Kaifeng Jewish community.
1605-1657 Menasseh ben Israel (Jewish scholar-mystic).
1612 The Hamburg Senate decides to officially allow Jews to live in the city on the condition there is no public worship.
1614 Vincent Fettmilch, who called himself the “new Haman of the Jews,” led a raid on a Frankfurt synagogue that turned into an attack which destroyed the whole community.
1615 King Louis XIII of France decreed that all Jews must leave the country within one month on pain of death.
1615 The Guild, led by Dr. Chemnitz, “non-violently” forced the Jews from Worms.
1616 The Bishop of Speyer, with the backing of Frederick’s troops, readmitted the Jews to Worms.
February 28, 1616 Vincenz Fettmilch, the leader of a popular uprising targetting Jews in Frankfurt, Germany, is executed along with six of his companions.
1616 Holland’s¬†Prince Maurice of Orange allowed each each city to decide for itself whether to admit Jews. In the towns where Jews were admitted, they would not be required to wear a badge of any sort identifying them as Jews.
1616 Jesuits arrives in Grodno, Poland and accused the Jews of blood orgies and host desecrations.
1618-1638 Thity Years War between Catholics and Protestants centers around Germany, Austria, France and the Netherlands.
1619 Shah Abbasi of the Persian Sufi Dynasty increased persecution against the Jews forcing many to outwardly practice Islam. (Many secretly practiced Judaism.).
1620 Christian Puritans begin emigrations to America.
1621 Sir Henry Finch, legal advisor to King James I, makes the first English call to restore the Jews to their homeland in his treatise¬†The World’s Great Restoration or Calling of the Jews.
1621-1663 Well-known commentator of the Shulchan Aruch and author of several other works, Shabbetai Ben Meir Hacohen.
1622-1629 Persian Jews are forced to convert to Islam.
1623-1662 Blaise Pascal (scholar).
1625 The Jews of Vienna were forced to move into a ghetto called Leopoldstadt.
1625 Pope Urban VIII forbids Roman Jews to erect gravestones.
1626-1676 Shabbatai Zvi¬†(Jewish ‚Äúmessianic‚ÄĚ leader).
1630-1703 Financier and founder of the Viennese Jewish community, Samuel Oppenheimer.
1632 Miguel and Isabel Rodreguese and five others were burned alive in front of the King and Queen of Spain after being discovered holding Jewish rites.
1632-1677 Baruch/Benedict Spinoza (scholar, converted Jew).
1636 Rhode Island grants religious liberty to Jews.
1639 More than 80 New Christians (Jews who converted to Christianity) were burned at the stake after the Inquisition caught them holding regular Jewish services in Lima, Peru.
1641-1718 Shabbtai Ben Joseph the Bass, Author of Seftai Yesharim, the first bibliography of Hebrew books and biblical commentator. He also built a printing house in 1689, despite being jailed several times, accused of printing anti-Christian material. The printing house lasted more than 150 years.
1642 The first Jewish colony in the New World is established in Recife, Brazil.
1642 Chao Ying-Cheng helped rebuild the synagogue in Kai Fen after the Yellow River flooded the area. He also served in the goverrnment and helped build schools and squashed marauding bandits.
1648 Bogdan Chmelnitzki massacres 100,000 Jews in Poland.
1648 The Treaty of Westphalia brings victory to the Protestants.
1649 In the largest Auto de Fe ever held in the New World, 109 crypto-Jews were accused of Judaizing, several were burned alive.
1649 John Casimir, upon ascending the Polish throne, negotiates a truce with Cosack leader and murderer of thousands of Jews, Bogdan Chmelnitzki.
1654 Arrival of 23 Jews from Brazil in New Amsterdam (New York, America).
1655 Dutch West India Company allows Jewish settlers to reside permanently in New Amsterdam.
1655 Jews readmitted to England by Oliver Cromwell.
1657 The first Jews gain the rights of citizens in America.
1670 Jews expelled from Vienna.

Jewish Contemporary Period
(1700-1917 CE)

1700-1760 Israel Baal Shem Tov (founder of Jewish Hasidism).
1700 Jewish population in America numbers approximately 250.
1703-1758 Jonathan Edwards (American Christian preacher).
1703-1791 and 1707-1788 John and Charles Wesley (Christian).
1712 First public Jewish synagogue in Berlin.
1724 Death of Samson Wertheimer
1730 Jews build first North American synagogue in Lower Manhattan, Shearith Israel.
1740 England grants naturalization rights to Jews in the colonies.
ca. 1750 Wahhabi “fundamentalist” movement arises in¬†Islam.
1753 Parliament extends naturalization rights to Jews resident in England.
1761 First English prayer book for High Holidays is published in New York.
1763 The Jews of Newport, Rhode Island, dedicate a Sephardic synagogue, designed by leading Rhode Islandarchitect Peter Harrison.
July 17, 1764 Poland’s Parliament centralizes power and aboloshes the Council of the Four Lands, a semi-autonomous Jewish governing body.
1768-1828 “Father of¬†Reform¬†[Judaism],” Israel Jacobson.
1775 Pius VI issues Editto sopra gli ebrei, “Edict over the Hebrew,” suppressing the Jewish religion.
1775 Frances Salomon elected to South Carolina Provisional Congress; the first Jew to hold elected office in America.
1776 United States Declaration of Independence.
1775-1854 America merchant and philanthropist Judah Touro, funded first New Orleans synagogue.
1729-1786 Moses Mendelssohn¬†(Jewish “enlightenment” scholar).
1762 Although usually considered more liberal than other states, Rhode Island refuses to grant Jews Aaron Lopez and Isaac Eliezer citizenship stating “no person who is not of the Christian religion can be admitted free to this colony.”
1765 Portugal¬†holds the last public¬†Auto de Fe¬†“Act of Faith,” a ceremony where the¬†Inquisition¬†announces its punishments, usually a death sentence of burning at the stake.
1769-1821 Napoleon (France).
1775-1781 American Revolution; religious freedom guaranteed.
1781 Joseph II of Austria recinds the 513-year old law requiring Jews to wear distinctive badges.
1781 Haym Solomon, a Polish Jew who arrived in New York in 1772, helps raise funds to finance the American cause in the Revolutionary War.
1781-1869 American philanthropist Rebecca Gratz.
1782 Austrian Emperor Joseph II issued his edict of tolerance, allowing Jews to practice their religion freely.
1783 The Sultan of Morocco expells the Jews for the third time in recent years after they failed to pay an exorbitant ransom.
1785-1851 Zionist author, journalist and and diplomat, Mordechai Manuel Noah.
1788 Ratification of the U.S. Constitution means Jews may hold any federal office.
1789 French Revolution.
1784-1885 Leading Jewish philanthropist, Sir Moses Montefiore, createed numerous agricultural settlements in Eretz Israel.
1789 Gershom Mendes Seixas, minister of New York’s Jewish congregation, is invited to Washington’s inaugural.
1790 Jews of Newport, Rhode Island welcome President George Washington. George Washington writes letter to Jewish community proclaiming religious liberty.
September 27, 1791 French Jews granted full citizenship for the first time since the Roman Empire.
1791 Tsarist Russia confines Jews to Pale of Settlement, between the Black and Baltic Seas.
1795 First American Ashkenazi synagogue, Rodeph Shalom, is established in Philadelphia.
1796 The Netherlands grants citizenship to Jews.
1798 Napoleon, battle of the Pyramids in Islamic Egypt.
1799 Napoleon’s army moves from Egypt, capturing¬†Gaza¬†and¬†Haifa¬†and gets as far north as¬†Akko¬†which is successfully defended by the British.
1801-1804 Muslim Wahhabis capture Mecca & Medina, raid Karbala.
1801 The first American Jewish orphan care society established in Charleston, South Carolina.
1804-1881 English Statesman Benjamin Disraeli.
1808 Polonies Talmud Torah, the first Jewish school on record in the United States established in New York.
1811-1884 “Brains of the Confederacy,”¬†Judah P. Benjamin.
March 11, 1812 Prussia’s Edict of Emancipation grants citizenship to Jews.
1812-1875 Moses Hess, author, socialist and Zionist.
1813 President Madison appoints Mordechai Noah as consul to Tunis and then rescinds the appointment when the Tunisians object to dealing with a Jew.
1814 King Ferdinand VII of Portugal reestablishes the Inquisition six years after it was abolished by Joseph Boneparte
March 29, 1814 Denmark grants citizenship to Jews.
1818-1883 Although born a Jew, he converted to Protestantism and later became the father of Communism, Karl Marx.
mid-19th century Rise of the Jewish Reform movement in Europe (Abraham Geiger.)
1819 Rebecca Gratz establishes the first independent Jewish women’s charitable society in Philadelphia.
1819-1900 Head of the American Reform movement and founder of Hebrew Union College and the Union of American Hebrew Congregations, Isaac Mayer Wise.
1820 (ended in 1834) A royal decree officially abolished the Spanish Inquisition.
1821-1891 Well-known physician and early Zionist, Leon Pinsker.
1823 The Monroe Doctrine closes the American continent to foreign colonization.
1823 The first American Jewish periodical, The Jew, published in New York.
1824 Society of Reformed Israelites is established in Charleston.
1825 Mordechai Emmanual Lassalle led a failed movement to colonize New York’s Grand Island for Jewish refugees.
1826 In the last known Auto Da Fe, in Valencia, Spain, a poor school master was executed for adhering to Judaism.
1827 Reinterpretation of Russia’s Conscription Law mandates 31 years of military service for Jews, beginning at age 12.
1830 French occupation of Muslim Algiers.
1830 German Jews begin to immigrate to America in substantial numbers.
November 30, 1830 Greece grants citizenship to Jews.
1830-1903 Jewish Impressionist painter, whose works focused on the streets of Paris and landscapes, Camille Pissarro.
1831 Louis Philippe of France grants state support to synagogues.
1831 Belgium grants citizenship to Jews.
1831 Although Jews had been living in Jamaica since 1655, they are finally given the right to vote.
1831-1896 Banker and philanthropist, who donated millions of dollars to Jewish organizations and attempted to resettle Eastern European and Russian Jews by estabishing the Jewish Colonial Association (JCA), Baron De Hirsch.
1832 Canada grants Jews political rights.
1833 The first book by an American Jewish woman,¬†Penina Moise’s¬†Fancy’s Sketch Book, published in South Carolina.
1837 An earthquake in Tzfat and Tiberias kills four thousand people and damages monuments and archeological sites.
1837 First Passover Haggadah printed in America.
1838 Rebecca Gratz establishes Hebrew Sunday School in Philadelphia.
1840 Jews are accused of murdering a Franciscan friar in the Damascus blood libel.
1840 First organized movement by American Jewry to protest false accusations of blood libel in Damascus, Syria.
1840 The first Hebrew printing press in India is established.
1840s The use of the word “Jew” as a verb comes into popular parlance in North America. “To Jew” means to strike a bargain or employ questionable business practices, according to this prejudicial usage.
1841 David Levy Yulee of Florida elected to the United States Senate, the first Jew in Congress.
1843 B’nai B’rith is organized, the first secular Jewish organization in the United States.
1844 Lewis Charles Levin was the first Jew elected to the U.S. House of Representatives.
1845 Isaac Leeser publishes his translation of the Pentateuch from the Hebrew into English.
1845-1934 Zionist leader Baron Edmond James de Rothschild.
1847 London elects its first Jewish member of Parliament, Baron Lionel Nathan Rothschild. However, he cannot be seated as a member of Parliament because he will not swear the oath of office, which affirms Christianity as the true faith.
1847-1915 Author, scholar and leader of the American Conservative movement, Solomon Schechter.
1848 In every part of Germany, excluding Bavaria, Jews had been granted granted civil rights, allowing Gabriel Riesser, a Jewish advocate, to be elected vice-president of the Frankfurt Vor Parliament and to become a member of the National Assembly. The civil rights, however, existed on paper only and were not enforced.
1849-1887 American poet whose “New Colossus” was inscribed on the Statue of Liberty:¬†Emma Lazerus.
1852 Mount Sinai, the first Jewish Hospital in the United States is founded by a group of mostly German Jewish immigrants.
September 1, 1852 An anti-Jewish riot erupts in Stockholm, Sweden.
1852 The Ghetto of Prague is officially abolished.
1852-1870 Reign of Napoleon III of France.
1853 Isaac Leeser publishes his translation of the Bible into English, the first complete Anglo-Jewish translation of the Pentateuch.
1855 First acknowledged non-Muslim visitor permitted to enter Temple Mount since 1187 CE.
1856 Sabato Morais, rabbi of Congregation Mikveh Israel in Philadelphia, denounces the evils of American slavery from his pulpit.
1858 Edgar Mortara, an Italian Jewish child, is abducted by Papal Guards and placed in a monastery.
1859-1916 “Yiddish Mark Twain,” famed novelist,¬†Shalom Alechem Rabinowitz.
1859-1941 (Reign 1888-1918) Kaiser William II of Germany.
1860 First neighborhood,¬†Mishkenot Sha’ananim, built outside Jerusalem’s walls.
1860 Frenchman Adolohe Cremieux launches the Alliance Israelite Universelle to defend Jewish rights and establish worldwide Jewish educational facilities.
1860-1904 Father of Zionism, Theodore Herzl.
1860-1911 Major modern Jewish composer of nine symphonies, Gustav Mahler.
1860-1945 Henrietta Szold, founder of Hadassah, the Amerian Woman’s Zionist Organization.
1860 Morris Raphall is the first rabbi to offer prayers at the opening session of Congress.
1861 Norway allows Jews to enter the country.
1861 Judah Benjamin becomes attorney general of the Confederacy, the first Jew to hold a cabinet-level office in any American government.
1861-1865 1,200 Jews fought for the Confederacy and 6,000 for the Union, including nine generals and 21 colonels in the American Civil War.
1861-1936 Essayist and publicist who headed the Jewish and Zionist Organization during the 1930s, was editor of He-Tsefriah and published a history of Zionism, Nahum Sokolow.
1862 Moses Hess writes Rome and Jerusalem.
1862 General Ulysses S. Grant¬†expels Jewish civilians¬†issues General Order No. 11 expelling the Jews “as a class” from the area under the jurisdiction of the Union army in his military department.
1862 Jacob Frankel is appointed first Jewish chaplain in the United States Army.
1864 Leon Pinsker writes Autoemancipation and argues for creation of a Jewish state.
1866 Jews become a majority in Jerusalem.
1866 Switzerland, a hotbed of anti-Jewish edicts grants Jews equal rights only after threats by the United States, France and Britain.
1867 First rabbinical school in America, Maimonides College, is founded in Philadelphia.
1867 The original¬†Ku Klux Klan¬†is organized to maintain “white supremacy”.
1867 Hungary passes legislation emancipating the Jews.
1867 German journalist Wilhelm Marr publishes a popular book,¬†The Victory of Judaism over Germanism. He coins the word “antisemitism” so that Judenhass, or Jew-hatred, can be discussed in polite society.
1868 Benjamin Disraeli becomes prime minister of Great Britain ‚ÄĒ and the first prime minister of Jewish descent in Europe.
1869 Suez Canal opens.
1869 Italy grants emancipation to Jews.
1870 Sweden grants citizenship to Jews.
1870 Ghettos abolished in Italy.
1870 The Edict of Pope Nicholas III which required compulsory attendance of Jews at conversion sermons since 1278 is abolished.
1871 First Yiddish and Hebrew newspaper in America is published.
1871 The the first American kosher cookbook, Jewish Cookery Book, by Esther Jacobs Levy is published.
1871 Great Britain grants full emancipation to Jews.
January 12, 1871 A new German constitution gives German Jews full legal equality.
1873 Reform Judaism in U.S. establishes Union of American Hebrew Congregations.
1873-1934 Poet laureate of the Jewish national movement, authored “In City of Slaughter,” “El Ha Tsippor-To the Bird” and “Metai Midbar-Dead of the Desert,¬†Hayim Nahman Bialik.
1873-1956 Leading theologian of the Reform movement, refused to escape Nazi Germany and spent five years in Terezin (Theresienstadt) concentration camp, Leo Baeck.
1874 Jews in Switzerland receive full rights of citizenship under the new constitution.
1874-1926 Eric Weiss, better known as Harry Houdini, the master escape artist, was born into an orthodox home.
19th-20th centuries Young Men’s Hebrew Associations in New York and Philadelphia become prototypes for the more than 120 YMHAs established throughout the US in the next 15 years. In the 20th century, many of these evolve into Jewish Community Centers.
1874-1952 Statesman and scientist Chaim Weizmann.
1875 Isaac Mayer Wise founds Hebrew Union College, the rabbinical seminary of the Reform movement, in Cincinnati.
1877 New Hampshire becomes the last state to offer Jews political equality.
1878 Petah Tikvah (Gate of Hope) founded as agricultural colony by orthodox Jews. Although it was abandoned in 1881 after Arab attacks, it was reestablished in 1883 after the First Aliyah.
1878 The antisemitic German Christian Social Party is founded by Adolf Stoecker, a court chaplain. The party demands that Jews convert to Christianity.
December 22, 1878 Birthdate of Myer Prinstein, a world-record setting, Olympic gold medal winning Jew from Poland.
1879-1955 Zionist, physicist, Nobel Prize winner and discoverer of the special and general theory of relativity Albert Einstein.
March 28, 1880 Birthdate of Jewish actor Louis Wolheim.
May 1, 1880 Albert Lasker, the ‚Äúfather of modern advertising,‚ÄĚ is born in Freiburg, Prussia.
1880-1920 Zionist leader Joseph Trumpeldor.
1880-1939 Zionist leader, founder of the New Zionist Organization, Haganah, Jewish Legion, Irgun, Betar, Revisionist Party, Vladimir Jabotinsky.
1881 Ottoman government announces permission for foreign (non-Ottoman) Jews to settle throughout Ottoman Empire.
1881 Start of mass migrations of eastern European Jews.
1881 French occupation of Muslim Tunisia.
1881 Samuel Gompers founds the Federation of Unions, the forerunner of the American Federation of Labor.
1881 May Laws restricting the movements and conduct of Jews are enacted in Russia.
1881 The word “pogrom” enters the English language, as Russian mobs begin a series of violent attacks against Jews and their property.
1882 British occupation of Muslim Egypt.
1882 First halutz (pioneering) movement, Bilu, founded in Kharkov Russia.
1882 Ottoman government adopts policy to allow Jewish pilgrims and business-people to visit Palestine, but not settle.
1882 Hibbat Tzion societies founded.
November 15, 1882 Associate Supreme Court Justice Felix Frankfurter is born.
1884 First Conference of Hovevei Zion Movement.
1884 Ottoman government closes Palestine to foreign (non-Ottoman) Jewish business, but not to Jewish pilgrims.
1885 Reform Jewish Pittsburgh Platform.
1885-1962 Scientist who developed the theory on the nature of the atom, rescued from Nazi Germany, Neils Bohr.
1885 Sir Nathaniel Meyer Rothschild becomes the first Jew in England’s in the House of Lords. The Christian oath was amended so that non-Christians could also serve in the House of Lords.
1886-1929 Philosopher, author, helped create the Free Jewish House of Study in Frankfurt, Franz Rosenweig.
1886 Etz Chaim, the first yeshiva for Talmudic studies in the United States, established in New York.
1886-1973 Statesman David Ben-Gurion.
March 24, 1887 Oscar Straus is named the U.S. Minister to the Ottoman Empire, the second Jew in U.S. history to reach a position of that caliber.
1887 Jewish Theological Seminary opens in New York and, later, becomes the intellectual center of the Conservativemovement.
1887-1990 Famous artist Marc Chagall.
1888 Jewish Publication Society of America is founded to publish English books of Jewish interest.
1888 European powers press Ottoman government to allow foreign (non-Ottoman) Jews to settle in Palestine provided they do not do so en masse.
1888-1970 Hebrew novelist and Nobel prize winner, Samuel Joseph Agnon.
1889 The Educational Alliance founded on the Lower East Side to assist Eastern European immigrants.
April 20, 1889 Adolf Hitler is born in Braunau am Inn, Austria.
October 2, 1890 Jewish comedian¬†Groucho Marx¬†is born. Along with his brothers he formed the group ‚Äúthe Marx Brothers‚ÄĚ, and performed in vaudeville stage acts. The brothers were also pioneers of modern cinema and television.
February 10, 1890 Boris Pasternak, the man who would win the Nobel Prize in literature for his novel Dr. Zhivago, is born. .
1891 Grand Duke Segai orders the expulsion of 14,00 Jewish families living in Moscow. Those who refuse to convert or become prostitutes are sent to the Pale of Settlement.
1891 Christian Zionist William E. Blackstone and 413 prominent Americans petition President Benjamin Harrison to support resettlement of Russian Jews in Palestine.
1891 Baron de Hirsh donates 2 million pounds and establishes the Jewish Colonial Association in order to resettle 3 million Russian Jews in agricultural areas in other countries.
1892 Workmen’s Circle established to promote Yiddishist and socialist ideas among the masses of Jewish laborers.
1892 American Jewish Historical Society established.
1892 Ottoman government forbids sale of state land to foreign (non-Ottoman) Jews in Palestine.
1893 National Council of Jewish Women founded in Chicago.
1893 Kosher ritual slaughter banned in Switzerland.
1894 French general staff officer¬†Alfred Dreyfus¬†is sentenced to life on Devil’s Island in the Dreyfus Affair.
1894 Sholem Aleichem begins writing the first episode of the life of Tevye the Dairyman.
1894-1917 Last Russian Czar, commissioned what became the anti-Semitic “Protocols of the Elders of Zion,” Nicholas II.
1894-1943 Artist known for his passionate and often disturbing use of color and form, Chaim Soutine (Smiliouchi).
1895 Lillian Wald founds Henry Street Settlement.
1896 Theodor Herzl publishes Der Judenstaat, The Jewish State (Zionism): .
August 29, 1897 First Jewish Zionist congress convened by Theodor Herzl in Basle, Switzerland, Zionist Organization Founded.
1897 Yiddish Socialist Labor party (the Bund) is founded in Russia.
1897 Abraham Cahan founds leading Yiddish newspaper, Jewish Daily Forward in New York.
1897 The Rabbi Isaac Elchanan Theological Seminary (RIETS), later part of Yeshiva University, begins training Orthodox rabbis.
February 23, 1898 Emile Zola is convicted of libel for defending Dreyfus.
1898 Eastern European immigrants organize a Union of Orthodox Congregations, whose viewpoint clashes with that of the Reform movement’s Union of American Hebrew Congregations (UAHC).
1898-1936 Perhaps the greatest composer of the 20th century, whose works include “Rhapsody in Blue,”¬†George Gershwin.
1898-1978 Fourth Prime Minister of Israel, Golda Meir.
1898 Acting on behalf of Col. Dreyfus, Emile Zola publishes J’Accuse.
1898 A section of the Old City Wall is removed to facilitate the entrance of Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany and his entourage on his visit to Jerusalem.
1899-1902 The term “concentration camp” is coined by the British during the Boer War to denote holding areas for potentially threatening Afrikaners (descendents of Dutch who immigrated to South Africa in the mid-1800s).
1899 Emile Zola wins a new trial for Alfred Dreyfus, and despite new charges, Dreyfus is aquitted and promoted to Major.
1899 Theodor Herzl establishes the Jewish Colonial Trust, the financial arm of the Zionist movement.
1900-1990 American composer and conductor best known for “Appalachian Spring,” “Billy the Kid” and “Rodeo,”¬†Aaron Copland.
early 20th century Founding of the Modern Jewish Orthodox movement.
1901 The Industrial Removal Office, organized by several Jewish organizations, relocate Jewish immigrants from the Lower East Side to communities across the United States.
1901 The Fifth Zionist Congress decides to establish Keren Kayemet LeIsrael (KKL) – The Jewish National Fund.
1902 Theodor Herzl publishes a romantic utopian novel, Altneuland, Old-New Land, a vision of the Jewish State.
1902 Russian Jews organize U.S.-based Hebrew Immigrant Aid Society to serve as counselors, interpreters, attorneys, etc.
1902-1979 Composer and partner of¬†Oscar Hammerstein II¬†(1895-1960), known for “Oklahoma!” and” South Pacific,” Richard Rogers.
1902 Solomon Schechter comes from England to America to head the Jewish Theological Seminary of America, Conservative Judaism’s rabbinical seminary.
1903 British Government proposes “Uganda Scheme,” rejected by the Sixth Zionist Congress.
1903 Kishinev massacre increases Jewish exodus from Russia.
1903 Oscar Straus is appointed Secretary of Commerce and Labor by President Roosevelt, the first Jew to serve in the U.S. Cabinet.
August 26, 1903 Herzl proposes Kenya as a safe haven for Jews.
1903-1907 500,000 Jews flee Russia, 90% go to the United States.
1904-1914 Second Aliyah, mainly from Russia and Poland.
1905 Gimnazia Herzilia, the first Hebrew high school, opens in Tel Aviv.
1905 Zionist Labor Party (Poale Zion) formed in Minsk in an effort to combine Zionism and Socialism.
1906 American Jewish Committee is founded to safeguard Jewish rights internationally.
early 20th century Sholem Aleichem comes to New York from Russia to write for the American Yiddish theater. The musical¬†Fiddler on the Roof¬†is based on his story¬†Tevye’s Daughters.
1906 First Hebrew high school founded in Jaffa and Bezalel school founded in Jerusalem.
1907 Physicist Albert A. Michelson is first American Jew to win Nobel Prize.
1907 Adolf Hitler is rejected for study at the Vienna Academy of Art.
1908 Discovery of oil in Persia; leads to Anglo-Persian (later British Petroleum).
1908 Revolution by “young Turks” depose Sultan Abdul Hamid the Damned under Ottoman.
1908 Turkey grants Jews political rights.
1908 Hijaz Railway from Damascus to Medina.
1909 Julius Rosenwald, American merchant and philanthropist, converts Sears, Roebuck and Co. into the largest mail-order house in the world.
1908-1914 Second Yemenite Aliyah.
1909 First kibbutz, Degania, founded.
1909 Founding of Tel Aviv as Hebrew speaking Jewish city.
1909 Hashomer, the first Jewish self-defense organization is founded to replace Arab guards protecting Jewish settlements.
1911-1913 Russian neurologist Sikowsy testifies thet Jews use Christian blood for ritual purposes in the Beilis Trial (Russia).
1911-1986 Hall of Fame baseball player Hank Greenberg.
1911 A tragic fire in the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory in New York’s Lower East Side kills 146 women, mostly Jews.
1911 Palestinan journalist Najib Nasser publishes first book in Arabic on Zionism entitled, “Zionism: Its History, Objectives and Importance.” Palestinian newspaper¬†Filastin¬†begins addressing its readers as “Palestinians” and warns them about Zionism.
1913 In Russia, Menahem Mendel Beilis, a Jew, is put on trial for the ritual murder of a Christian boy. After two years followed by a “show trial,” Beilis is acquitted.
1912 United States abrogates treaty of 1832 with Russia because of Russia’s refusal to honor passports of Jewish Americans.
1912 Henrietta Szold founds Hadassah, the Women’s Zionist Organization.
1912 Haifa’s¬†Technion¬†is founded.
1912 Agudah (Agudat Israel) formed as the World Organization of Orthodox Jewry at Katowitz.
1912 12 of the 100 members of the Reichstag (German parliament) are Jewish.
1913 Trial of¬†Leo Frank¬†in Atlanta leads to the founding of the Anti-Defamation League of B’nai B’rith.
1913 Solomon Schechter, president of the Jewish Theological Seminary, founds the United Synagogue of America (later the United Synagogue of Conservative Judaism).
1913 First Arab Nationalist Congress meets in Paris.
1913-1993 Commander of the Etzel, statesman and Israeli prime minister, Menachem Begin.
1914 Joint Distribution Committee of American Funds for the Relief of Jewish War Sufferers is established.
1914-1919 World War I.
1914 Austrian Archduke Francis Ferdinand assassinated in Sarajevo prompting World War One.
1914 During First World War, Russian forces in retreat drive 600,000 Jews from their homes.
1914 American Jewish Relief Committee established to distribute funds to needy Jews; it later combined with other Jewish relief organizations to become the Joint Distribution Committee.
1914 The Ottoman empire enters the war on the side of Germany.
1915 Moses Alexander elected Governor of Idaho Рthe first Jew to win the governorship of an American state.
1915 MacMahon-Hussein correspondence.
1915 Zion Mule Corps established by Yosef Trumpeldor in British army.
1915 Avshalom Feinburg and Aaron Aaronsohn form NILI (Netzah Israel Lo Yeshaker), recruited to spy on the Turks for the British.
1915 The Anti-Defamation League (ADL) is created in the wake of the Leo Frank Affair.
1915-1981 Moshe Dayan, Haganah fighter, Israeli minister of Defense.
1915 Leo Frank, a southern American Jew falsely convicted of murdering a 14 year-old girl is hung by a lynch mob.
October 30, 1915 Jewish television news pioneer Ferdinand “Fred” Friendly Wachenheimer is born.
1915-2005 Arthur Miller, American playwright whose works include, “Death of a Salesman,” The Crucible” and “A View From the Bridge.” .
January 28, 1916 Louis D. Brandeis¬†is nominated to the Supreme Court by Woodrow Wilson. At the time of his nomination, the Senate had never before held a public hearing on a President’s Supreme Court Nominee; they had all been confirmed on the day of their nomination. However, it took four months of Senate Judiciary Committee hearings until the Senate brought the nomination of Brandeis to a vote. Brandeis was confirmed as the first Jewish Supreme Court Justice in a Senate vote of 47 – 22 on June 1, 1916.
1916 Sykes-Picot Agreement divides Middle East into spheres of British and French influence.
1916 Start of Arab revolt against Ottoman Turkish rule.
1916 Louis Dembitz Brandeis is first Jew appointed to the Supreme Court.
1916 Germany accuses Jews of evading active service in WWI, despite 100,000 Jews serving, 12% higher than their population ratio.
1917 British capture Baghdad.
1917 Jewish Telegraphic Agency is founded.
1917 Four-hundred years of Ottoman rule ended by British conquest.
1917 The Balfour Declaration favors Jewish Palestinian State.
1917 As WWI comes closer to Tel-Aviv and Jaffa, the Turkish Governer of Jaffa orders all Jews to leave Tel-Aviv and Jaffa.
1917 Jews granted full rights in Russia.
1917 Russian Revolution breaks out, heavy fighting in the South and West, where over 3 million Jews live. Over 2000 pogroms took place, claiming the lives of up to 200,000 Jews in the next three years.
1917 The United States declared war on Germany. Appoximately 250,000 Jewish soldiers (20% of whom were volunteers) served in the U.S. Army, roughy 5.7% while Jews only made up 3.25% of the general American population.
1917 The Jewish Welfare Board is created and serves the social and religious requirements of Jewish soldiers; expands after the war.
1917 355,000 people chose representatives for the first American Jewish Congress.
1917 Over 2,700 men volunteer for the new Jewish Legion of the British Army which fought in Transjordan, among other places.
1917 Vladamir Ilyich Lenin and Leon Trotsky ousted Kerensky and took over the Russian government.
1917 Surrender of Ottoman forces in Jerusalem to Allied Forces under General Sir Edmund Allenby.
1917 British forces land on the beaches of Gaza during WW1.

Unrest & Realignment in the Middle East
(1914-1918 CE)

1916 Sykes-Picot Agreement divides Middle East into spheres of British and French influence.
1916 Start of Arab revolt against Ottoman Turkish rule.
1917 British capture Baghdad.
1917 Jewish Telegraphic Agency is founded.
1917 Four-hundred years of Ottoman rule ended by British conquest.
1917 The Balfour Declaration favors Jewish Palestinian State.
1917 As WWI comes closer to Tel-Aviv and Jaffa, the Turkish Governer of Jaffa orders all Jews to leave Tel-Aviv and Jaffa.
1917 Jews granted full rights in Russia.
1917 Russian Revolution breaks out, heavy fighting in the South and West, where over 3 million Jews live. Over 2000 pogroms took place, claiming the lives of up to 200,000 Jews in the next three years.
1917 The United States declared war on Germany. Appoximately 250,000 Jewish soldiers (20% of whom were volunteers) served in the U.S. Army, roughy 5.7% while Jews only made up 3.25% of the general American population.
1917 The Jewish Welfare Board is created and serves the social and religious requirements of Jewish soldiers; expands after the war.
1917 355,000 people chose representatives for the first American Jewish Congress.
1917 Over 2,700 men volunteer for the new Jewish Legion of the British Army which fought in Transjordan, among other places.
1917 Vladamir Ilyich Lenin and Leon Trotsky ousted Kerensky and took over the Russian government.
1917 British General Allenby captured Jerusalem from the Turks, ending Ottoman rule.
1918 Damascus taken by T.E. Lawrence and Arabs.

British Rule in Palestine
(1918-1947 CE)

.. ….. .

1918
Treaty of Versailles formally ends Word War I. Out of an estimated 1.5 million Jewish soldiers in all the armies, approximately 170,000 were killed and over 100,000 cited for valor.
1918
Damascus taken by T.E. Lawrence and Arabs.
1918
American Jewish Congress is founded.
Nov. 1918
Germany’s Kaiser Wilhelm abdicates.
1918
Nahum Zemach founds the Moscow-based¬†Habimah Theater¬†which receives acclaim for ‚ÄúThe Dybbuk.‚ÄĚ
Jan. 5, 1919
The German Workers’ Party (DAP) is founded in Munich;¬†Adolf Hitler¬†joins the Party nine months later.
April 5, 1919
35 Jews participating in a community meeting to discuss relief distribution from the United States were rounded up and massacred, suspected of being ‚ÄúBolshevik plotters.‚ÄĚ They were executed without question, or trial.
July 31, 1919
Holocaust surviror and author Primo Levi is born in Turin, Italy.
1919
Jewish educational summer camping is launched in the United States with what came to be known as the Cejwin Camps.
1919
Versailles Peace Conference decides that the conquered Arab provinces will not be restored to Ottoman rule.
1919
First Palestinian National Congress meeting in Jerusalem sends two memoranda to Versailles rejecting Balfour Declaration and demanding independence.
1919-1923
Romania grants citizenship to Jews.
1919
Egyptian revolution.
1919
Chaim Weizmann heads Zionist delegation at Versailles Peace Conference.
1919-1923
Third Aliyah, mainly from Russia.
1919
Emir Faisel wrote a¬†letter¬†to¬†Felix Frankfurter¬†supporting¬†Zionism, ‚ÄúWe Arabs…wish the Jews a most hearty welcome.‚ÄĚ
1919-1943
1919
League of Nations established in an effort to prevent further wars.
1920
Histadrut (Jewish labor federation) and Haganah (Jewish defense organization) founded.
1920
Vaad Leumi (National Council) set up by Jewish community (yishuv)to conduct its affairs.
1920
Keren Hayesod created for education, absorbtion and the development of rural settlements in Eretz-Israel.
1920
Chaim Weizmann elected president of the World Zionist Organization.
1920
Fall of Tel Hai to Arab attackers; Joseph Trumpeldor and five men under his command killed.
1920
Mandate for the Land of Israel given over to Britain on the condition that the Balfour Declaration be implemented, San Remo Conference.
1920
Sir Herbert Samuel, British statesman, appointed High Commissioner of Palestine.
1920
Henry Ford’s newspaper,¬†The Dearborn Independent, begins publishing its anti-Semitic propaganda, including the¬†Protocols of the Elders of Zion.
Feb. 24, 1920
The first mass meeting of the¬†National Socialist Party (NSDAP)¬†takes place at Munich’s Hofbr√§uhaus.
April 1, 1920
Adolf Hitler is honorably discharged from the German Army.
1920
The San Remo Conference awards administration of the former Turkish territories of Syria and Lebanon to France, and Palestine, Transjordan, and Mesopotamia (Iraq) to Britain.
1920
Second and third Palestinan National Congress’ held.
1921
The Times of London pronounces the PProtocols of the Elders of Zion a forgery.
1921
U.S. immigration laws ‚Äúreformed‚ÄĚ to effectively exclude Eastern European Jews and other immigrants. Further restrictions imposed in 1924.
1921
Fourth Palestinian National Congress, convenes in Jerusalem, decides to send delegation to London to explain case against Balfour.
1921
The Allied Reparations Committee assesses German liability for World War I at 132 billion gold marks (about $31 billion).
1921
The NSDAP, also known as the Nazi Party, establishes the Sturmabteilung (SA; Storm Troopers; Brown Shirts).
1921
Arab riots in Jaffa and other cities.
1921
V√∂lkischer Beobachter¬†(People’s Observer), the official National Socialist newspaper, begins publication.
July 29, 1921
Adolf Hitler¬†becomes the¬†Nazi Party’s¬†first chairman with dictatorial powers.
1921
Kingdom of Iraq established.
1921
First moshav, Nahalal, founded in the Jezreel Valley.
1921
Rabbi Abraham Isaac Kook¬†and Rabbi Ya’akov Meir are elected the first two cheif Rabbis of Eretz-Israel.
1921-1944
Famous Hungarian Jewish poet and paratrooper who fought in WWII, Hannah Szenes (Senesh).
1922
Britain granted Mandate for Palestine (Land of Israel) by League of Nations.
1922
Transjordan set up on three-fourths of the British mandate area, forbidding Jewish immigration, leaving one-fourth for the Jewish national home.
1922
Jewish Agency representing Jewish community vis-à-vis Mandate authorities set up.
1922
Mordecai M. Kaplan founds the Society for the Advancement of Judaism, the cradle of the Reconstructionistmovement.
1922
The United States Congress and President Harding approve the Balfour Declaration.
1922
Supreme Muslim Council created under the jurisdiction of the British government to centralize religious affairs and institutions, but is corrupted by the overzealous Husseini family who used it as an anti-Jewish platform.
1922
1922
Benito Mussolini establishes a Fascist government in Italy.
1922
Harvard’s president proposes a quota on the number of Jews admitted. After a contentious debate, he withdrew the recommendation.
1922
League of Nations Council approves Mandate for Palestine.
1922
First British census of Palestine shows total population 757,182 (11% Jewish).
1922
Fifth Palestinian National Congress in Nablus, agrees to economic boycott of Zionists.
1922
Jungsturm Adolf Hitler (Adolf Hitler Boys Storm Troop) and Stosstrupp Adolf Hitler (Shock Troop Adolf Hitler) are established. The latter will form the nucleus of the Schutzstaffel (SS).
June 24, 1922
Walther Rathenau, Jewish foreign minister of Germany, is assassinated by members of Organisation Consul, a clandestine, right-wing political organization led by Captain Hermann Ehrhardt.
September 8, 1922
Jewish entertainer Sid Caeser is born.
Jan.1923
France¬†and¬†Belgium¬†occupy the Ruhr after an economically broken Germany is unable to meet the annual installment of its war-reparations payments designed to pay off Germany’s $31 billion war debt.
March 1923
The Schutzstaffel (SS; Protection Squad) is established. It is initially a bodyguard for Hitler but will later become an elite armed guard of the Third Reich.
1923
Palestine constitution suspended by British because of Arab refusal to cooperate.
1923
Overthrow of Ottoman Muslim rule by ‚Äúyoung Turks‚ÄĚ (Kemal Ataturk) and establishment of secular state.
1923
Sixth Palestinian national Congress held in Jaffa.
1923
The first issue of the pro-Nazi, antisemitic newspaper¬†Der St√ľrmer¬†(The Attacker) is published in Nuremberg, Germany. Its slogan is “Die Juden sind unser Ungl√ľck” (“The Jews are our misfortune”), a phrase picked up from Heinrich von Treitschke.
Nov. 8-11, 1923
Hitler’s so-called ‚ÄúBeer Hall Putsch‚ÄĚ takeover attempt at Munich fails, temporarily rattling the National Socialist Party and leading to Hitler’s arrest in Bavaria, Germany.
1923
Technion, first institute of technology, founded in Haifa.
1924-1932
Fourth Aliyah, mainly from Poland.
1924
Benjamin Frankel starts Hillel Foundation. The first Hillel House opens at the University of Illinois, offers religious and social services.
1924
Caliphate officially abolished.
February 29, 1924
Jewish MLB star Al Rosen is born.
March 8, 1924
Jewish sculptor Anthony Caro is born in England.
May 11, 1924
The first conference of the General Zionist movement is held in Jerusalem.
May 14, 1924
Ultra-Orthodox Jews found an agricultural settlement between Ramat Gan and Petah Tikva: Bnei- Brak.
1924
The United States Congress passes the Immigration Restriction Act, which effectively bans immigration to the U.S. from Asia and Eastern Europe.
July 1924
While in prison, Hitler begins work on Mein Kampf.
September 16, 1924
Birthdate of Lauren Bacall.
1925-1979
Pahlevi dynasty in Persia (‚ÄúIran‚ÄĚ: 1935).
1925
1925
1925
Edna Ferber is the first American Jew to win Pulitzer Prize in fiction.
1925
Palestinian National Congress meets in Jaffa.
March 24, 1925
Publication of the pro-Nazi, anti-Semitic newspaper¬†Der St√ľrmer¬†resumes after being banned by the Weimar government in November 1923.
April 26, 1925
Paul von Hindenburg is elected president of Germany.
1926
France proclaims Republic of Lebanon.
October 6, 1927
Warner Brothers releases¬†The Jazz Singer, about a cantor’s son who follows his dreams to Broadway against his father’s wishes. This was the first “talking” movie ever made, and it is also famous for it’s accurate portrayal of Jewish home life.
1928
Britain recognizes independence of Transjordan.
1928
Seventh Palestinian National Congress convened in Jerusalem; established a new forty-eight member executive committee.
1928
Yeshiva College is dedicated in New York.
February 11, 1928
Tom Lantos, the only Holocaust survivor to ever serve in either house of the United States Congress, is born in Budapest, Hungary.
October 8, 1928
Jewish actor, producer, and director Larry Semon supposedly dies, but many believe he faked his own death to avoid creditors.
1929
2,000 Arabs attack Jews praying at the Kotel on the 9th of Av. Arabs view British refusal to condemn the attacks as support.
1929
Hebron Jews massacred by Arab militants.
1929-1945
Anne Frank, Holocaust victim whose diary, written during the Nazi Occupation became famous.
1929-1939
Fifth Aliyah, from Germany.
1930
Hope-Simpson report, predecessor to Passfield White Paper, recommends and end to all Jewish immigration to Eretz-Israel.
1930
Lord Passfield issues his White Paper banning further land acquisition by Jews and slowing Jewish immigration.
1930
Salo Wittmayer Baron joins the faculty of Columbia University, his is the first chair in Jewish history at a secular university in the United States.
1931
Etzel (the Irgun), Jewish underground organization, founded.
1930
Second British census of Palestine shows total population of 1,035,154 (16.9% Jewish).
1931
The Nahum Zemach-founded Moscow-based Habimah Theater which received acclaim for “The Dybbuk” moves to Eretz-Israel.
1932
‘Abd al-Aziz Al Saud proclaims the Kingdom of¬†Saudi Arabia.
1932
British Mandate over Iraq terminated, Iraq gains independence.
1932
Discovery of oil in Bahrain.
1932 Herbert Lehman¬†was elected New York’s first Jewish governor; from that time on, Jews formed a pact with the Democratic Party.
1932
First Maccabia athletic games take place with representatives from 14 countries.
1932
German Chancellor von Papen persuaded President von Hindenburg to offer Hitler the chancellorship.
1932
Formation of Istiqlal Party as first constituted Palestinian-Arab political party; Awni Abdul-Hadi elected president.
April 21, 1933
Nazis outlaw Kosher slaughter of animals.
1933
Concession agreement signed between Saudi government and Standard Oil of California (SOCAL). Prospecting begins. SOCAL assigns concession to California Arabian Standard Oil Co. (CASOC).
1933
The American Jewish Congress declares a boycott on German goods to protest the Nazi persecution of Jews.
1933
Assassination of Chaim Arlozorov.
1933
Adolf Hitler becomes Chancellor of Germany.
1933
Germany begins anti-Jewish boycott.
July 20, 1933
Cardinal Pacelli, who later became Pope Pius XII, signed the Hitler Concordat; whereby the Vatican accepted National Socialism.
1933
Albert Einstein, upon visiting the United States, learns that Hitler had been elected and decided not to return to Germany, takes up position at Princeton.
1933
Riots in Jaffa and¬†Jerusalem¬†to protest British “pro-Zionist” policies.
1934
In Afghanistan, two thousand Jews are expelled from towns and forced to live in the wilderness.
1934
American Jews cheer Detroit Tigers’¬†Hank Greenberg¬†when he refuses to play ball on Yom Kippur. In 1938, with five games left to the season, Greenberg’s 58 home runs are two shy of Babe Ruth’s record. When several pitchers walk him rather than giving him a shot at the record, many believe major league baseball did not want a Jew to claim that place in America’s national sport.
1935
Jewish rights in Germany rescinded by Nuremberg laws.
1935
Hakibbutz Hadati, the religious kibbutz movement is founded.
1935
Regina Jonas was ordained by Liberal (Reform) Rabbi Max Dienemann in Germany, becoming the first woman rabbi.
1935
Ze’ev Jabotinsky founds the New Zionist Organization.
1935
Official establishment of the Palestine Arab Party in Jerusalem; Jamal al-Husseini elected president.
1936-1939
Anti-Jewish riots instigated by Arab militants.
1936
Supported by the Axis powers, the Arab Higher Committee encourages raids on Jewish communities in Eretz-Israel.
1936 Texaco buys 50% interest in California Arabian Standard Oil Co.’s concession.
1936
Leon Blum becomes the first Jew elected premier of France, enacts many social reforms.
1936
The first of the Tower and Stockade Settlements (Tel Amel) Nir David is erected.
1936
Syria ratifies the Franco-Syrian treaty; France grants Syria and Lebanon independence.
1936
World Jewish Congress convened in Geneva.
1936
Peel Commission¬†investigated Arab riots, concluded Arab claims were “baseless”.
March 9, 1936
The Przytyk Pogrom, in which 3 Jews were killed and 60 wounded.
October 4, 1936
The ‚ÄúBattle of Cable street‚ÄĚ takes place in London.
1937
Reform Jewish Columbus Platform.
1937
British declare Arab Higher Committee in Palestine illegal and Mufti of Jerusalem escapes to Syria.
1937
The Peel Commission recommends the partition of Palestine between Jews and Arabs.
1937
Chaim Weizmann and David Ben-Gurion accept partition plan, despite fierce opposition at the 20th Zionist Congress.
1937
John Woodhead declares partition unworkable after Arab riots.
1937
Central conference of American Rabbis reaffirm basic reform philosophies in the Colombus Platform.
1938 Dammam Well No. 7 discovers commercial quantities of oil. Barge exports to Bahrain.
1938 Oil discovered in Kuwait.
Nov. 9, 1938
Kristallnacht¬†‚ÄĒ German Jewish synagogues burned down.
1938
Charles E. Coughlin, a Roman Catholic priest, launches media campaign in America against Jews.
1938
The Dominican Republic is the only country out of 32 at the Evian Conference willing to help Jews trying to escape Nazi Germany.
Sept. 29, 1938
Chamberlain declares “peace in our time” after allowing Hitler to annex the Sudetenland in the¬†Munich Agreement.
1938
Catholic churches ring bells and fly Nazi flags to welcom Hitler’s troops in¬†Austria.
1938
Hershel Grynszpan, 17, a German refugee, assassinates Ernst von Rath, the third secretary to the German embassy in Paris.
1938
More than 100,000 Jews march in an anti-Hitler parade in New York’s Madison Square Garden.
1939 First tanker-load of oil is exported aboard D.G. Scofield.
1939
President Roosevelt appoints Zionist and Jewish activist Felix Frankfurter to the Supreme Court.
1939
Jewish immigration severely limited by British White Paper.
1939
S.S. St. Louis, carrying 907 Jewish refugees from Germany, is turned back by Cuba and the United States.
September 1, 1939
BBC News reports Germany has invaded Poland.
September 3, 1939
British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain announces that Britain is at war with Germany.
1939
Jewish songwriter¬†Irving Berlin¬†introduces his song “God Bless America.” He also wrote “White Christmas”.
October 14, 1939
Jewish fashion CEO and icon Ralph Lauren is born.
1940
Nazis establish ghettos in Poland.
1940
British government authorizes the Jewish Agency to recruit 10,000 Jews to form Jewish units in the British army.
1940
British refuse illegal immigrant ship, the Patria, permission to dock in Palestine.
1940
Chabad-Lubavitch purchases their iconic headquarters in New York City
June 14, 1940
The first train of prisoners arrives at Auschwitz-Birkenau. Only 20 people of these initial 700+ were Jewish.
September 24, 1940
The blatantly anti-Semitic Nazi propaganda film ‚ÄúJud Suss‚ÄĚ premieres in¬†Berlin
1941
British and France guarantee Syrian independence.
1941
Lohamei Herut Yisrael (Lehi) or Stern Gang underground movement formed.
February 25, 1941
A 2-day strike begins in Amsterdam, in opposition to the anti-Jewish actions being taken by the Nazi occupiers.
May 15, 1941
Palmach, strike force of Haganah, set up.
May 20, 1941
Jewish commando David Raziel is killed by a German bomber while on a mission for the British in Iraq.
September 29, 1941
March 2, 1942
Jewish rock musician Lou Reed is born.
1942
Rabbi Stephen S. Wise publicizes Riegner report confirming mass murder of European Jews.
1942
1942
Nazi leaders refine the “Final Solution” — genocide of the Jewish people — at¬†Wannsee Conference.
1943
Warsaw Ghetto Uprising.
1943
Palmach parachutes into enemy lines in Europe.
1943
British deport illegal immigrants to Cyprus.
1943
Raphael Lemkin, an international lawyer who escaped from Poland to the U.S. in 1941, coins the term genocide to describe the Nazi extermination of European Jews.
1943
Zionist Biltmore Conference, held at Biltmore Hotel in New York, formulates new policy of creating a “Jewish Commonwealth” in Palestine and organizing a Jewish army.
October 6, 1943
Two days before Yom Kippur 1943, over 400 Orthodox Rabbis marched from Union Station to the Capital Building and White House in Washington D.C., calling for elected officials to increase the quota of Jewish refugees from Europe allowed in the U.S. The Rabbis also demanded the creation of a special federal agency tasked with the rescue of European Jewry.
November 18, 1943 The chief of the BBC orders his employees to downplay the attrocities of the¬†Holocaust, warning them not to broadcast or publish anything that might try to ‚Äúcorrect‚Ä̬†anti-Semitic¬†sentiments throughout Europe.
January 13, 1944 U.S. Treasury Dept. memo rebukes State Dept. for relative inaction regarding Jewish refugees.
1944 CASOC renamed Arabian American Oil Co.(Aramco).
1944
Jewish Brigade formed as part of British forces.
1944
FDR establishes War Refugee Board. For most victims of Nazism, it comes too late.
1944
Camp for Jewish war refugees is opened at Oswego, New York.
July 26, 1944
Russians arrive in the Lwow Ghetto, ridding the city of it’s German occupiers, only to find the Jewish population liquidated.
November 1, 1944
Jewish singer/songwriter¬†Richard “Kinky” Friedman¬†is born.
1939/1942-1945
1945
International tribunal for war crimes is established at Nuremberg.
1945
Bess Myerson becomes the first Jewish woman to win the Miss America Pageant.
1945
Covenant of League of Arab States, emphasizing Arab character of Palestine, signed in Cairo by Egypt, Iraq, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Transjordan, and Yemen.
1945
United Nations established.
1945
President Truman asks Britain to allow 100,000 Jews into Palestine.
1945
Arab League Council decides to boycott goods produced by Zionist firms in Palestine.
March 22, 1945
Two convicted members of the Stern Gang hanged for Murder of Lord Moyne in Cairo prison.
November 3, 1945
Winningest Jewish MLB player in history, Ken Holtzman, is born.
January 19, 1946
Member of Jewish underground destroyed a power station and a portion of the Central Jerusalem prison by explosives. Two persons were killed by the police..
January 20, 1946
Jewish underground members launched an attack against the British-controlled Givat Olga Coast Guard Station located between Tel Aviv and Haifa. Ten persons were injured and one was killed. Captured papers indicated that the purpose of this raid was to take revenge on the British for their seizure of the refugee ship on January 18. British military authorities in Jerusalem questioned 3,000 Jews and held 148 in custody..
April 25, 1946
Jewish underground attacked a British military installation near Tel Aviv. This group which contained a number of young girls, had as its goal the capture of British weapons. British authorities rounded up 1,200 suspects..
June 24, 1946
The¬†Irgun¬†radio “Fighting Zion” wams that three kidnapped British officers are held as hostages for two¬†Irgunmembers, Josef Simkohn and Issac Ashbel facing execution as well as 31¬†Irgun¬†members facing trial..
June 27, 1946
Thirty Irgun members are sentenced by a British military court to 15 years in prison. One, Benjamin Kaplan, was sentenced to life for carrying a firearm..
June 29, 1946
British military units and police raided Jewish settlements throughout Palestine searching for the leaders of Haganah. The Jewish Agency for Palestine was occupied and four top official arrested. .
July 1, 1946
British officials announced the discovery of a large arms dump hidden underground at Meshek Yagur. 2659 men and 59 women were detained fo the three day operation in which 27 settlements were searched. Four were killed and 80 were injured..
July 3, 1946
Palestine High Commissioner, Lt. General Sir Alan Cunningham commuted to life imprisonment the death sentences of Josef Simkhon and lssac Ashbel, Irgun members.
July 4, 1946
Tel Aviv. British officers, Captains K Spencer, C. Warburton and A. Taylor who had been kidnapped by Irgun on June 18 and held as hostages for the lives of Simkohn and Ashbel, were released in Tel Aviv unharmed. At this time, Irgun issued a declaration of war against the British claiming that they had no alternative but to fight. .
July 22, 1946
The west wing of the King David Hotel in Jerusalem which housed British Military Headquarters and other governmental offices was destroyed at 12:57 PM by explosives planted in the cellar by members of the Irgunterrorist gang. By the 26 of July, the casualties were 76 persons killed, 46 injured and 29 still missing in the rubble. The dead included many British, Arabs and Jews. .
July 24, 1946
London. The British government released a White Paper that accuses the¬†Haganah,¬†Irgun¬†and Stern gangs of “a planned movement of sabotage and violence” under the direction of the Jewish Agency and asserts that the June 29 arrest of Zionist leaders was the cause of the bombing.
July 28, 1946
The British Palestine Commander, Lt. General Sir Evelyn Barker, banned fraternization by British troops with Palestine Jews whom he stated “cannot be absolved of responsibility for terroristic acts.” The order states that this will punish “the race . . . by striking at their pockets and showing our contempt for them.” .
July 29, 1946
Police in Tel Aviv raided a workshop making bombs..
July 30, 1946
Tel Aviv is placed under a 22hour-a-day curfew as 20,000 British troops began a house-to-house sweep for members of the Jewish underground. The city is sealed off and troops are ordered to shoot to kill any curfew violators.
July 31, 1946
A large cache of weapons, extensive counterfeiting equipment and $1,000,000 in counterfeit Government bonds were discovered in Tel Aviv’s largest synagogue. Also, two ships have arrived at Haifa with a total of 3,200 illegal Jewish immigrants. .
August 2, 1946
British military authorities ended the curfew in Tel Aviv after detaining 500 persons for further questioning..
August 12, 1946
The British Government announced that it will allow no more unscheduled immigration into Palestine and that those seeking entry into that country will be sent to Cyprus and other areas under detention. Declaring that such immigration threatens a civil war with the Arab population, it charges a “minority of Zionist extremists” with attempting to force an unacceptable solution of the Palestine problem..
August 12, 1946
Two ships carrying a total of 1,300 Jewish refugees arrived at Haifa. The port area was isolated on August 11 by British military and naval units. The first deportation ship sailed for Cyprus with 500 Jews on board.
August 13, 1946
Three Jews were killed and seven wounded when British troops were compelled to fire on a crowd of about 1,000 persons trying to break into the port area of Haifa. Two Royal Navy ships with 1,300 illegal Jewish immigrants on board sailed for Cyprus. Another ship with 600 illegal immigrants was captured and confined in the Haifa harbor. .
August 26, 1946
British military units searched the coastal villages of Casera and Sadoth Yarn for three Jews who bombed the transport “Empire Rival” last week. Eighty-five persons, including the entire male population of one of the villages were sent to the Rafa detention center..
August 29, 1946
Jerusalem. the British Government announced the commutation to life imprisonment of the death sentences imposed on 18 Jewish youths convicted of bombing the Haifa railroad shops..
August 30, 1946
British military units discovered arms and munitions dumps in the Jewish farming villages of Dorot and Ruhama.
Sept. 8, 1946
Jewish underground members cut the Palestine railroad in 50 places..
Sept. 9, 1946
Tel Aviv. two British officers were killed in an explosion in a public building..
Sept. 10, 1946
British troops imposed a curfew and arrested 101 Jews and wounded two in a search for saboteurs in Tel Aviv and neighboring Ramat Gan. Irgun took the action against the railways on September 8, as a protest..
Sept. 14, 1946
Jewish underground members robbed three banks in Jaffa and Tel Aviv, killing three Arabs. Thirty-six Jews were arrested..
Sept. 15, 1946
Jewish underground attacks a police station on the coast near Tel Aviv but were driven off by gunfire. .
October 2, 1946
British military units and police seized 50 Jews in a Tel Aviv cafe after a Jewish home was blown up. This home belonged to a Jewish woman who had refused to pay extortion money to the Irgun. .
October 6, 1946
Jerusalem. An RAF man was killed by gunfire..
October 8, 1946
Two British soldiers were killed when their truck detonated a kind mine outside Jerusalem. A leading Arab figure was wounded in a similar mine explosion in Jerusalem and more mad mines were found near Government House..
October 15, 1946
Nazi Party leader Herman Goering committs suicide by ingesting a cyanide capsule the night before he is due to be hung following the Nuremberg Trials.
October 16, 1946
Executions of those convicted of war crimes and crimes against humanity at the Nuremberg Trials.
October 23, 1946
October 25, 1946
20 German physicians are charged by the United States with war crimes and crimes against humanity, for their role in human experimentation at Nazi concentration camps.
October 31, 1946
The British Embassy in Rome was damaged by a bomb, believed to have been phased by Jewish underground members. Irgun took responsibility for the bombing on November 4..
November 3, 1946
Two Jews and two Arabs were killed in clashes between Arabs and a group of Jews attempting to establish a settlement at Lake Hula in northern Palestine. .
November 5, 1946
British authorities released the following eight Jewish Agency leaders from the Latrun concentration camp where they had been held since June 29: Moshe Shertok, Dr. Issac Greenbaum, Dr. Bernard Joseph, David Remiz, David Hacohen, David Shingarevsky, Joseph Shoffman and Mordecai Shatter. A total of 2,550 Haganah suspects have also been released as well as 779 Jews arrested in the wake of the King David bombing. .
November 7, 1946
Railroad traffic was suspended hr 24 hours throughout Palestine following a fourth Irgun attack on railway facilities in two days.
November 9-13, 1946
Nineteen persons, eleven British soldiers and policemen and eight Arab constables, were killed in Palestine during this period as Jewish underground members, using land mines and suitcase bombs, increased their attacks on railroad stations, trains and even streetcars. .
Nov. 14, 1946
London. The Board of Deputies of British Jews condemned Jewish underground groups who threatened to export their attacks to England. .
Nov. 18, 1946
Police in Tel Aviv attacked Jews, assaulting many and firing into houses. Twenty Jews were injured in fights with British troops following the death on November 17 of three policemen and an RAF sergeant in a land mine explosion..
Nov. 20, 1946
Five persons were injured when a bomb exploded in the Jerusalem tax office. .
Dec. 2-5, 1946
Ten persons, including six British soldiers, were killed in bomb and land-mine explosions. .
Dec. 3, 1946
A member of the Stern Gang was killed in an aborted hold-up attempt. .
Dec. 26, 1946
Armed Jewish underground members raided two diamond factories in Nathanya and Tel Aviv and escaped with nearly $107,000 in diamonds, cash and bonds. These raids signaled an end to a two-week truce during the World Zionist Congress..
1947
Partition of India and Pakistan.
January 1, 1947
Dov Gruner was sentenced to hang by a British military court for taking part in a raid on the Ramat Gan police headquarters in April of 1946. .
January 2, 1947
Jewish underground staged bombings and machine gun attacks in five cities. Casualties were low. Pamphlets seized warned that the Irgun had again declared war against the British. .
January 4, 1947
Jerusalem. British soldiers have been ordered to wear sidearms at all times and were forbidden to enter any cafe or restaurant. .
January 5, 1947
Eleven British troops were injured in a hand grenade attack on a train carrying troops to Palestine. The attack took place near Benha, 25 miles from Cairo..
January 8, 1947
British police arrested 32 persons suspected of being members of the Irgun’s “Black Squad” in raids on Rishomel Zion and Rehoboth. .
January 12, 1947
One underground member drove a truck filled with high explosives into the central police station and exploded it, killing two British policemen and two Arab constables and injuring 140 others, and escaped. This action ended a 10-day lull in the violence and the Stern Gang took the credit for it. .
January 14, 1947
Yehudi Katz is sentenced to life in prison by a Jerusalem court for robbing a bank in Jaffa in September of 1946 to obtain funds for the underground..
January 22, 1947
Sir Harry Gumey, Chief Secretary, stated that the British administration was taxing Palestine $2,400,000 to pay for sabotage by the Jewish underground groups. .
January 22, 1947
Colonial Secretary Arthur Creech Jones informed the House of Commons 73 British subjects were murdered by underground members in 1946 and “no culprits have been convicted.” .
January 27, 1947
London. Britain’s conference on Palestine, boycotted by the Jews, reconvened. Jamal el Husseini, Palestine Arab leader, declared that the Arab world was unalterably opposed to partition as a solution to the problem. The session then adjourned..
January 29, 1947
London. It was officially announced that the British Cabinet decided to partition Palestine. .
January 29, 1947
Irgun forces released former Maj. H. Collins, a British banker, who they kidnaped on January 26 from his home. He had been badly beaten. On January 28, the Irgun released Judge Ralph Windham, who had been kidnapped in Tel Aviv on January 27 while trying a case. These men had been taken as hostages for Dov Bela Gruner, an Irgunmember under death sentence. The British High Commissioner, Lt. Gen. Sir Alan Cunningham, had threatened martial law unless the two men were returned unharmed. .
January 31, 1947
General Cunningham ordered the wives and children of all British civilians to leave Palestine at once. About 2,000 are involved. This order did not apply to the 5,000 Americans in the country..
February 3, 1947
The Palestine Govemment issued a 7-day ultimatum to the Jewish Agency demanding that it state “categorically and at once” whether it and the supreme Jewish Council in Palestine will call on the Jewish community by February 10 for “cooperation with the police and armed forces in bringing to justice the members of the terrorist groups.” This request was publicly rejected by Mrs. Goldie Meyerson, head of the Jewish Agency’s political department. .
February 4, 1947
British Oistrict Commissioner James Pollock disclosed a plan for military occupation of three sectors of Jerusalem and orders nearly 1,000 Jews to evacuate the Rehavia, Schneler and German quarters by noon, February 6.
February 5, 1947

The Vaad Leumi rejected the British ultimatum while the Irgun passed out leaflets that it was prepared to fight to the death against the British authority.

The first 700 of some 1,500 British women and children ordered to evacuate Palestine leave by plane and train for Egypt. British authorities, preparing for military action, order other families from sections of Tel Aviv and Haifa which will be turned into fortified military areas.

February 9, 1947
British troops removed 650 illegal Jewish immigranS from the schooner “Negev” at Haifa and after a struggle forced them aboard the ferry “Emperor Haywood” for deportation to Cyprus. .
February 14, 1947
The British administration revealed that Lt. Gen. Sir Evelyn Barker, retiring British commander in Palestine, had confirmed the death sentences of three Irgun members on February 12 before leaving for England. The three men, Dov Ben Rosenbaum, Eliezer Ben Kashani and Mordecai Ben Alhachi, had been sentenced on February 10 to be hanged for carrying firearms. A fourth, Haim Gorovetzky, received a life sentence because of his youth. Lt. Gen. G. MacMillian arrived in Jerusalem on February 13 to succeed Gen. Barker. .
February 15, 1947
The Sabbath was the setting for sporadic outbreaks of violence which included the murder of an Arab in Jaffa and of a Jew in B’nai B’rak, the kidnapping of a Jew in Petah Tikvah and the burning of a Jewish club in Haifa.
March 9, 1947
Hadera. A British army camp was attacked..
March 10, 1947
Haifa. A Jew, suspected of being an informer, was murdered by Jewish underground members..
March 12, 1947
The British Army pay corps was dynamited in Jerusalem and one soldier killed. .
March 12, 1947
British military units captured most of the 800 Jews whose motor ship “Susanne” ran the British blockade and was beached north of Gaza on this date. A British naval escort brought the “Ben Hecht,” the Hebrew Committee of National Liberation’s first known immigrant ship, into Haifa, and its 599 passengers were shipped to Cyprus. The British arrested the crew, which included 18 US. seamen..
March 13, 1947
British authorities announced 78 arrests as a result of unofficial Jewish cooperation, but two railroads were attacked, resulting in two deaths, and eight armed men robbed a Tel Aviv bank of $65,000. .
March 14, 1947
Jewish underground members blew up part of an oil pipeline in Haifa and a section of the rail line near Beer Yakou .
March 17, 1947
British authorities ended marshal law which had kept 300,000 Jews under house arrest for 16 days and tied up most economic activity..
March 17, 1947
A military court sentenced Moshe Barazani to be hanged for possessing a hand grenade. .
March 18, 1947
Underground leaflets admitted the murder of Michael Shnell on Mount Carmel as an informer. .
March 22, 1947
British officials announced the arrest of five known underground members, and the discovery near Petah Tikvah of the body of Leon Meshiah, a Jew presumably slain as a suspected informer. .
March 28, 1947
The Irgun blew up the Iraq Petroleum Co. pipeline in Haifa..
March 29, 1947
A British army officer was killed by Jewish underground membesr when they ambushed a party of horsemen near the Ramle camp. A raid on a Tel Aviv bank yielded $109,000. .
March 30, 1947
Units of the British Royal Navy, answering an SOS, took the disabled ” Moledeth” with 1,600 illegal Jewish refugees on board under tow some 50 miles outside Palestinian waters. .
March 31, 1947
Jewish underground members dynamited the British-owned Shell-Mex oil tanks in Haifa, starting a fire that destroyed a quarter-mile of the waterfront. The damage was set at more than $1,000,000, and the British government in Palestine has stated that the Jewish community will have to pay for it. .
April 2, 1947
The “Ocean Vigour” was damaged by a bomb in Famagusta Harbor, Cyprus. The¬†Haganah¬†admitted the bombing. .
April 3, 1947
A court in¬†Jerusalem¬†sentenced Daniel Azulai and Meyer Feinstein, members of the¬†Irgun, to death for the October 30 attack on the¬†Jerusalem¬†railroad station. The Palestine Supreme Court admitted an appeal of Dov Bela Gruner’s death sentence.
April 3, 1947
The transport “Empire Rival” was damaged by a time bomb while en route from Haifa to Port Said in Egypt. .
April 7, 1947
The High Court denied a new appeal against the death sentence of Dov Bela Gruner, and a British patrol killed Moshe Cohen. .
April 8, 1947
Jewish undergroud members killed a British constable in revenge for the Cohen death..
April 10, 1947
London. The British Government requested France and Italy to prevent Jews from embarking for Palestine. .
April 11, 1947
Jerusalem. Asher Eskovitch, a Jew, was beaten to death by Muslims when he entered the forbidden Mosque of Omar. .
April 13, 1947
Guela Cohen, Stern Gang illegal broadcaster, escaped from a British military hospital..
April 14, 1947
A British naval unit boarded the refugee ship “Guardian” and seized it along with 2,700 passengers after a gun battle in which two immigrants were killed and 14 wounded..
April 16, 1947
In spite of threats of reprisal from the Irgun, the British hanged Dov Bela Gruner and three other Irgun members at Acre Prison on Haifa Bay. Jewish communities were kept under strict curfew for several hours. Soon after the deaths were announced, a time bomb was found in the Colonial Office in London but was defused..
April 17, 1947
Lt. Gen. G. Macmillan confirmed death sentences for two more convicted underground members, Meier Ben Feinstein and Moshe Ben Barazani, but reduced Daniel Azulai’s sentence to life imprisonment. .
April 18, 1947
Irgun’s reprisals for the Gruner execution were an attack on a field dressing station near Nethanaya where one sentry was killed, an attack on an armored car in Tel Aviv where one bystander was killed and harmless shots at British troops in Haifa. .
April 20, 1947
A series of bombings by Jewish underground members in retaliation for the hanging of Gruner injured 12 British soldiers..
April 21, 1947
Meir Feinstein and Moshe Barazani killed themselves in prison a few hours before they were scheduled to be hanged. They blew themselves up with bombs smuggled to them in hollowed-out oranges. .
April 22, 1947
A troop train arriving from Cairo was bombed outside Rehovoth with five soldiers and three civilians killed and 39 persons injured.
April 23, 1947
The British First Lord of the Admiralty, Viscount Hall, defended the Labor Government’s policy in Palestine and he acknowledged in the House of Lords that Britain would not “carry out a policy of which it did not approve” despite any UN action. He blamed contributions from American Jews to the Jewish Palestinians as aiding the underground groups there and cited the toll since August 1, 1945: 113 killed, 249 wounded, 168 Jews convicted, 28 sentenced to death, four executed, 33 slain in battles. Viscount Samuel urged increased immigration. .
April 23, 1947
The¬†Irgun¬†proclaimed its own “military courts” to “try” British troops and policemen who resisted them. .
April 25, 1947
A Stern Gang squad drove a stolen post office truck loaded with explosives into the Sarona police compound and detonated it, killing five British policemen. .
April 26, 1947
Haifa. The murder of Deputy Police Superintendent A. Conquest climaxed a week of bloodshed. .
May 4, 1947
The walls of Acre prison were blasted open by an Irgun bomb squad and 251 Jewish and Arab prisoners escaped after a gun battle in which 15 Jews and 1 Arab were killed, 32 (including six British guards) were injured and 23 escapists were recaptured. The Palestine Govemment promised no extra punishment if the 189 escapees still at large will surrender. .
May 4, 1947
The Political Action Committee for Palestine ran a series of advertisements in New York newspapers seeking funds to buy parachutes for young European Jews planning to crash the Palestine irnmigration barrier by air. .
May 8, 1947
A Jew was ambushed and shot to death by an Arab group near Tel Aviv, and three Jewish owned Tel Aviv shops whose owners refused to contribute money to Jewish underground groups were burned down. .
May 12, 1947
Jewish underground members killed two British policemen..
May 12, 1947
The British authorities announced that 312 Jewish political prisoners were held in Kenya, East Africa, 20 in Latrun and 34 in Bethlehem..
May 15, 1947
The Stern Gang killed two British lieutenants and injured seven other persons with two derailments and three badge demolitions..
May 16, 1947
Haifa Assistant Police Superintendent, Robert Schindler, a German Jew, was killed by the Stern gang, and a British constable was killed on the Mt Carmel-Haifa road near Jerusalem..
May 17, 1947
The 1,200 ton¬†Haganah¬†freighter “Trade Winds” was seized by the Royal Navy off the Lebanon coast and escorted into Haifa, and over 1,000 illegal immigrants were disembarked pending transfer to Cyprus. .
May 19, 1947
The British government protested to the United States government against American fund-raising drives for Jewish underground groups. The complaint referred to a “Letter to the Terrorists of Palestine” by playwright Ben Hecht, American League for a Free Palestine co chairman, first published in the New York “Post” on May 15. The ad said, “We are out to raise millions for you.”.
May 22, 1947
Arabs attacked a Jewish labor camp in the south, retaliating for a Haganah raid on the Arabs near Tel Aviv May 20. Some 40,000 Arab and Jewish workers united the same day in a one day strike against all establishments operated by the British War Ministry..
May 23, 1947
A British naval party boarded the immigrant ship “Mordei Haghettoath” off South Palestine and took control of its 1,500 passengers. Two British soldiers were convicted in¬†Jerusalem¬†of abandoning a jeep and army mail under attack..
May 28, 1947
Syria. Fawzi el-Kawukji who spent the war years in Germany after leading the 1936-39 Arab revolt in Palestine, told reporters in Damascus that an unfavorable decision by the UN inquiry group would be the signal for war against the Jews in Palestine. “We must prove that in case” of an Anglo-American war with Russia, “we can be more dangerous or useful to them than the Jews,” he added. .
May 28, 1947
Jewish underground members blew up a water main and a shed in the Haifa oil dock areas and made three attacks on railway lines in the Lydda and Haifa areas..
May 31, 1947
The¬†Haganah¬†ship “Yehuda Halevy” arrived under British naval escort with 399 illegal Jewish immigrants; they were immediately transferred to Cyprus..
June 4, 1947
The Stern Gang sent letter bombs to high British governmental officials. Eight letter bombs containing powdered explosives were discovered in London. Recipients included Ernest Bevin, Anthony Eden, Prime Minister Attlee and Winston Churchill..
June 5, 1947
Washington. President Truman asked all persons in the US to refrain from helping Jewish underground groups. The American Jewish Committee and Jewish Labor Committee condemned Ben Hecht’s campaign..
June 6, 1947
New York Secretary General of the UN, Trygve Lie has forwarded a request to all countries a request by the British that they guard their fronties against departure of illegal immigrants bound for Palestine.
June 18, 1947
Haganah disclosed that one of its men was killed by a booby trap which foiled an Irgun plot to blow up British Military Headquartes in Tel Aviv. .
June 28, 1947
The Stern Gang opened fire on British soldiers waiting in line outside a Tel Aviv theater, killing three and wounding two. Another Briton is killed and several wounded in a Haifa hotel. This action was claimed by Jewish underground members to be in retaliation for British brutality and the alleged slaying of a missing 16 year old Jew, Alexander Rubowitz while he was being held in an Army barracks on May 6. .
June 29, 1947
New York. The UN Committee votes 9-0 to condemn the acts as “flagrant disregard” of the UN appeal for an interim truce as¬†Stern Gang¬†wounded four more Bdtish soldiers on a beach at Herzlia. Major Roy Alexander Farran surrendered voluntarily after his escape from custody in¬†Jerusalem¬†on June 19. He had been arrested in connection with the Rubowitz case. .
June 30, 1947
The Palestine goverrunent permitted oil companies to raise paces of benzine nearly 10% to pay for $1 million damage suffered when Jewish underground members blew up oil installations at Haifa on March 31. .
July 2, 1947
lrgun members robbed a Haifa bank of $3,200 while both the Stem gang and the Irgun warned the British that their provocative acts in Palestine must end before a truce can be effected. The Guaternalan and Czech members of the UN Commission visited two Jewish convicts in Acre Prison..
July 12, 1947
Dr. Adem Altman, president of the United Zionist Revisionists, told a party rally in Jerusalem that the Revisionists would settle for nothing less than an unpartitioned free Jewish state in Palestine and Trans-Jordan. Irgun announced in Jerusalem that two British sergeants kidnaped in Nathanaya are being held in Tel Aviv and have been sentenced to death by Irgun courtmartial. .
July 14, 1947
Netanya. The British imposed mastial law and placed the 15,000 inhabitants of Netanya under house arrest. They made 68 arrests and sentenced 21 persons to 6 months each in the Latrun detention camp. .
July 17, 1947
Netanya. The Irgun in five mine operations against military traffic to and from Nathanya killed one Briton and injured 16. .
July 18, 1947
Steamer¬†Exodus¬†repelled by forces from shores of Palestine, (formerly the “President Warfield”) was escorted into Haifa by British naval units after a battle, William Bernstein and two immigrants were killed and more than 30 injured.

The blockade runner itself was badly damaged. The remainder of the 4,554 passengers, the largest group of illegal immigrants to sail for Palestine in a sister ship, were put aboard British prison ships for removal to Cyprus. The American captain, Bernard Marks, and his crew were arrested. The ship sailed from France.

July 19, 1947
Haifa. Rioting, quickly suppressed, broke out among the passengess of the “Exodus 1947” when they learned they were to be resumed to France. .
July 19, 1947
The Palestine Government charges that a Jewish “campaign of lawlessness, murder and sabotage” has cost 70 lives and $6 million in damage since 1940. .
July 21, 1947
Before officially admitting that 4,529 passengers of the “Exodus 1947” who had been transferred to three British ships, were being sent not to Cyprus but back to France, the Palestine Government took the precaution of first placing Jesusalem’s 90,000 Jews under nightly house arrest. .
July 23, 1947
Haganah¬†sank the British tansport “Empire Lifeguard” in Haifa harbor as it was discharging 300 Jewish immigrants who had officiallyy been admitted to Palestine under quota. Sixty-five immigrants were killed and 40 were wounded. The British were able to refloat the ship..
July 26, 1947
Jewish underground members blew up the Iraqi Petroleum Co. pipeline 12 miles east of Haifa and destroyed a Mt. Carmel radar station..
July 27, 1947
An ambush and mines cost the British seven more casualties, all wounded..
July 28, 1947
Two small Haganah ships loaded with 1,174 Jews from North Africa were intercepted by British naval units off Palestine and brought into Haifa. The illegal immigrants were transshipped aboard British transports and taken to Cyprus..
July 29, 1947
The British authorities hanged three Irgunists in Acre prison despite appeals from Jewish leaders. The condemned, Myer Nakar, Absalom Habib and Jacob Weiss, had fought in the Czech underground during the war. They were convicted of blowing up Acre Prison on May 4 and liberating 200 Arabs and Jews. .
July 29, 1947
The 4,429¬†Exodus 1947¬†illegal immigrants who sailed from Sete, France, July 11 for Palestine only to be shipped back by the British aboard three transports, refused to debark as the vessels anchored off Port de Douc, France. Only a few who were aboard went ashore. The French government informed the refugees that they do not have to debark but will be welcomed if they do. The transports are the “Runnymede Park,” “Ocean Vigour” and “Empire Valour.”.
July 30, 1947
Irgun¬†members announced that they have handed two British sergeants, Marvyn Paice and Clifford Martin, whom they had held as hostages since duly 12, for “crimes against the Jewish community.” The two were seized when death sentences on the three¬†Irgun¬†members were confirmed by the British authorities. Two more British soldiers were killed by a land mine near Hadera. British troops attacked the Jewish colony of Pardes Hanna in revenge for the murders..
July 31, 1947
The bodies of the two murdered Bdtish sergeants were found hanging from eucalyptus trees one and a half miles from Netanya about 5:30 AM. A booby trap blew Martin’s body to bits when it was cut down. Enraged British troops stormed into Tel Aviv, wrecked shops, attacked pedestrians and sprayed a bus with gunfire killing five Jews: two men, two women and a boy..
August 1, 1947
Thirty-three Jews are injured in an anti-British riot at Tel Aviv during the funeral procession of five civilians killed by British soldiers on July 31. In Jerusalem a Jewish underground attack on the British security zone in Rehavia was repulsed with one attacker killed and two captured..
August 2, 1947
The body of an unidentified Jew was found on a road near Tel Aviv. He was believed to have been kidnapped by men in British uniforms two weeks ago. Total casualties in Palestine since mid-July: 25 persons slain, 144 wounded. The dead include 15 Britons, two Jewish underground membmers, eight civilians. Anti-British slogans, swastikas and dollar signs are painted onto British consulates in New York, Baltimore, Philadelphia, Chicago and Los Angeles.
August 3, 1947
The Bank of Sharon in Ramat Gan was robbed by Jewish underground, $8,000 stolen..
August 4, 1947
An¬†Irgun¬†leader in Paris states that his organization has sentenced high British military and civilian offficials in Palestine to death “in absentia” and will hang them upon capture..
August 5, 1947

Striking at dawn, British security forces arrested 35 leading Zionists and sent them to the Latrun detention camp in an attempt to wipe out the¬†Irgun¬†leadership.In reprisal, Irgunists blew up the Department of Labor in¬†Jerusalem, killing three British constables. Those arrested included Mayor Israel Rokach of Tel Aviv; Mayor Oved Ben Ami of Nathanya; Mayor Abraham Kdnitzki of Ramat Gan; Adeh Altman, president of the radical Revisionist Party; Menahem Arber, leader of the Revisionist youth organization, B’rith Trumpeldor, which is outlawed; Max Kritzman, Dov Bela Gruner’s attomey, and David Stem, brother of the late founder of the¬†Stern Gang. All those arrested except the three mayors were Revisionists. Among many papers confiscated was correspondence from Soviet Russian agents in Italy and Bulgaria and extensive plans to poison the water supply of the non-Jewish parts of¬†Jerusalem¬†with botulism and other bacteria. Bacteria was supplied by Soviet sources through Bulgaria.

August 15, 1947
A mine derailed a Cairo-Haifa troop train north of Lydda, killing the engineer, and Irgunist claimed the incident was part of its campaign to disrupt all the Palestine rail traffic. .
August 16, 1947
Arab-Jewish clashes have brought death to 12 Arabs and 13 Jews and heavy property destruction this week in the regions of Jewish Tel Aviv and Arab Jaffa. Strife was renewed on august 10 when Arabs killed four Jews in a Tel Aviv cafe, in reprisal for the deaths of two Arabs in a Haganah raid in Fega two months ago. Haganahresponded to the Arab actions by bombing a house in an Arab orange grove near Tel Aviv, killing eleven Arabs, including a woman and four children. .
August 18, 1947
The shops of five Jewish merchants in Tel Aviv were destroyed by the Irgun because the owners refused to give money to that organization. .
Sept. 9, 1947
Hamburg, Germany. In a bitter three hour fight aboard the “Runnymede Park,” 350 British troops completed a two-day forced debarkation of 4,300 “Exodus 1947” illegal Jewish refugees from three ships in Hamburg, Germany. First ashore yesterday were the “Ocean Vigour’s” 1,406; a few put up token resistance and five passengers sustained minor injuries. Early today, the “Empire Rival’s” 1,420 passengers debarked peaceably after a home made bomb was found in the ship’s hold. .
Sept. 10, 1947
Washington D.C. Secretary of State George C. Marshall disclosed that the US had urged Britain to reconsider sending the “Exodus” group to Germany, but Britain replied tht there were no facilities for housing them elsewhere because the French did not want them and there were a number of vacant detention camps in Germany. .
Sept. 11, 1947
Paris. The French government has now announced tht it would admit the ‘`Exodus” refugees if they were not forcibly deported from Germany and on the understanding that they will be admitted eventually to Palestine. .
October 13, 1947
A terrorist bomb damaged the US. consulate general in Jerusalem, injuring two employees slightly. Similar bombings occurred at the Polish consulate general last night and at the Swedish consulate on September 27. .
Nov. 14, 1947
Jewish underground members killed two British policemen in Jerusalem and two soldiers in Tel Aviv to raise the total casualties in three days of violence to 10 Britons and five Jews killed, and 33 Britons and five Jews wounded. The outbreaks began after British troops killed three girls and two boys in a raid on a farmhouse arsenal near Raanana on November 12. The underground retaliated yesterday by throwing hand grenades and firing a machine gun into the Ritz Cafe in Jerusalem. .
Nov. 16, 1947
About 185 European Jews landed near Netanya from a small schooner and escaped before the British could intercept them. A larger vessel, the “Kadimah,” was seized and brought to Haifa where 794 Jews were transshipped to a British transport for Cyprus..
Nov. 17, 1947
The British administration disclosed that it will sell state owned real estate along the Haifa waterfront, from which it expects to make $8 million. It will also invest in England about $16 million from bonds that had been sold to Palestinians. Zionists strongly protested this as they said it would denude Palestine of its assets. There was no comment from the administration to these charges. .
Nov. 22, 1947
An Arab was killed in Haifa by the Stern Gang following the killings of four other Arabs near Raanana on November 20..
Dec. 1, 1947
The Arab League announced on December 1 that premiers and foreign ministers of seven Arab states would meet in Cairo next week to plan strategy against partition. In Palestine: Jerusalem and the Jaffa Tel Aviv boundary zone were centers of week-long strife which began when seven Jews were killed throughout Palestine on November 30 and the mayor of Nablus, Arab nationalist center, proclaimed jihad or a holy war. British High Commissioner Sir Alan Cunningham warned the Arab Higher Command on December 1 that Britain was determined to keep order so long as it held its mandate, and police stopped Arab agitators from raising crowds in Jerusalem..
Dec. 2, 1947
Arabs looted and burned a three block Jewish business district in¬†Jerusalem¬†on December 2, the first day of a three day Arab general strike during which 20 Jews and 15 Arabs were killed. When British troops failed to intervene,¬†Haganah¬†came into the open for the first time in eight years to restrain large scale Jewish retaliation and also guard Jewish districts. Some¬†Haganah¬†men were arrested for possessing weapons. The day’s strife caused $1 million worth of damage and resulted in a 21 hour curfew being applied to Arab¬†Jerusalem¬†for the rest of the week. The curfew was extended to outlying roads on December 3 to stop stonings of Jewish traffic and keep rural Arabs out of the capital. Max Pinn, head of the Jewish Agency’s Trade and Transfer Deparunent was killed on December 2 when Arabs stoned his auto near Ramleh On this day dews stoned Arab buses in¬†Jerusalem. On December 2,¬†Haganah¬†claimed to have mobilized 10,000 men in the intercity trouble zone, and the Arab Legion of Trans-Jordan reported on this date that it had reinforced Jaffa. Seven Jews were killed in Jaffa-Tel Aviv on this date. There were lesser attacks in Haifa this week. Also, the Syrian Parliament enacted a draft law and voted $860,000 for the relief of Palestinian Arabs. On the same day Arabs attacked the Jewish part of Aleppo. .
Dec. 3, 1947
On the Jaffa-Tel Aviv boundary, which also is under around-the clock curfew, the week’s heaviest battle was a six-hour clash between¬†Haganah¬†and Arabs on December 3 in which seven Jews and five Arabs were killed and 75 persons injured. .
Dec. 5, 1947
The United States Department of State announced on December 5,1947 that they were placing an embargo on all American arms shipments to the Middle East. On December 5, British military reinforcements were sent to Aden after four days of Arab-Jewish fighting in which 50 Jews and 25 Arabs were killed. .
Dec. 13, 1947
On December 13, bombings by the Irgun killed at least 16 Arabs and injured 67 more in Jerusalem and Jaffa and burned down a hundred Arab houses in Jaffa. In Syria, an anti-Jewish attack in rebaliation for the Irgun actions burned down a 2,750-year old synagogue in Aleppo and destroyed the priceless Ben-Asher Codex, a 10th century Hebrew Bible of original Old Testament manuscripts. .
Dec. 14, 1947
Regular troops of the Arab Legion of the Trans-Jordan Army killed 14 Jews and wounded nine Jews, two British soldiers and one Arab when they atbcked a bus convoy approaching their camp near Lydda. The Arabs said the Jews attacked them first. .
Dec. 17, 1947
British troops came to the aid of police sending off a raid by 100 Arabs on the Jewish settlement of Nevatim, seven miles west of Beersheba..
Dec. 18, 1947
Haganah killed 10 Arabs in a reprisal raid on Khisas in the north of the country..
Dec. 19, 1947
Reliable reports from Damascus state that Arab guerrillas are massing there in preparation to launching an attack into Palestine before the first of the year. .
Dec. 20, 1947
Haganah carried out another said on Arabs by atbcking the village of Qazasa near Rehovoth. One Arab was killed and two were wounded. .
Dec. 25, 1947
Emir Mohammed Zeinati, an Arab landowner, was killed in Haifa for selling land to the Jews. Stern gang members machine-gunned two British soldiers in a Tel Aviv cafe. .
Dec. 26, 1947
Armed Jewish underground members raided two diamond factories in Netanya and Tel Aviv and escaped with $107,000 in diamonds, cash and bonds. The Stern gang distributed leaflets reporting that Israel Levin, a member, was killed in Tel Aviv on December 24 for trying to betray a Stern Gang member. .
Dec. 29, 1947
Irgun members kidnaped and flogged a Briitish major and thzee sergeans in rebliation for the flogging of Benjamin Kimkhim who was also sentenced to 18 years in prison on December 27 for robbing a bank. The major, E. Brett, was seized in Netanya and the sergeants in Tel Aviv and Rishon el Siyon. Each got 18 lashes, the same number Kimkhim seceived. An Irgun bombing at the Damascus Gate in Jesusalem killed 11 Arabs and two Britons. .
Dec. 30, 1947
The Dollis Hill Synagogue in London was set on fire and 12 sacred scrolls wese destroyed by argry British citizens..
1947
1947
Arab Higher Committee for Palestine rejects UN Partition Plan.
1947
Three Jews are hanged for involvement in Acre Prison break and two British sergeants are executed in reprisal.
1947
Scrolls dating from approximately 22 B.C.E. are discovered at Qumran, near the Dead Sea.
1947 Construction begins on Tapline for Saudi oil.
January 4, 1948
A series of bombings inflicted heavy Arab casualties.14 were killed and 100 injured when the Stern gangdestroyed the Arab National Committee headquarters in Jaffa. .
January 5, 1948
Jerusalem. 15 Arabs were killed after Haganah bombed the Semirarnis Hotel..
January 7, 1948
14 Arabs were killed by two¬†Irgun¬†bombs at Jerusalem’s Jaffa gate.
January 12, 1948
Stem gang members looted Barclay’s Bank in Tel Aviv of $37,000.
January 13, 1948
The U.S. War Assets Administration received orders from Army Secretary Kenneth Royal to cancel its sale of 199 tons of M-3 explosive to a purchasing agent of the Jewish Agency, which got 73 tons out of the country before the rest was seized
Jan. 14-15, 1948
The FBI arrested six New York men on charges of trying to ship Haganah 60,000 pounds of TNT, which was seized in Jersey Gty after having been bought from the Letterkenny Arsenal Ordnance Depot in Chambersburg, Pennsylvania.
January 25, 1948
Following the deaths of ten Jews and two Arabs killed in a battle outside Jerusalem, British authorities stated that 721 Arabs, 408 Jews, 19 civilians and 12 British policemen (a total of 1,160) had been killed in an eight-week period that 1,171 Arabs, 749 Jews, 13 civilians and 37 British officers had been wounded.
1948 Standard Oil of New Jersey and Socony-Vacuum (both now ExxonMobil) buy interest in Aramco; company headquarters moved from San Francisco to New York.

Modern Israel & the Diaspora
(1948-Present)

1940’s¬†|¬†1950’s¬†|¬†1960’s¬†|¬†1970’s
1980’s¬†|¬†1990’s¬†|¬†2000’s¬†|¬†2010’s
JEWISH HISTORY TIMELINEFrom Abraham until Modern TimesEvents listed did not necessarily happen at the year listed, rather on or in-between that date and the next.

Jewish Date Jewish Events World Events Common Dates
1-2000 2000 years of¬†tohu vavohu –¬†null and void Creation, Flood, Babel ¬†
1948 Birth of Abraham in Ur Chasdim, or Ur of the ChaldeasCenter of Sumerian culture. Early Bronze AgeNoachide Laws, Chaldean and Sumerian Culture 1812
1951 Abraham begins to doubt idols, and search for truth Ziggurats of Ur  
Jewish Date Jewish Events World Events Common Dates
2000 Beginning of the 2000 years of Torah   1760
2000 Abraham and Sarah start teaching Torah. Beginnings of monotheism as a way of life Code of Hammurabi 1760
20352048 Birth of Ishmael Рson of Abraham and HagarBirth of Isaac. Circumcision of Abraham and his family   1712
2085 Akeidat Yitzchak. The Binding and Near Sacrifice of Isaac.Isaac and Rebecca. Jacob and Esau. Blessings and Birthright.    
2108 Jacob, Rachel & Leah, 12 Sons = 12 Tribes. Transition from being a family to being a nation. Jacob fights with the angel and is given the name Israel, Yisrael Hyksos, Shepherd kings, invade Egypt. 1652
2199 Joseph is sold by his brothers and is taken to Egypt.Eventually due to his dream interpretations he becomes the Viceroy of Egypt –¬†Ztaphenat Phaneach Hyksos driven out of Egypt. 1561 1567
2238 Entry into Egypt by the 70 members of the family of Jacob Settlement in the Land of Goshen РShepherds 18th Dynasty 1522
2331 Enslavement begins¬†with the death of the last of the 12 sons of Jacob, Levi. Birth of Miriam. Amram, Levi’s grandson marries Yocheved, Levi’s daughter. They have 3 children Miriam, Aaron and Moses (Batya, daughter of Pharaoh finds Moses in Nile and brings him up in Pharaoh’s palace) Thutmose IV? Pitom (Tanis) & Ramses 1429
2368 Moses РMoshe Р5 levels of test before he is chosen as a prophet at the Burning Bush 1. Leaving palace to identify with brothers 2. Saving Jew from Egyptian oppression 3. Saving one Jew from another 4. Saving one stranger from another stranger. Justice, mercy and humility. 5. Brings water to sheep.   1392
2448 Exodus, Desert Plagues, Red Sea, Manna, Clouds of Glory, Well of Miriam. Thutmose III? 1312
2448 Revelation at Mt. Sinai.¬†Written & Oral Laws given to the entire Jewish people – 3,000,000 prophets.. Moses’ prophecy and authority confirmed by personal experience of every Jew; therefore no prophets or miracles etc. may challenge laws received at Sinai. – Bava Metzia 59a – “Not in heaven.” Golden calf (replacement of Moses, not G-d!) Yom Kippur – atonement, Teshuvah, 2nd tablets. 12 spies & lack of faith – decree – 9thof Av. ¬† 1312
2488 Moses write 13 scrolls of the complete Torah and gives one to each tribe, and puts one in the Holy Ark.Death of Moses outside of Israel Рburial place unknown   1273
2489 Joshua¬†– disciple of Moses becomes the leader of the Jewish people. First ordination –¬†semichah –¬†in history.Entry into Israel¬†– 10th¬†of Nissan. Battle of Jericho, Rachav & spies. (Biblical Archaeology Review – pottery, grain intact, no looting, burnt, collapsed walls, Egyptian relics) 7 years of conquest, 7 years of settlement. East bank and West bank of Jordan. 31 Canaanite city states. Altar at Gilgal, Blessings & curses on Mt. Gerizim and Mt. Eival. Condition of entry to Israel was acceptance of the Torah.. Middle Bronze Age Interchange Period –(MBI)

Canaanite and Phoenician culture

dominate Israel

1271
2515 Death of Joshua – Beginning of Period of Judges- Tribes independent – but advised and ruled by Judges. Philistines – Gaza 1245
Othniel, Ehud, Deborah, Gideon, Abimelech, Tola, Yair, Jeftah,Ibzan, Elon, Abdon, Samson, Eli.¬†Pilegesh Begiva –¬†Civil war! ¬† ¬†
2885 Samuel – Chose Jerusalem as capital. Anointed Saul as first king of Israel – Saul loses kingdom – Amalek. Early Greek States founded 875
Natan the prophet anoints Solomon. (Samuel dies 28th Iyar Рsame day Temple Mount recaptured by Israel in 1967).    
Kings РDavid, Solomon Рphilosopher kings. Davidic Lineage starts. Psalms. Assyrian Empire  
2892 David becomes King of Israel. Anointed in Hebron and rules from there for 7 years, then moves to Jerusalem. (In 2889 Avner appoints Ish Boshet as king of Israel, who rules for two years)   869
2924 Solomon becomes King of Israel. Author of Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Song of Songs. Peace and prosperity. Concubines- improper conversions, Messianic hope?   837
2928 First Temple started (pomegranate relic, mines, stables) 10 continuous miracles of First Temple, Urim Vetumim РDivine Presence Rise of Assyrian Empire 832
2964 Division of Israel & Judea Rehovoam son of Solomon. Jeroboam. North-10 Tribes. South.- Judah, Benjamin, Priests & Levites. Elijah & prophets of Baal, Achaz & Jezebel   796
Jewish Date Jewish Events World Events Common Dates
3150 Isaiah-prophecies of Messianic times Homer 610
3199 Hezekiah –¬†Chizkiyahu,¬†becomes king of Judea. Potential Messiah – and considered one of the most righteous of kings.Under Hezekiah the kingdom became imbued with Torah learning Shalmanazer – King of Assyria conquers Israel. Settles Samaritans in North. 562
3205 Assyrians Exile the 10 Tribes. The (good?!) Samaritans. Theories of lost tribes- probably assimilated. King of Assyria invades Judea, beseiges Jerusalem. Senacherib – King of Assyria.Beginning of Rome 556
3298 Jeremiah begins his prophecies Рpredicts the destruction of the Temple. Confucious  
3320 Exile of Judah to Babylon in days of King Yehoyachin. Rise of Babylon  
3338 Babylonians destroy First Temple on the 9th of Av and exile the Jews to Babylon. Some flee to Europe. Walls breached on 7thof Tammuz, sacrifices stopped on 17th of Tammuz.Leave behind a remnant, ruled by Jewish governor, Gedaliah.

On 3rd of Tishrei, Gedaliah is assassinated by Jews.

Nebuchadnezar (According to Greek historians – Temple destroyed in 587) 423
3340 Jeremiah, Ezekiel Prophecies of destruction and exile, prophecies of return. Socrates, Plato 422
3340 Babylonian Exile, Daniel. Aramaic becomes Jewish language. Academies of Torah study. Autonomy of internal affairs.   421
3386 Proclamation of Cyrus, Return to Israel. Minority returns in Nissan – same month as Exodus from Egypt. Persian Empire 372
3390 Second Temple started Medean Empire 368
3393 Cambys,¬†Achashverosh¬†stops construction. Feast celebrating “extinction” of Jews. Scroll of Esther. 164 “missing” years. ¬† 365
3400 Purim, Mordechai, Ezra the Scribe Renewal of settlement in Israel in the Golan heights, on the West and East banks of the Jordan river. Peaceful conquest Aristotle 358
3408 Second Temple completed. End of Prophecy. Joy and tears Рno Ark, no Urim Vetumim, none of the 10 miracles. 70 years after destruction Alexander the Great 353
3441

3515

Men of the Great Assembly establish the Liturgy. Shimon Hatzadik, the High Priest, meets Alexander of Macedon – transition – Prophets to sages. Transition changes confrontation, free-will requires equal & opposite Jewish prophets vs. pagans with supernatural powers – challenge Sages of the Oral Law vs. Greek philosophy (intellect vs. intellect) .Septuagint – Torah in Greek – Fast of 9thTevet Ptomelaic Empire in Egypt. Seleucids in Syria. 313

246

3648 Maccabean Revolt (Strong into hands of weak!) Decrees, Stadiums, Hellenism. Chanuka. Jew vs. Jew Ptolemies, Seleucids РAntiochus. Maccabees (Priests) become kings, form alliance with Rome against Greeks. Beginnings of sectarianism.   164 -> 168
Jonathan brother of Judah becomes king. In-fighting, intrigues and hatred among Hasomonean kings and family. Rise of Roman Empire 152
3696 Herod & Pompeii make deal – Israel joins Roman Empire Pompeii 62
3724 Herod РParanoiac, persecutes sages. Renovates Temple to win popularity, Masada, Herodion (Ref. Josephus)   34 BCE
3700 Romans in the Land of Israel (invited)   10
3710 Philo of Alexandria   20
3770 Essenes – Dead Sea Scrolls Early Christians 10 CE
3728 Hillel and Shammai    
3788 Exile of Sanhedrin, Rabbi Yochanan ben Zachai    
3827 Rabban Gamliel. Yeshu Hanotzri? Roman Occupation Rome initially makes legal exceptions for Judaism, wants Jews as Roman allies not Seleucid allies. Era of Pairs. Roman taxes, decrees. End of great Sanhedrin.   67
The Great Revolt Titus 66 -> 73
3828 Romans destroy 2nd Temple¬†– 9th¬†of Av About 2,000,000 killed. Cruelty, Exile, Slavery. Ramban – Ki Tavo Rabbi Yochanan Ben Zakai – “Yavneh and its Sages” Prophecies in Deuteronomy 28:42 – Nachmanides commentary Vespasian 68
3830 Rabbi Akiva, Rabbi Meir (stam Mishnah R. Meir) 24,000 students. 4 into Pardes, Acher.    
3833 Masada, the Zealots – Talmudic silence Mikveh . 73
Josephus Flavius РWars of the Jews, Antiquities, Contra-Appion.   38 -> 100
3893 Bar Kochba Revolt, Betar Р9th of Av. Rabbis support Bar Kochbah as Messiah until killed by Romans. Bar Kochba letters. Ten martyrs Hadrian 133
3950 Mishnah, Judah the Prince – Rabenu Hakadosh Scholar, Davidic lineage, righteous, Hebrew, wealth. Universal agreement Antonius 170 –190
3953 Pescennius Niger – “You ask me to relieve your lands of their taxes; would that I could tax the very air you breathe.” ¬† 193
Jewish Date Jewish Events World Events Common Dates
4000 2000 years of Messiah   240
4000 Rabbi Shimon Bar Yochai РThe Zohar    
4073 Constantine forbids Jews in Jerusalem. Beginnings of theological anti-Semitism.Main focus of learning in the Jewish communities of Israel and Babylon becomes the Mishnah. Yarchei Kallah Рcommunal study seminars convened regularly. Constantine Рbecomes Christian Rome/Byzantium split. Nicean Council decides on Christian dogma 313
4110 Jerusalem Talmud РR. Muna ben Yonah, R.Yosi ben Bun   350
4140 Hillel II – calendar. Theodosius forbids Sanhedrin to assemble, reaction to Julian’s pro-Jewish stance. Calendar adopted at clandestine, & maybe last meeting. Julian the Apostate 380
4260 Babylonian Talmud¬†–¬†Sof Horaah –¬†End of Instruction ¬† 500
4360 Ravina and Rabbi Ashi. Rabanan Sevorai Last time that all Jewish scholars voted and discussed issues, thus equivalent authority of Sanhedrin. Geonic period begins Beginnings of Islam – Mohammed 600
4384 Jews reject Islam, expulsions from Arabia. Rejection by Jews of Islam turns into hatred of Jews by Moslems   624-628
4397 Arabs invade Israel   637
4392 Emperor Heraclius decrees Jews of Byzantium to be forced into Christianity. 613-661 also in Spain, Gaul & Italy.   632
4471 90% of Jews under Moslems. (Yellow badge) Generally better off under Islam than under Christianity – closer philosophically (monotheism) & genetically. Dhimmis, tolerated minority under Islam vs. persecuted minority under Christians. Judaism is only problematic to Islam, but is an absolute contradiction to Christianity. “Fight those who do not practice the religion of truth from among those to whom the Book has been brought, until they pay the tribute by their hands, and they be reduced low.” Koran – Sura 9:2. Khazars convert to Judaism. Moslem Arabs invade Spain 711
4527 Anan Ben David РKaraites Рthreat of schism. Opposition to Oral Law РFire on Shabbat, cholent, pikuach nefesh   767
4650 Rabbi Saadya Gaon (the Geonate) First systematic work of Jewish philosophy, partially to combat the Karaite challenge to tradition. Letter of Rav Sherira Gaon. Emperor Charlemagne-800 890
4715 Four captives – decentralization of Torah. Growth of European and Nth. African Torah centers. Rabeinu Gershom – Light of the Exile – decrees against forced divorce, polygamy, reading others’ mail. Decline of Babylonian Academies ¬† 955

4773 RIF –¬†Rabbi¬†Isaac Alfasi¬†of Morocco creates first condensation and codification of Jewish Law – R. Zerachiah Halevi writes critique of code. ¬† 1013
4800 Rabbi Shlomo Yitzchaki РRaSHICommentaries on virtual all classic texts. Concise and deep. Systematic grammar, translations, elucidation of verses based on Midrash.Troyes, Mayence, Worms.   1040
Rabbi Avraham Ibn Ezra РFight against Karaites using logic & grammar   1092
4856 9th of Av РStart of First Crusade resulting in widespread slaughter of Jewish communities in the Rhineland. Crusades 1096
4856
4859
Godfrey de Boullion – Leader of a Crusade – “Kill the heretics amongst us before going to Holy Land.”Jerusalem captured by the Crusaders ¬† 1096
1099
4895 Maimonides – Rambam, R. Moses ben Maimon -student of the Spanish, Middle Eastern & Nth. African schools. Guide, Code, Book of the Commandments, 13 Principles of Faith, Commentary, Letters, Medical writings. Controversy, criticisms. Life in Egypt. Physician of Egyptian court. Saladin – leads Moslems in fight against Crusaders.(Patient of Rambam) 1135
4906 Expulsion from parts of Germany. Desecrating “host”, blood libels. Rabenu Yaakov Tam – Baalei HaTosfot – French and German schools. ¬† ¬†
4906 Second Crusade   1146
4909 Almohades bring Islamic intolerance to Spain fostering the spread of Spanish-Jewish culture outside the borders of Spain particularly in Provence, at the crossroads of Sefarad and Ashkenaz. The Orient and Europe   1149
4910 R. Yehudah Hachasid –¬†Chasidei Ashkenaz. Era of the Pietists of Germany Battle of Hastings1066 1150 – 1217
4920 Benjamin of Tudela РTravels of Benjamin   1160
4946 Expulsion from France   1186
4949 Third Crusade – Widespread massacres of Jews in England Richard Lion Heart 1189
4950 R. Yehudah Halevi РKuzari, poems, Hebrew York massacre   1190
4954 Nachmanides (1194 Р1270) Ramban, Rabbi Moses ben Nachman. Defender of earlier sages (inc. Rambam) against attacks, Alfasi against R. Zerachiah Halevi. Commentaries- Tanach and Talmud, Kabbalah. Saladin in Jerusalem 1194
4992 Burning of Maimonides’ Guide in Provence (possibly causing – later book-burning by anti – Semitic authorities) ¬† 1232
5000 Aliyah of authors of Tosafot after disputation of R. Yechiel of Paris   1240
5002 Burning of Talmud in Paris Р24 cartloads. Fast day   1242
5023

Disputation of Ramban with Pablo Christiani in – Barcelona, 20th¬†July, 1263. Rabbi Meir of Rottenburg (imprisonment) – refuses ransom. Rabenu Yona of Gerona – Gates of Repentance. Rabbi Levi ben Gershon – Astronomer, inventor of Jacob’s Staff Expulsion from England – 9th¬†of Av. Bodlean Library – Oxford – stolen and abandoned Jewish books. Edward I 1290
5064 Rashba РCherem on study of philosophy for those under 25 years of age   1305
5065 Expulsion of Jews from most of France   1306
5116 Poisoning & conspiracy libels against Jews during Black Plague. Pogroms & expulsions. The Rashba of Barcelona, Spain. Rabenu Asher, the Rosh, fled from Germany to Toledo, Spain – nexus of Sephardi and Ashkenazi cultures enables son R. Yaakov combines scholarship of both in the Arbah Turim. Black Plague 1357
5155 Expulsion from Provence РMeiri, Raavad, Radak, Ibn Tibbon   1395
Ibn Tibbons translators- Arabic to Hebrew Expulsion- Austria Continuous insecurity in Europe; discrimination, expulsions e.g. Speyer: Jews out 1405, in 1421, out 1430, in 1434, out 1435, in 1465   1395
5213 Ottoman Turks capture Israel from Moslems creating impetus to Jewish settlement in Israel- although numbers small. Fall of Byzantium 1453
5235 First printing of Jewish books on printing press   1475
5252 Inquisition culminates with the expulsion from Spain on the 9th Av. Expulsions from Italy and Sicily Don Isaac Abarbanel Рcommentary on Tanach, advisor to Queen Isabella Columbus Рrefuge 1492
5257 Portuguese expulsion, Auto-de-Fe, Marranos.   1497
5280 First printing of Talmud – Daniel Bomberg, Venice. Censorship. Pagination, commentary selection and layout of Bomberg still used today. “Rashi” script used for first time in printing. Reformation. Luther – “The Jews & Their Lies.” Rejection leading to hatred 1520
5300 Kabbalists of Safed. Ari’Zal (1534-72) Rabbi Chaim VitalR. Shlomo Alkabetz –¬†Lecha Dodi¬†The Alsheich. Aliyah gradually increases. ¬† 1540
5325 Code of Jewish Law¬†–¬†Shulchan Aruch¬†– Rabbi Yosef Karo (1488-1575) R. Moses Isserless (1525-1572) Israel – Sephardi Poland – Ashkenazi Universal acceptance, commentaries (Kitzur Shulchan Aruch¬†– Condensed Code – Rabbi Shlomo Ganzfried – late 19th Century) Shakespeare – “Merchant of Venice” – No Jews in England since 1565
5408 Chmielnicki Pogroms – unspeakable cruelty Jews dejected, searching for hope, feeling of immanent Messianic revelation Total Jewish Pop.- 3.5 million Eastern Europe – 1.3 million.100,000 murdered, 300 communities destroyed. Russian – Polish WarBogdan Chmielnicki 1648
5411 Shabtai Zvi РFalse Messiah Рcharisma, asceticism mysticism   1651
5416 Spanish-Portuguese Jews, Touro РRhode Island. First Jews in America. Peter Stuyvesent reluctant to admit Jews to New Amsterdam. Baruch Spinoza Рforerunner of modern Bible criticism & perhaps unintentionally of modern anti-Semitism, excommunicated in Amsterdam.   1656
5423 Shabtai Tzvi meets Nathan of Gaza “Prophet” – Israel Misuse of Kabbalah. (Similarly Jacob Frank a century later) ¬† 1663
5426 S.T. Abolishes 9th of Av, declares march on Jerusalem to capture from Sultan. Imprisoned by Sultan, converts to Islam. Great Fire -London 1666
5427 R. David Halevi Segal РTaz, dies. 2 sons killed in pogroms, exiled to Moravia. One of the greatest commentaries on Code of Jewish Law together with R. Shabtai Cohen РShach.    
5460 Rabbi Israel Baal Shem Tov РChassidism РGalicia, Ukraine, Podolia. The Tzadik, songs, joy, popularization of Kabbalistic teachings, sincerity, fervor, prayer and spontaneity.. Frederick I 1700
5461 Moses Chaim Luzzatto – (RaMCHaL). Systematizing of Kabbalah into logical steps, accessibility to laymen (criticism!). Ethical classics – Path of the Just, The Way of G-d, plays, poetry. Leibnitz 1701
5473 R.Yehezkel Landau- Responsa Noda Biyehudah- Opposition to Chassidism Opposition to Kabbalistic prayers prior to performance of Mitzvot.   1713-1793
5480 The¬†Gaon¬†(Genius), R. Elijah of Vilna -GRA.¬†Supremacy of Torah study through intellectual efforts of man. Opposition to Chassidism – Excesses due to emphasis on joy and spontaneity, charismatic leadership, popularization of Kabbalah (fear of Shabtai Zvi phenomenon), new customs, changes in liturgy. Rabbi Shneur Zalman of Liadi – Tanya – Chabad -LubavitchR. Chaim of Volozhin – Nefesh Hachaim. Volozhin – “Mother of Yeshivot” David Hume 1720
5516 Conflict of R. Yaakov Emden and R. Yonason Eybeshutz over accusations of Shabeteanism   1756
5536 Beginnings of liberalization in Western Europe – Some Jews allowed to live outside Ghettos American Revolution ends. Declaration of Independence 1776
5543 Moses Mendelssohn -“Religion due to Reason” German¬†Biur¬†of Torah. Children assimilate – grandchildren baptized. Pseudo-scientific, racial anti-Semitism. Fully blown in late 19th Century developing ultimately into Nazism in 20th century. Immanuel Kant Voltaire – “Religion of Reason” 1783
5549 The Emancipation РEmperor Franz-Josef grants citizenship to the Jews, entrance to universities and professions permission to leave ghettoes and enter society.Jacob Frank Рfalse messiah in Poland died 1791 French Revolution 1789
5551 Equal rights for French Jews on condition. Napoleon – “For Jews as Jews nothing, for Jews as Frenchmen everything”“Sanhedrin.” Economic, social, intellectual and political pressure to assimilate. Four approaches – 1. Individual assimilation (Baptism, intermarriage) Heinrich Heine- “Baptism is the ticket of entry to European society” 2. Adaptation of Judaism to Zeitgeist (Reform, science of Judaism); S. Holdheim “we say merely this, anything which upon unbiased examination does not conform to the current religious spirit holds for us no authority.” 3. Isolation from emancipation and modernity (Chassidim, Chatam Sofer); 4. Involvement in modern world without compromising of Halachic standards (Rabbi S. R. Hirsch). NapoleonFrench Constitution 1791
5575 Immigration to Israel, Chassidim & students of GRA – Safed, Tiberias, Hebron, Jerusalem. R. Israel of Shklov – Peat Hashulchan – Code of Jewish Law for Israel Battle of Waterloo 1815
5578 Reform MovementHamburg Temple Рbells, organ, German prayers and sermon   1818
5600 R. Samson Raphael Hirsch –¬†Torah & Derech Eretz.¬†Horeb, 19 Letters. Separate communities. German Kehillah. Jewish Day School. Damascus Blood Libel ¬† 1840
5614 R. Israel Salanter – the Mussar movement. Lithuania – Combating cold intellectualism, emphasis on ethics, self-improvement, general reinforcement of inner aspects of Judaism, Mussar, R. Israel Salanter – R. Isaac Blazer, R. Naftali Amsterdam, Alter of Kelm. Different approaches to self-improvement- Greatness of Man or lowliness of Man, self-criticism. Opposition to Mussar by many Yeshivot. e.g. Volozhin – “bitter medicine” only for the sick. Study of Torah provides ethics. Crimean War 1854
5641 Pogroms in the Ukraine. Benjamin Disraeli (1804-1881) Prime Minister Baptized by father. Alexander II killed – by Jewish anarchist May Laws- Backlash Emigration – USA, England,South Africa 1881
5645 Reform movement has open field in the USA Pittsburgh Platform 1885
5646 Treif Banquet – Reaction – Jewish Theological Seminary –Solomon Morais – Beginnings of Conservative Movement Rise of nationalism in Europe and Balkans. 1886
5654 Dreyfus Trial, Theodore Herzl, Max Nordau The Jewish State, conversion. Panama, Vatican Bank. Pales of settlement. Nicholas II- Russia 1894
5657 1st Zionist Congress, Basle. Agudas Israel founded as political representative of non- or anti-Zionist Orthodox Jews.   1897
5663 Vote on Israel vs. Uganda, Madagascar Sir Moses Montefiore, Rothchilds РContinue tradition of shtadlanim. Mass Immigrations- USA (2 million Jews by 1924) No official anti-Semitism; but no work for Shomrei Shabbos, ignorance, no Jewish education, alternatives to total abandonment exist, difficult to keep kosher Рmany abandon Orthodoxy for economic reasons. Many came with intent to abandon Judaism. Yiddish newspapers, left-wing e.g. Jewish Daily Forward, socialist and assimilationist. (Judaism unsuitable)Kishinev Pogrom   1903
5664 Conservative Movement РSolomon Schechter   1904
5665 Protocols – Nilus “Kill the Jews & save Russia” Pogroms ¬† 1905
5673 Beilis Trial – blood libel. Leo Frank lynched by mob in Georgia, USA, accused of murder. Bernard Malamud- The Fixer 1913
5674 First World War –¬†Britain declares war on the 9th¬†Av. Jews on both sides. 500,000 Jewish soldiers fought in War. 1st World War 1914
5677 The Balfour Declaration and Chaim Weizman. The Chafetz Chaim and the ethics of speech. Rabbi Chaim Soloveitchik of Brisk РAnalysis vs. Pilpul. 3,250,000 Jews in the USA Demonstration and riots against Czar Nicholas II 1917
5677 Britain Captures Palestine from Turks – General Allenby with assistance of Nili spy network. Jews organize units in Britisharmy. Jabotinsky and Trumpeldor

Sarah Schnirer starts Jewish school for girls, Beit Yaacov movement begins to grow.

Bolshevik RevolutionLawrence of Arabia 1917
5679 60,000 Jews killed during Russian Revolution. Petlurya in Ukraine establishes independence pogroms begin, thousands of Jews brutally murdered. Ukrainian independence 1919
5680 British Mandate, the Hagganah & the Irgun White Papers 1939, Aliyah Bet, restraint & revolt. Arabs attack Jewish settlements in Israel, Trumpeldor killed in Tel Chai..M. Kaplan – Reconstructionism League of Nations 1920
5681 Arab riots in Jaffa, 47 Jews killed. 4 Jews killed defending Petach Tikvah End of Russian civil war, Communists in power. 1921
5684 Rabbi Meir Shapiro of Lublin begins the Daf Yomi program   1923
5689 120,000 Jews in Israel. 4,000,000 Jews in USAArab riots against Jews in Israel, including pogrom in Hebron in which 67 Jews brutally murdered.

Franz Rosenzweig – Assimilated German-Jewish philosopher returns to Judaism after 15 year search.

  1929
5696 18 Jews killed in Arab riots in Tel-Aviv-Jaffa, beginning of “Arab Revolt” that claimed the lives of 500 Jews over the next three years. ¬† 1936
5698 Kristallnacht pogrom in Germany, incited by Nazis, Jews attacked and killed,, businesses, homes and synagogues ransacked and burnt down. Tens of thousands sent to concentration camps. United States introduces 5 day work week. 1938
5699 Britain introduces “White Papers” drastically reducing Jewish immigration to Israel. Interns Jewish refugees in Cyprus, and in camps in Israel. Sends many back to Europe. Second World War¬†begins with German invasion of Poland 1939
5699 The Holocaust Рenthusiastic help of local population. Indifference of world Р(While Six Million Died, Morse) Jewish spiritual heroism. (With G-d in Hell, Berkovitz)Warsaw Ghetto Revolt   1939

1943

5708 The State of Israel, War of Independence UN vote, partition, Jewish refugees – 600,000! Arabs – 400,000. Renewal of Yeshivot Assimilation and secularization of Sephardi Jewry. Berlin Blockade 1948
5716 Sinai Campaign, War of Attrition Russia in Hungary 1956
Fedayeen, hijackings, snipers, Katushyas, bombs PLO Covenant 1964
5727 Six-Day War, Liberation of Jerusalem on 28th of Iyar. The Western Wall, Hebron in Jewish hands!. Russia breaks ties with Israel. Vatican calls for internationalization of Jerusalem Vietnam War 1967
5727 The Baal-Teshuva Movement РReturn to JudaismRefuseniks. Founding of Yeshivot for beginners   1967
Identity. Ethnic and national awareness. Pride. Ohr Somayach   1971
5733 The Yom-Kippur War. Two day’s ammunition left before US airlift. 2,500 Israeli soldiers killed. More Israeli¬†baalei teshuvah¬†than ’67. Profound demoralization, increased emigration from Israel, lack of idealism amongst secular Zionists grows. WatergateArab Oil Embargo 1973
5737 Peace treaty with Egypt, Begin and Sadat Ethiopian Jews. Loss of Sinai peninsula. “Cold peace.” Arabs alienate Egypt 1977
5741 Israel bombs Iraqi nuclear reactor-worldwide condemnation UN resolution condemning attack sponsored by Kuwait!   1981
5742 The Lebanon War. Katushyas, hostages, terrorism . PLO’s state within a state. Siege of Beirut. Diaspora Jews criticize Israel.. ¬† 1982
5749 Start of Intifada Рmassive unrest and violent protest by Palestinians РUltimately leading to Oslo Accords   1987
5750 Mass Immigration of Russian Jews to Israel Glasnost-Perestroika 1990
5750 Iraqi missiles land in Israel- Population of Israel receives gas masks, seals rooms etc. Israel lauded for “restraint” 9th of Av- Iraq walks out of talks with Kuwait. Iraq invades Kuwait – US troops in Saudi Arabia – UN ultimatum January 15th – USA attacks Iraq 16th – Massive and continuous air bombardments. February 23 – Coalition forces enter Kuwait and Iraq – ground-war. Purim victory ¬† 1990
5751 Russian immigration continues. Albanian Jews make Aliyah. Rescue of Ethiopian Jewry.. Abandonment of Kurds. Syria in
Lebanon
1991
5753 Signing of the Oslo Accords РRabin and Arafat   1993
5756 Assassination of Prime Minister Rabin Рwave of anti-religious sentiment sweeps country. Elections follow in which right-wing government of Likud under Netanyahu is elected   1995
6000 Beginning of 1000 years РSabbath of the world.   2239

 

Also another notable article, that compares the calendars used by the babylonians versus those used by the jews: http://jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/3920-calendar-history-of#anchor1

In regards to the ‘Flood’, I posted an article some time ago:

https://savetheworld1001.wordpress.com/2017/03/25/world-population-since-creation/

There are some very different estimates from different sources about the number of people living in the times of Noah.

 

Now let’s see a source about ‘Timeline for the Flood’:

Source: https://answersingenesis.org/bible-timeline/timeline-for-the-flood/

So when exactly was the Flood?

For an accurate chronology on the Bible, including the time of the Flood, I highly recommend The Annals of the World by James Ussher, Adam’s Chart of History, Newton’s Revised History of Ancient Kingdoms, and Chronology of the Old Testament by Floyd Nolen Jones.

There are two possible ways of calculating the date. The first is from creation, and the other is from the present. I will focus on the date from creation since the latter would be much more involved. So here we go.

Table 1: Dates of biblical events from Creation

Event/Person Passage Total Time from Creation (years)
God created everything. Genesis 1‚Äď2 0
Adam became the father of Seth at 130. Genesis 5:3 0 + 130 = 130
Seth became the father of Enosh at 105. Genesis 5:6 130 + 105 = 235
Enosh became the father of Kenan at 90. Genesis 5:9 235 + 90 = 325
Cainan became the father of Mahalalel at 70. Genesis 5:12 325 + 70 = 395
Mahalalel became the father of Jared at 65. Genesis 5:15 395 + 65 = 460
Jared became the father of Enoch at 162. Genesis 5:18 460 + 162 = 622
Enoch became the father of Methuselah at 65. Genesis 5:21 622 + 65 = 687
Methuselah became the father of Lamech at 187. Genesis 5:25 687 + 187 = 874
Lamech became the father of Noah at 182. Genesis 5:28 874 + 182 = 1056
The Flood started when Noah was 600. Genesis 7:6 1056 + 600 = 1656

As you can see from Table 1, the year in which the Flood came was 1656 AM1¬†(Anno Mundi¬†‚Äď ‚Äúyear of the world‚ÄĚ). From the rest of the Old Testament and other well-documented historical events we understand that creation, as calculated by¬†Ussher, was about 4004 BC. So with a little more math we can calculate the second date.

Calculated BC date for creation: 4004
Calculated AM date for the Flood: – 1656
Calculated BC date for the Flood: 2348
Current Year (minus one2): + 2011
Number of years since beginning of Flood: 4359

Using the Bible, well-documented historical events, and some math, we find that the Flood began approximately 4,359 years ago in the year 1656 AM or 2348 BC. Some may look for an exact date (i.e., month and day), but we are not given that sort of precision in Scripture.

Footnotes

  1. Since the Bible does not provide the number of months in the age of each patriarch listed from Adam to Noah, then we could add about five more years to this number. For example, Adam may have been 130 years and 10 months old when Seth was born, and Seth may have been 105 years and four months. On average, there would likely be an additional six months for each generation. The same would be true for the genealogy in Genesis 10.
  2. We need to subtract one year from this calculation since there was not a ‚Äúyear zero.‚ÄĚ The calendar we use jumps from 1 BC to AD 1.

 

Now, here’s one skeptical view about the flood, which is one of the main purposes of this article:¬†

Source: http://www.deusdiapente.net/science/flood.php

Did The Biblical Flood Happen?


Written by mfaber at iidb.org

The Biblical flood did not happen. This is a falsifiable date.The Bible gives the date of the flood as beginning 2345 BCE and ending in 2344 BCE If this were really the world-wide gig claimed by creationists then the civilizations of the world would all show a disruption in their history or at least take note of such an event, but does the rest of archeology/history corroborate the Biblical account===> NO!

  1. The city of Ur of the Chaldees (ancient Sumer, location of the “plains of Shinar”, hangout of Noah) was the leading city from about 2400 BCE until about 2,285 BCE and its history is not broken by any flood in this period.
  2. Babylon was rising to power from about 2,400 BCE on and reached a great height of civilization under the famous King Hammurabi, who would have been a contempory of Hebrew patriarch Abraham (about 2,250 BCE), and again there is no break in this history due to a flood.
  3. In Egypt, the 5th Dynasty, which began to reign about 2,465 BCE, was followed by the 6th Dynasty (2,323 BCE), which ruled to about 2000 BCE. This time-period is very well-documented and there was no disruption during the 5th Dynasty at the time of Noah’s flood, 2,345 BCE, with the nation remaining strong and powerful throughout these dynasties.
  4. The Harappan Civilization(2300 Р1900 BCE) in India shows no disruptions at the time of the Flood and, ironically, appears to have ended because of a region-wide drought! (some used to think that an invasion was the cause, but the evidence points away from this earlier scenario).
  5. Chinese history begins nearly 3,000 BCE. The Shu-King historic record of China, shows that King Yao came to the throne in 2356 BCE and ruled China for many years after the alleged flood. Incidentally, durring the reign of Yao, the Shu King reports that the Hwang Ho River flooded on a number of times, for three generations, again with NO break in history. Please consult the History of China or THIS timeline. The only place you find these early rulers listed are at Chinese sites (spelled Tangyao, Westerners shorten this to Yao).
  6. Ancient civilizations in India which predate the Bible entirely and shows no evidence that such an event ever happened ( appearance of the oldest book of the Hindu religion, the Rig Veda pre-dates the Bible considerably, according to astronomical dating provided by astronomical events listed in the Rig Veda)

[It has already been mentioned here that] The Biblical Flood story looks a lot like the¬†Epic of Gilgamesh¬†“The Chaldean Flood Tablets from the city of Ur in what is now Southern Iraq, describe how the Bablylonian God Ea had decided to eliminate humans and other land animals with a great flood which was to become ‘the end of all flesh'”.

Some Biblical literalists claim that the Babylonians borrowed their ideas fro the Epic of Gilgamesh from the Genesis, but here are some reasons why that is extremely unlikely:

  1. For the simple reason that the first copies of this legend are in were written down about 2000 BCE in the Sumerian language on clay tablets which still survive.The earliest possible date for the writing of the Hebrew version is given as around 1000 BCE (according to THIS).
  2. The Jews would have been well aware of this legend (as captives of the Babylonians, descendents of the Akkadian / Sumerians). It is quite probable that they (the Jews) simply incorporated elements of this legend into their theology. Who do one think copied whom? It is far more likely that the Jews copied from their conquerors as opposed to a conquering race coping from a slave population.

As for the real source of many flood stories, the most likely one is that detailed¬†HERE¬†in the article from the National Geographic,¬†The Black Sea and the Search for Noah’s Flood.¬†A catastrophic Black See flood is the most probable source of the story and it is no where near a world-wide flood as alleged in the Bible.

Also see More Possible Sources of the Flood Story.

Also note that fewer than 50% of the world’s cultures have flood legends.¬†In his book¬†Die Flutsagen: Ehnthographisch Btrachtet(1891),¬†Richard Andre collected a compendium of flood myths (~90 traditions) from around the world . Of these:

  • 26 were “descendants” of the Babylonian story
  • 43 are totally independent in time and place from the Babylonian story
  • Most telling was the¬†absence of flood stories¬†from much of Europe, northern and central Asia, Africa, Arabia, and Japan (very strange IF there a world-wide deluge…that all these places should have NOT ONE story).

Andre reached the conclusion that IF everyone were the descendants of a small number of survivors from a single flood, THEN there would be a flood story in every culture and these stories would be consistent with each other.

The physics of Noah’s Ark are impossible.¬†The flexibility of the wood being used opens gaps wide enough to dump hundreds of gallons of water a minute into the “ship.”

As a ship that large floats, there are tremendous strains and stresses over its length, and wood is flexible enough to make it impossible to keep the hull together. Wood is fairly flexible when subjected to large strains – trees caught in torrential floods bend and don’t break. It’s why wooden ships only reached certain sizes during real-life world history, bigger ships had to be made out of steel.

Even many of the largest wood ships (still mucho smaller than the ark! According to the Biblical description, it was a barge roughtly the size that would fit inside of one of our football stadiums!) built by master shipwrights at the peak of the shipbuilding art required numerous pumps and countermeasures to avoid sinking.

by RAFH at iidb.org:

Actually it is not the strength, as in pounds per square inch of tension or compression that makes steel better than wood. Fact is they built large ships out of concrete during WW1. A dozen of them. The remains of one is attached to a pier at¬†Seabright Beach State Park¬†on Monterey Bay of California. Concrete is an excellent shipbuilding material and its compressive strength is only about 2000 to 5000 psi (they do make concretes up to 10,000 psi plus). That’s roughly the same as wood. Steel, by the way, is about 36,000 psi to 50,000 psi (although again, higher strengths are made).

The big difference is stiffness. The modulus of elasticity of wood ranges from 1,000,000 to 2,000,000 psi. Concrete and steel moduli are 29,000,000 psi. Big difference.

Modulus of elasticity is what controls stiffness and that’s what limits spans as in the length of a ship.

Another aspect is steel can be made in large sheets and those welded together. Concrete is by nature homogeneous. Wood, by nature, comes in smaller pieces which means a lot more seams and joints. The connections of these is another issue, screws and such hold better in steel than in wood, especially in working joints. More joints in more flexible materials means more working of the joints and the faster they will fail.

Shear strength is another issue to consider, wood is 100 to 300 psi, steel is 36,000 to 50,000 psi. It is the steel in concrete that overcomes concrete’s low unreinforced shear strength.

The situation with boats is much the same as with tall buildings and long bridges.

And, no, it is not possible to build a wooden ship of the dimensions noted for the ark. OK, you could build it but it would fall apart almost immediately even in calm water. In any kind of storm, it wouldn’t last an hour.

Funniest thing about all the ark designs, they never show any means of propulsion and without propulsion there is no way to direct a ship to go anywhere. Ships in storms face huge forces and its absolutely necessary to keep the ship as perpendicular to the waves as possible unless you have the ship set up to ‘lay to’. If a ship is traveling downwind, with the waves, if it doesn’t keep up a given speed it will not have steerage and it will broach. Even aircraft carriers and supertankers can not survive major broaching. One of the Iowa class battleship, arguably the strongest ships ever built, would be hard pressed to survive a major broach.

Anyway, there is never any form of propulsion shown or discussed. Certainly 8 humans, even if they weren’t worked to death caring for thousands of wild animals, would never be able to propel even a small ship in calm waters. In a storm, even trying would likely be fatal.

Here’s one reason large wooden ships have a limit:¬†Hogging.

From that site:

“Until the 1920’s a large percentage of the world’s shipping consisted of large wooden ships and their plague, after plain old rot, was “hog”. A ship floating quietly in still water is subjected to external forces. These are the weight of the vessel on its cargo (downwards) and the buoyancy force (upwards). Archimedes showed us that for a floating vessel, these two forces must be equal in magnitude. For a floating rectangular piece of wood, they are also equal in distribution. For most normally shaped ships, the distribution is not equal. For example, when an empty ship has more weight (relatively heavy structure, engines and equipment) in the ends, and more buoyancy in the middle. This “excess” of buoyancy in the middle cause the middle to rise up and the ends to bend down — a hog in profile. The opposite condition is sagging. For old wooden ships, this resulted in a long term, plastic deformation. The total curvature could be a meter or more in larger vessels. Some vessels like the Wapama hogged so much that they nearly broke in two. Hogging is no longer the problem it was in the 1920’s when it threatened the nation’s merchant fleet — because those ships have sunk!“Wooden ships, even wooden warships like USS Constitution, are actually quite weak even when new. Although solid shot may have ricocheted from their sides, they are generally unable, over time, to resist the fairly small forces they are subjected to moored in still water. There is a false idea that amazingly still has some following, that wooden ships were strong because they would flex. In fact, relative movement between structural members allows fresh water to enter the hull structure, carrying rot fungus spores deep inside.

“Engineers have often attempted to analyze the structures of wooden ships as if they were homogeneous box girders. This is a common misapplication of beam theory. Actually, a wooden ship, especially as it ages, more closely resembles a rather weakly bound bundle of reeds. These reeds are free to slide past each other. If traditionally built wooden ships were box girders, then one would expect to see many tensile failures amidships in the upper deck of a severely hogged vessel; however, this is not the case. Failures in longitudinal structure are infrequent and tend to be scattered almost uniformly throughout the vessel. The idea of “strength decks” or “extreme fiber” is largely irrelevant to the meaningful analysis of old wooden ships. Microscopic investigation reveal a generally low level of stress in “hogged” structural members. There often is evidence of plastic behavior, creep, around fastenings. Large overall deflections in the hull can be achieved with a very small amount of creep around the fastenings.

“The bundle of reeds metaphor implies that the ship is comparatively poor at resisting longitudinal loads due to a weakness in shear. Wooden ships are generally stiffer in lateral loading since the transverse frames are like individual beams. As a vessel ages and softens, even these relatively stiff beams can suffer large creep deflections. USS Constellation is an extreme example of an old, soft wooden ship and probably has large lateral deflections as well as hog — behaving more like a wet wicker basket than a bundle of reeds. Pushing up on the bottom of the basket causes the sides to bulge out and the bilges to drop. This is evidently the case since the keel has deflected over two feet and there is much less curvature in the upper decks. The vessel is also soft transversely. That is apparent from the curvature of the gun deck which is hogged in several distinct undulations. The upward force on the bottom comes from an unequal distribution of the weight and buoyancy forces on the vessel. In a newer, stiffer vessel it is possible to minimize this net force by the judicious placement of ballast both longitudinally and transversely in the bottom of the vessel. Here’s a link to a TCM paper on hogging”

As for the affect the downpour would have on the Earth:

written by Gawen at iidb.org

First- the global flood supposedly (Scripturally) covered the planet, […]and Mount Everest is 8,848 meters tall. The diameter of the earth at the equator, on the other hand, is 12,756.8 km. All we have to do is calculate the volume of water to fill a sphere with a radius of the Earth + Mount Everest; then we subtract the volume of a sphere with a radius of the Earth. Now, I know this won’t yield a perfect result, because the Earth isn’t a perfect sphere, but it will serve to give a general idea about the amounts involved.

So, here are the calculations:

First, Everest

V= 4/3 * pi * r cubed
= 4/3 * pi * 6387.248 km cubed
= 1.09151 x 10 to the 12 cubic kilometres (1.09151×102 km3)

Now, the Earth at sea level

V = 4/3 * pi * r cubed
= 4/3 * pi * 6378.4 km cubed
= 1.08698 x 10 to the 12 cubic kilometres (1.08698×1012 km3)

The difference between these two figures is the amount of water needed to just cover the Earth:

4.525 x 10 to the ninth cubic kilometres (4.525×1009 km3) Or, to put into a more sensible number, 4,525,000,000,000 cubic kilometres

This is one helluva lot of water.

For those who think it might come from the polar ice caps, please don’t forget that water is more dense than ice, and thus that the volume of ice present in those ice caps would have to be more than the volume of water necessary.

Some interesting physical effects of all that water, too. How much weight do you think that is? Well, water at STP weighs in at 1 gram/cubic centimetre (by definition)…so,

4.252×1009 km3 of water,
X 106 (= cubic meters),
X 106 (= cubic centimetres),
X 1 g/cm3 (= grams),
X 10-3 (= kilograms),
(turn the crank)
equals 4.525E+21 kg.

Ever wonder what the effects of that much weight would be? Well, many times in the near past (i.e., the Pleistocene), continental ice sheets covered many of the northern states and most all of Canada. For the sake of argument, let’s call the area covered by the Wisconsinian advance (the latest and greatest) was 10,000,000,000 (ten million) km2, by an average thickness of 1 km of ice (a good estimate…it was thicker in some areas [the zones of accumulation] and much thinner elsewhere [at the ablating edges]). Now, 1.00×1007 km2 X 1 km thickness equals 1.00E+07 km3 of ice.

Now, remember earlier that we noted that it would take 4.525×1009 km3 of water for the flood? Well, looking at the Wisconsinian glaciation, all that ice (which is frozen water, remember?) would be precisely 0.222% […do the math](that’s zero decimal two hundred twenty two thousandths) percent of the water needed for the flood.

Well, the Wisconsinian glacial stade ended about 25,000 YBP (years before present), as compared for the approximately supposedly 4,000 YBP flood event.

Due to these late Pleistocene glaciations (some 21,000 years preceding the supposed flood), the mass of the ice has actually depressed the crust of the Earth. That crust, now that the ice is gone, is slowly rising (called glacial rebound); and this rebound can be measured, in places (like northern Wisconsin), in centimetres/year. Sea level was also lowered some 10’s of meters due to the very finite amount of water in the Earth’s hydrosphere being locked up in glacial ice sheets (geologists call this glacioeustacy).

Now, glacial rebound can only be measured, obviously, in glaciated terranes, i.e., the Sahara is not rebounding as it was not glaciated during the Pleistocene. This lack of rebound is noted by laser ranged interferometery and satellite geodesy [so there], as well as by geomorphology. Glacial striae on bedrock, eskers, tills, moraines, rouche moutenees, drumlins, kame and kettle topography, fjords, deranged fluvial drainage and erratic blocks all betray a glacier’s passage. Needless to say, these geomorphological expressions are not found everywhere on Earth (for instance, like the Sahara). Therefore, although extensive, the glaciers were a local (not global) is scale. Yet, at only 0.222% the size of the supposed flood, they have had a PROFOUND and EASILY recognisable and measurable effects on the lands.

Yet, the supposed flood of Noah, supposedly global in extent, supposedly much more recent, and supposedly orders of magnitude larger in scale; has exactly zero measurable effects and zero evidence for it’s occurrence.

Golly, Wally. I wonder why that may be…?

Further, Mount Everest extends through 2/3 of the Earth’s atmosphere. Since two forms of matter can’t occupy the same space, we have an additional problem with the atmosphere. Its current boundary marks the point at which gasses of the atmosphere can escape the Earth’s gravitational field. Even allowing for partial dissolving of the atmosphere into our huge ocean, we’d lose the vast majority of our atmosphere as it is raised some 5.155 km higher by the rising flood waters; and it boils off into space.

Yet, we still have a quite thick and nicely breathable atmosphere. In fact, ice cores from Antarctica (as well as deep-sea sediment cores) which can be geochemically tested for paleoatmospheric constituents and relative gas ratios; and these records extend well back into the Pleistocene, far more than the supposed 4,000 YBP flood event. Strange that this major loss of atmosphere, atmospheric fractionation (lighter gasses (oxygen, nitrogen, fluorine, neon, etc.) would have boiled off first in the flood-water rising scenario, enriching what remained with heavier gasses (argon, krypton, xenon, radon, etc.)), and massive extinctions from such global upheavals are totally unevidenced in these cores.

Even further, let us take a realistic and dispassionate look at the other claims relating to global flooding and other such biblical nonsense.

Particularly, in order to flood the Earth to the Genesis requisite depth of 10 cubits (~15′ or 5 m.) above the summit of Mt. Ararat (16,900′ or 5,151 m AMSL), it would obviously require a water depth of 16,915′ (5,155.7 m), or over three miles above mean sea level. In order to accomplish this little task, it would require the previously noted additional 4.525 x 109 km3 of water to flood the Earth to this depth. The Earth’s present hydrosphere (the sum total of all waters in, on and above the Earth) totals only 1.37 x 109 km3. Where would this additional 4.525 x 109 km3 of water come from? It cannot come from water vapour (i.e., clouds) because the atmospheric pressure would be 840 times greater than standard pressure of the atmosphere today. Further, the latent heat released when the vapour condenses into liquid water would be enough to raise the temperature of the Earth’s atmosphere to approximately 3,570 C (6,460 F).

Someone, who shall properly remain anonymous, suggested that all the water needed to flood the Earth existed as liquid water surrounding the globe (i.e., a “vapour canopy”). This, of course, it staggeringly stupid. What is keeping that much water from falling to the Earth? There is a little property called gravity that would cause it to fall.

Let’s look into that from a physical standpoint. To flood the Earth, we have already seen that it would require 4.252 x 109 km3 of water with a mass of 4.525 x 1021 kg. When this amount of water is floating about the Earth’s surface, it stored an enormous amount of potential energy, which is converted to kinetic energy when it falls, which, in turn, is converted to heat upon impact with the Earth. The amount of heat released is immense:

Potential energy: E=M*g*H, where
M = mass of water,
g = gravitational constant and,
H = height of water above surface.

Now, going with the Genesis version of the Noachian Deluge as lasting 40 days and nights, the amount of mass falling to Earth each day is 4.525 x 1021 kg/40 24 hr. periods. This equals 1.10675 x 1020 kilograms daily. Using H as 10 miles (16,000 meters), the energy released each day is 1.73584 x 1025 joules. The amount of energy the Earth would have to radiate per m2/sec is energy divided by surface area of the Earth times number of seconds in one day. That is: e = 1.735384 x 1025/(4*3.14159* ((6386)2*86,400)) = 391,935.0958 j/m2/s.

Currently, the Earth radiates energy at the rate of approximately 215 joules/m2/sec and the average temperature is 280 K. Using the Stefan- Boltzman 4’th power law to calculate the increase in temperature:

E (increase)/E (normal) = T (increase)/T4 (normal)
E (normal) = 215 E (increase) = 391,935.0958 T (normal) = 280.

Turn the crank, and T (increase) equals 1800 K.

The temperature would thusly rise 1800 K, or 1,526.84 C (that’s 2,780.33 F…lead melts at 880 F…ed note). It would be highly unlikely that anything short of fused quartz would survive such an onslaught. Also, the water level would have to rise at an average rate of 5.5 inches/min; and in 13 minutes would be in excess of 6′ deep.

Finally, at 1800 K water would not exist as liquid.

Noah’s flood simply did not happen – unless you appeal to miracles. But appealing to miracles is epistemically worthless since they are¬†unfalsifiable.

This is the end of the ‘skeptical’ article.

In my opinion, it is disputable because evidence can be fabricated by whomever wants to provide a specific narrative. The only way to be sure is to go in the past and see for yourself.

There is historical narrative that overlaps the Flood. Some consider it fact, some consider it fairy tales.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yellow_Emperor (2697‚Äď2597 or 2698‚Äď2598 BC)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emperor_Ku  (2436-2366 BCE)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emperor_Yao (2333-2234 BCE)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emperor_Shun (2233-2184 BC)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yu_the_Great  (2200-2101 BC)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Three_Sovereigns_and_Five_Emperors (from circa 2852 BC to 2070 BC)

 

Also, in these chinese legends, there is a Flood:

Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Flood_(China)

The¬†Great Flood of Gun-Yu¬†(traditional Chinese:¬†ťĮÄÁ¶Ļś≤Ľśįī), also known as the¬†Gun-Yu myth,[1]¬†was a major flood event in¬†ancient China¬†that allegedly continued for at least two generations, which resulted in great population displacements among other disasters, such as storms and famine. People left their homes to live on the high hills and mounts, or nest on the trees.[2]¬†According to mythological and historical sources, it is traditionally dated to the third millennium BCE, during the reign of¬†Emperor Yao. Archaeological evidence of an outburst flood on the Yellow River (possibly among the worst anywhere in the world in the past 10,000 years) has been dated to about 1920 BCE (several centuries later than the traditional recorded beginning of the¬†Xia dynasty), and is suggested to have been the basis for the myth.[3]

Treated either historically or mythologically, the story of the Great Flood and the heroic attempts of the various human characters to control it and to abate the disaster is a narrative fundamental to Chinese culture. Among other things, the Great Flood of China is key to understanding the history of the founding of both the Xia dynasty and the Zhou dynasty, it is also one of the main flood motifs in Chinese mythology, and it is a major source of allusion in Classical Chinese poetry.

More about China’s timeline:¬†

https://www.ancient.eu/timeline/china/

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_Chinese_history

Now, for the Hindu timeline:

Source: http://ompage.net/Text/hindutimeline.htm

Hindu Timeline


How to Read the TimelineNot all major ruling dynasties are included, for at times India was divided into dozens of small independent
kingdoms. Approximate dates are preceded by the letter “ca,” an abbreviation of the word “circa,” which¬†
denotes “about,” “around” or “in approximately.” all dates prior to Buddha (624 bce) are considered estimates.

bce: Abbreviation for “before common era,” referring to dating prior to the year
zero in the Western, or Gregorian calendar, system.

ce: Abbreviation for “common era.” Equivalent to the abbreviation ad. Following a
date, it indicates that the year in question comes after the year zero in the Western,
or Gregorian calendar, system. 


Hindu Timeline Part 1
-2.5m to -1000bce-2.5 m: Genus Homo originates in Africa, cradle of humanity.

-2 m: Stone artifacts are made and used by hominids in North India, an area rich in
animal species, including the elephant.

-500,000: Stone hand axes and other tools are used in N. India.

-470,000: India’s hominids are active in Tamil Nadu and Punjab.

-400,000: Soan culture in India is using primitive chopping tools.

-360,000: Fire is first controlled by homo erectus in China.

-300,000: Homo sapiens roams the earth, from Africa to Asia.

-100,000: Homo sapiens sapiens (humans) with 20th-century man’s brain size
(1,450 cc) live in East Africa. Populations separate. Migrations proceed to Asia via
the Isthmus of Suez.

-75,000: Last ice age begins. Human population is 1.7 million.

-45,000: After mastery of marine navigation, migrations from Southeast Asia settle
Australia and the Pacific islands.

-40,000: Groups of hunter-gatherers in Central India are living in painted rock
shelters. Similar groups in Northern Punjab work at open sites protected by
windbreaks.

-35,000: Migrations of separated Asian populations settle Europe.

-30,000: American Indians spread throughout the Americas.

-10,000: Last ice age ends after 65,000 years; earliest signs of agriculture. World
population 4 million; India is 100,000.

-10,000: Taittiriya Brahmana 3.1.2 refers to Purvabhadrapada nakshatra’s rising
due east, a phenomenon occurring at this date (Dr. B.G. Siddharth of Birla Science
Institute), indicating the earliest known dating of the sacred Veda.

-10,000: Vedic culture, the essence of humanity’s eternal wisdom, Sanatana
Dharma, lives in the Himalayas at end of Ice Age.

-9000: Old Europe, Anatolia and Minoan Crete display a Goddess-centered culture
reflecting a matriarchial order.

-8500: Taittiriya Samhita 6.5.3 places Pleiades asterism at winter solstice,
suggesting the antiquity of this Veda.

-7500: Excavations at Neveli Cori in Turkey reveal advanced civilization with
meticulous architecture and planning. Dr. Sri B.G. Siddharth believes this was a
Vedic culture.

-7000: Proto-Vedic period ends. Early Vedic period begins.

-7000: Time of Manu Vaivasvata, “father of mankind,” of Sarasvati-Drishadvati
area (also said to be a South Indian Maharaja who sailed to the Himalayas during a
great flood).

-7000: Early evidence of horses in the Ganga region (Frawley).

-7000: Indus-Sarasvati area residents of Mehrgarh grow barley, raise sheep and
goats. They store grain, entomb their dead and construct buildings of sun-baked
mud bricks.

-6776: Start of Hindu lists of kings according to ancient Greek references that give
Hindus 150 kings and a history of 6,400 years before 300bce; agrees with next
entry.

-6500: Rig Veda verses (e.g., 1.117.22, 1.116.12, 1.84.13.5) say winter solstice
begins in Aries (according to Dr. D. Frawley), indicating the antiquity of this section
of the Vedas.

-6000: Early sites on the Sarasvati River, then India’s largest, flowing west of Delhi
into the Rann of Kutch; Rajasthan is a fertile region with much grassland, as
described in the Rig Veda. The culture, based upon barley (yava), copper (ayas)
and cattle, also reflects that of the Rig Veda.

-5500: Mehrgarh villagers are making baked pottery and thousands of small, clay of
female figurines (interpreted to be earliest signs of Shakti worship), and are involved
in long-distance trade in precious stones and sea shells.

-5500: Date of astrological observations associated with ancient events later
mentioned in the Puranas (Alain Danielou).

-5000: World population, 5 million, doubles every 1,000 years.

-5000: Beginnings of Indus-Sarasvati civilizations of Harappa and Mohenjo-daro.
Date derived by considering archeological sites, reached after excavating 45 feet.
Brick fire altars exist in many houses, suggesting Vedic fire rites, yajna. Earliest
signs of worship of Lord Siva. This mature culture will last 3,000 years, ending
around -1700.

-5000: Rice is harvested in China, with grains found in baked bricks. But its
cultivation originated in Eastern India.

-4300: Traditional dating for Lord Rama’s time.

-4000: Excavations from this period at Sumerian sites of Kish and Susa reveal
existence of Indian trade products.

-4000: India’s population is 1 million.

-4000: Date of world’s creation (Christian genealogies).

-3928: July 25th, the earliest eclipse mentioned in the Rig Veda (according to Indian
researcher Dr. Shri P.C. Sengupta).

-3200: Hindu astronomers called nakshatra darshas record in Vedic texts their
observations of full moon and new moon at the winter and summer solstices and
spring and fall equinoxes with reference to 27 fixed stars (nakshatras) spaced nearly
equally on the moon’s ecliptic or apparent path across the sky. The precession of
the equinoxes (caused by the wobbling of the Earth’s axis of rotation) causes the
nakshatras to appear to drift at a constant rate along a predictable course over a
25,000-year cycle. From these observations historians are able to calculate
backwards and determine the date when the indicated position of moon, sun and
nakshatra occurred.

-3102: Kali Era Hindu calendar starts. Kali Yuga begins.

-3100: Reference to vernal equinox in Rohini (middle of Taurus) from some
Brahmanas, as noted by B.G. Tilak, Indian scholar and patriot. Traditional date of
the Mahabharata war and lifetime of Lord Krishna.

-3100: Early Vedic period ends, late Vedic period begins.

-3100: India includes Afghanistan and parts of Central Asia.

-3100: Aryan people inhabit Iran, Iraq and Western Indus-Sarasvati Valley frontier.
Frawley describes Aryans as “a culture of spiritual knowledge.” He and others
believe 1) the Land of Seven Rivers (Sapta Sindhu) mentioned in the Rig Veda
refers to India only, 2) that the people of Indus-Sarasvati Valleys and those of Rig
Veda are the same, and 3) there was no Aryan invasion. This view is now
prevailing over the West’s historical concept of the Aryans as a separate ethnic or
linguistic group. Still others claim the Indus-Sarasvati people were Dravidians who
moved out or were displaced by incoming Aryans.

-3000: Weaving in Europe, Near East and Indus-Sarasvati Valley is primarily coiled
basketry, either spiraled or sewn.

-3000: Evidence of horses in South India.

-3000: People of Tehuacan, Mexico, are cultivating corn.

-3000: Saiva Agamas are recorded in the time of the earliest Tamil Sangam. (A
traditional date.)

-2700: Seals of Indus-Sarasvati Valley indicate Siva worship, in depictions of Siva
as Pashupati, Lord of Animals.

-2600: Indus-Sarasvati civilization reaches a height it sustains until 1700 bce.
Spreading from Pakistan to Gujarat, Punjab and Uttar Pradesh, it is the largest of
the world’s three oldest civilizations with links to Mesopotamia (possibly Crete),
Afghanisthan, Central Asia and Karnataka. Harappa and Mohenjo-daro have
populations of 100,000.

-2600: Major portions of the Veda hymns are composed during the reign of
Vishvamitra I (Dating by Dr. S.B. Roy).

-2600: Drying up of Drishadvati River of Vedic fame, along with possible shifting of
the Yamuna to flow into the Ganga.

-2600: First Egyptian pyramid is under construction.

-2500: Main period of Indus-Sarasvati cities. Culture relies heavily on rice and
cotton, as mentioned in Atharva Veda, which were first developed in India. Ninety
percent of sites are along the Sarasvati, the region’s agricultural bread basket.
Mohenjo-daro is a large peripheral trading center. Rakhigari and Ganweriwala (not
yet excavated in 1994) on the Sarasvati are as big as Mohenjo-daro. So is
Dholarvira in Kutch. Indus-Sarasvati sites have been found as far south as
Karnataka’s Godavari River and north into Afghanistan on the Amu Darya River.

-2500: Reference to vernal equinox in Krittika (Pleiades or early Taurus) from
Yajur and Atharva Veda hymns and Brahmanas. This corresponds to Harappan
seals that show seven women (the Krittikas) tending a fire.

-2300: Sargon founds Mesopotamian kingdom of Akkad, trades with
Indus-Sarasvati Valley cities.

-2300: Indo-Europeans in Russia’s Ural steppelands develop efficient spoked-wheel
chariot technology, using 1,000-year-old horse husbandry and freight-cart
technology.

-2050: Vedic people are living in Persia and Afghanistan.

-2051: Divodasa reigns to -1961, has contact with Babylon’s King Indatu
(Babylonian chronology). Dating by S.B. Roy.

ca -2040: Prince Rama is born at Ayodhya, site of future Rama temple. (This and
next two datings by S.B. Roy.)

-2033: Reign of Dasharatha, father of Lord Rama. King Ravana, villain of the
Ramayana, reigns in Sri Lanka.

-2000: Indo-Europeans (Celts, Slavs, Lithuanians, Ukranians) follow cosmology,
theology, astronomy, ritual, society and marriage that parallel early Vedic patterns.

-2000: Probable date of first written Saiva Agamas.

-2000: World population: 27 million. India: 5 million or 22%. India has roughly G of
human race throughout history.

-1915: All Madurai Tamil Sangam is held at Thiruparankundram (according to
traditional Tamil chronology).

-1900: Late Vedic period ends, post Vedic period begins.

-1900: Drying up of Sarasvati River, end of Indus-Sarasvati culture, end of the
Vedic age. After this, the center of civilization in ancient India relocates from the
Sarasvati to the Ganga, along with possible migration of Vedic peoples out of India
to the Near East (perhaps giving rise to the Mittani and Kassites, who worship
Vedic Gods). The redirection of the Sutlej into the Indus causes the Indus area to
flood. Climate changes make the Sarasvati region too dry for habitation. (Thought
lost, its river bed is finally photographed from satellite in the 1990s.)

-1500: Egyptians bury their royalty in the Valley of the Kings.

-1500: Polynesians migrate throughout Pacific islands.

-1500: Submergence of the stone port city of Dwarka near Gujarat, where early
Brahmi script, India’s ancient alphabet, is used. Recent excavation by Dr. S.R. Rao.
Larger than Mohenjo-daro, many identify it with the Dwarka of Krishna. Possible
date of Lord Krishna. Indicates second urbanization phase of India between
Indus-Sarasvati sites like Harappa and later cities on the Ganga.

-1500: Indigenous iron technology in Dwarka and Kashmir.

-1500: Cinnamon is exported from Kerala to Middle East.

-1472: Reign of Dhritarashtra, father of the Kauravas. Reign of Yudhisthira, king of
the Pandavas. Life of Sage Yajnavalkya. Date based on Mahabharata’s citation of
winter solstice at Dhanishtha, which occurs around this time.

-1450: End of Rig Veda Samhita narration.

-1450: Early Upanishads are composed during the next few hundred years, also
Vedangas and Sutra literature.

-1424: Bharata battle is fought, as related in the Mahabharata. (Professor Subash
Kak places the battle at -2449. Other authors give lower dates, up to 9th century
bce)

-1424: Birth of Parikshit, grandson of Arjuna, and next king.

-1350: At Boghaz Koi in Turkey, stone inscription of the Mitanni treaty lists as
divine witnesses the Vedic Deities Mitra, Varuna, Indra and the Nasatyas (Ashvins).

-1316: Mahabharata epic poem is composed by Sage Vyasa.

-1300: Panini composes Ashtadhyayi, systematizing Sanskrit grammar in 4,000
terse rules. (Date according to Roy.)

-1300: Changes are made in the Mahabharata and Ramayana through 200 bce.
Puranas are edited up until 400 ce. Early smriti literature is composed over next 400
years.

-1255: King Shuchi of Magadha writes Jyotisha Vedanga, including astronomical
observations which date this scripture-that summer solstice occurs in Ashlesha
Nakshatra.

-1250: Moses leads 600,000 Jews out of Egypt.

-1200: Probable time of the legendary Greek Trojan War celebrated in Homer’s
epic poems, Iliad and Odyssey (ca -750).

-1124: Elamite Dynasty of Nebuchadnezzar (-1124-1103) moves capital to
Babylon, world’s largest city, covering 10,000 hectares, slightly larger than
present-day San Francisco.

-1000: Late Vedic period ends. Post-Vedic period begins. 


Hindu Timeline Part 2
-1000bce to 1000ce

-1000: World population is 50 million, doubling every 500 years.

-975: King Hiram of Phoenicia, for the sake of King Solomon of Israel, trades with
the port of Ophir (Sanskrit: Supara) near modern Bombay, showing the trade
between Israel and India. Same trade goes back to Harappan era.

-950: Jewish people arrive in India in King Solomon’s merchant fleet. Later Jewish
colonies find India a tolerant home.

-950: Gradual breakdown of Sanskrit as a spoken language occurs over the next
200 years.

-925: Jewish King David forms an empire in what is present-day Israel and
Lebanon.

-900: Iron Age in India. Early use dates to at least -1500.

ca -900: Earliest records of the holy city of Varanasi (one of the world’s oldest
living cities) on the sacred river Ganga.

-900: Use of iron supplements bronze in Greece.

-850: The Chinese are using the 28-nakshatra zodiac called Shiu, adapted from the
Hindu jyotisha system.

ca -800: Later Upanishads are recorded.

-800: Later smriti, secondary Hindu scripture, is composed, elaborated and
developed during next 1,000 years.

-776: First Olympic Games are held in Greece.

-750: Prakrits, vernacular or “natural” languages, develop among India’s common
peoples. Already flourishing in 500 bce , Pali and other Prakrits are chiefly known
from Buddhist and Jain works composed at this time.

-750: Priestly Sanskrit is gradually refined over next 500 years, taking on its
classical form.

-700: Life of Zoroaster of Persia, founder of Zoroastrianism. His holy book, Zend
Avesta, contains many verses from the Rig and Atharva Veda. His strong
distinctions between good and evil set the dualistic tone of God and devil which
distinguishes all later Western religions.

-700: Early Smartism emerges from the syncretic Vedic brahminical (priestly caste)
tradition. It flourishes today as a liberal sect alongside Saiva, Vaishnava and Shakta
sects.

-623-543: Life of Siddhartha Gautama, the Buddha, born in Uttar Pradesh in a
princely Shakya Saivite family. (Date by Sri Lankan Buddhists. Indian scholars say
-563-483. Mahayanists of China and Japan prefer -566-486 or later.)

ca -600: Life of Sushruta, of Varanasi, the father of surgery. His ayurvedic treatises
cover pulse diagnosis, hernia, cataract, cosmetic surgery, medical ethics, 121
surgical implements, antiseptics, use of drugs to control bleeding, toxicology,
psychiatry, classification of burns, midwifery, surgical anesthesia and therapeutics
of garlic.

ca -600: The Ajivika sect, an ascetic, atheistic group of naked sadhus reputated for
fierce curses, is at its height, continuing in Mysore until the 14th century.
Adversaries of both Buddha and Mahavira, their philosophy is deterministic, holding
that everything is inevitable.

ca -600: Lifetime of Lao-tzu, founder of Taoism in China, author of Tao-te Ching.
Its esoteric teachings of simplicity and selflessness shape Chinese life for 2,000
years and permeate the religions of Vietnam, Japan and Korea.

-599-527: Lifetime of Mahavira Vardhamana, 24th Tirthankara and revered
renaissance Jain master. His teachings stress strict codes of vegetarianism,
asceticism and nonviolence. (Some date his life 40 years later. )

-560: In Greece, Pythagoras teaches math, music, vegetarianism and yoga-drawing
from India’s wisdom ways.

-551-478: Lifetime of Confucius, founder of Confucianist faith. His teachings on
social ethics are the basis of Chinese education, ruling-class ideology and religion.

-518: Darius I of Persia (present Iran) invades Indus Valley. This Zoroastrian king
shows tolerance for local religions.

ca -500: Lifetime of Kapila, founder of Sankhya Darshana, one of six classical
systems of Hindu philosophy.

ca -500: Dams to store water are constructed in India.

-500: World population is 100 million. India population is 25 million (15 million of
whom live in the Ganga basin).

ca -500: Over the next 300 years (according to the later dating of Muller) numerous
secondary Hindu scriptures (smriti) are composed: Shrauta Sutras, Grihya Sutras,
Dharma Sutras, Mahabharata, Ramayana and Puranas, etc.

ca -500: Tamil Sangam age (500 bce-500 ce) begins. Sage Agastya writes
Agattiyam, first known Tamil grammar. Tolkappiyar writes Tolkappiyam
Purananuru, also on grammar, stating that he is recording thoughts on poetry,
rhetoric, etc., of earlier grammarians, pointing to high development of Tamil
language prior to his day. He gives rules for absorbing Sanskrit words into Tamil.
Other famous works from the Sangam age are the poetical collections Paripadal,
Pattuppattu, Ettuthokai Purananuru, Akananuru, Aingurunuru, Padinenkilkanakku.
Some refer to worship of Vishnu, Indra, Murugan and Supreme Siva.

ca -486: Ajatashatru (reign -486-458) ascends Magadha throne.

-480: Ajita, a nastika (atheist) who teaches a purely material explanation of life and
that death is final, dies.

-478: Prince Vijaya, exiled by his father, King Sinhabahu, sails from Gujarat with
700 followers. Founds Singhalese kingdom in Sri Lanka. (Mahavamsa chronicle, ca
500.)

-450: Athenian philosopher Socrates flourishes (ca -470-400).

-428-348: Lifetime of Plato, Athenian disciple of Socrates. This great philosopher
founds Athens Academy in -387.

ca -400: Panini composes his Sanskrit grammar, the Ashtadhyayi. (Date accepted
among most Western scholars.)

ca -400: Lifetime of Hippocrates, Greek physician and “father of medicine,”
formulates Hippocratic oath, code of medical ethics still pledged by present-day
Western doctors.

ca -350: Rainfall is measured by Indian scientists.

-326: Alexander the Great of Greece invades, but fails to conquer, Northern India.
His soldiers mutiny. He leaves India the same year. Greeks who remain in India
intermarry with Indians. Interchanges of philosophy influence both civilizations.
Greek sculpture impacts Hindu styles. Bactria kingdoms later enhance Greek
influence.

305: Chandragupta Maurya, founder of first pan-Indian empire (-324-184), defeats
Greek garrisons of Seleucus, founder of Seleucan Empire in Persia and Syria. At its
height under Emperor Ashoka (reign -273-232), the Mauryan Empire includes all
India except the far South.

ca -302: Kautilya (Chanakya), minister to Chandragupta Maurya, writes
Arthashastra, a compendium of laws, administrative procedures and political advice
for running a kingdom.

-302: In Indica, Megasthenes, envoy to King Seleucus, reveals to Europe in colorful
detail the wonders of Mauryan India: an opulent society with abundant agriculture,
engineered irrigation and 7 castes: philosophers, farmers, soldiers, herdsmen,
artisans, magistrates and counselors.

ca -300: Chinese discover cast iron, known in Europe by 1300 ce.

ca -300: Pancharatra Vaishnava sect is prominent. All later Vaishnava sects are
based on the Pancharatra beliefs (formalized by Shandilya around 100 ce).

ca -300: Pandya kingdom (-300-1700 ce) of S. India is founded, constructs
magnificent Minakshi temple at its capital, Madurai. Builds temples of Shrirangam
and Rameshvaram, with its thousand-pillared hall (ca 1600 ce).

-297: Emperor Chandragupta abdicates to become a Jain monk.

-273: Ashoka (-273-232 reign), greatest Mauryan Emperor, grandson of
Chandragupta, is coronated. Repudiating conquest through violence after his brutal
invasion of Kalinga, 260 bce, he converts to Buddhism. Excels at public works and
sends diplomatic peace missions to Persia, Syria, Egypt, North Africa and Crete,
and Buddhist missions to Sri Lanka, China and other Southeast Asian countries.
Under his influence, Buddhism becomes a world power. His work and teachings are
preserved in Rock and Pillar Edicts (e.g., lion capital of the pillar at Sarnath,
present-day India’s national emblem).

-251: Emperor Ashoka sends his son Mahendra (-270-204) to spread Buddhism in
Sri Lanka, where he is to this day revered as the national faith’s founding
missionary.

ca -250: Lifetime of Maharishi Nandinatha, first known satguru in the Kailasa
Parampara of the Nandinatha Sampradaya. His eight disciples are Sanatkumar,
Shanakar, Sanadanar, Sananthanar, Sivayogamuni, Patanjali, Vyaghrapada and
Tirumular (Sundaranatha).

ca -221: Great Wall of China is built, ultimately 2,600 miles long, the only
man-made object visible from the moon.

ca -200: Lifetime of Rishi Tirumular, shishya of Maharishi Nandinatha and author
of the 3,047-verse Tirumantiram, a summation of Saiva Agamas and Vedas, and
concise articulation of the Nandinatha Sampradaya teachings, founding South
India’s monistic Saiva Siddhanta school.

ca -200: Lifetime of Patanjali, shishya of Nandinatha and gurubhai (brother monk)
of Rishi Tirumular. He writes the Yoga Sutras at Chidambaram, in South India.

ca -200: Lifetime of Bhogar Rishi, one of eighteen Tamil siddhas. This mystic
shapes from nine poisons the Palaniswami murti enshrined in present-day Palani
Hills temple in South India. Bhogar is either from China or visits there.

ca -200: Lifetime of Saint Tiruvalluvar, poet-weaver who lived near present-day
Madras, author of Tirukural, “Holy Couplets,” the classic Tamil work on ethics and
statecraft (sworn on in today’s South Indian law courts).

ca -200: Jaimini writes the Mimamsa Sutras.

ca -150: Ajanta Buddhist Caves are begun near present-day Hyderabad.
Construction of the 29 monasteries and galleries continues until approximately 650
ce. The famous murals are painted between 600 bce and 650 ce.

-145: Chola Empire (-145-1300 ce) of Tamil Nadu is founded, rising from modest
beginnings to a height of government organization and artistic accomplishment,
including the development of enormous irrigation works.

-140: Emperor Wu begins three-year reign of China; worship of the Mother
Goddess, Earth, attains importance.

-130: Reign ends of Menander (Milinda), Indo-Greek king who converts to
Buddhism.

-58: Vikrama Samvat Era Hindu calendar begins.

-50: Kushana Empire begins (-50-220 ce). This Mongolian Buddhist dynasty rules
most of the Indian subcontinent, Afghanistan and parts of Central Asia.

ca -10: Ilangovadikal, son of King Cheralathan of the Tamil Sangam age, writes the
outstanding epic Silappathikaram, classical Tamil treatise on music and dance.

Western Calendar Begins. C.E. – Common Era

-4: Jesus of Nazareth (-4-30 ce), founder of Christianity, is born in Bethlehem
(current Biblical scholarship).

10: World population is 170 million. India population is 35 million: 20.5% of world.

ca 50: South Indians occupy Funan, Indochina. Kaundinya, an Indian brahmin, is
first king. Shaivism is the state religion.

53: Legend records Saint Thomas’ death in Madras, one of the twelve Apostles of
Christ and founder of the Church of the Syrian Malabar Christians (Syrian Rite) in
Goa.

ca 60: Buddhism is introduced in China by Emperor Ming Di (reign: 58-76) after he
converts to the faith. Brings two monks from India who erect temple at modern
Honan.

ca 75: A Gujarat prince named Ajishaka invades Java.

78: Shaka Hindu calendar begins.

ca 80: Jains divide, on points of rules for monks, into the Shvetambara,
“white-clad,” and the Digambara, “sky-clad.”

ca 80-180: Lifetime of Charaka. Court physician of the Kushan king, he formulates
a code of conduct for doctors of ayurveda and writes Charaka Samhita, a manual
of medicine.

ca 100: Lifetime of Shandilya, first systematic promulgator of the ancient
Pancharatra doctrines, whose Bhakti Sutras, devotional aphorisms on Vishnu,
inspire a Vaishnava renaissance. The Samhita of Shandilya and his followers, the
Pancharatra Agama, embody the chief doctrines of present-day Vaishnavas. By the
10th century the popular sect leaves permanent mark on many Hindu schools.

100: Zhang Qian of China establishes trade routes to India and as far west as Rome,
later known as the “Silk Roads.”

105: Paper is invented in China.

117: The Roman Empire reaches its greatest extent.

125: Shatakarni (ca 106-130 reign) of Andhra’s Satavahana

(-70-225) dynasty destroys Shaka kingdom of Gujarat.

ca 175: Greek astronomer Ptolemy, known as Asura Maya in India, explains solar
astronomy, Surya Siddhanta, to Indian students of the science of the stars.

180: Mexican city of Teotihuacan has 100,000 population and covers 11 square
miles. Grows to 250,000 by 500 ce.

ca 200: Lifetime of Lakulisha, famed guru who leads a reformist movement within
Pashupata Saivism.

ca 200: Hindu kingdoms established in Cambodia and Malaysia.

205-270: Lifetime of Plotinus, Egyptian-born monistic Greek philosopher and
religious genius who transforms a revival of Platonism in the Roman Empire into
what present-day scholars call Neoplatonism, which greatly influences Islamic and
European thought. He teaches ahimsa, vegetarianism, karma, reincarnation and
belief in a Supreme Being, both immanent and transcendent.

ca 250: Pallava dynasty (ca 250-885) is established in Tamil Nadu, responsible for
building Kailasa Kamakshi Temple complex at their capital of Kanchi and the great
7th-century stone monuments at Mahabalipuram.

ca 275: Buddhist monastery Mahavihara is founded in Anuradhapura, capital of Sri
Lanka.

350: Imperial Gupta dynasty (320-540) flourishes. During this “Classical Age”
norms of literature, art, architecture and philosophy are established. This North
Indian empire promotes Vaishnavism and Saivism and, at its height, rules or
receives tribute from nearly all India. Buddhism also thrives under tolerant Gupta
rule.

ca 350: Lifetime of Kalidasa, the great Sanskrit poet and dramatist, author of
Shakuntala and Meghaduta. (The traditional date, offered by Prof. Subash Kak, is
50 bce.)

ca 350: Licchavi dynasty (ca 350-900) establishes Hindu rule in Nepal. Small
kingdom becomes the major intellectual and commercial center between South and
Central Asia.

358: Huns, excellent archers and horsemen possibly of Turkish origin, invade
Europe from the East.

375: Maharaja Chandragupta II Vikramaditya, greatest Hindu monarch, reigns to
413, expanding the prosperous Gupta empire northward beyond the Indus River.

391: Roman Emperor Theodosius destroys Greek Hellenistic temples in favor of
Christianity.

ca 400: Laws of Manu (Manu Dharma Shastras) written. Its 2,685 verses codify
cosmogony, four ashramas, government, domestic affairs, caste and morality
(others date at -600).

ca 400: Polynesians sailing in open outrigger canoes reach as far as Hawaii and
Easter Island.

ca 400: Shaturanga, Indian forerunner of chess, has evolved from Ashtapada, a
board-based race game, into a four-handed war game played with a die. Later, in
deference to the Laws of Manu, which forbid gambling, players discard the die and
create Shatranj, a two-sided strategy game.

ca 400: Vatsyayana writes Kamasutra, famous text on erotics.

419: Moche people of Peru build a Sun temple 150 feet high using 50 million
bricks.

438-45: Council of Ferrara-Florence, Italy, strengthens Roman Catholic stance
against doctrine of reincarnation.

ca 440: Ajanta cave frescoes (long before Islam) depict Buddha as Prince
Siddhartha, wearing “chudidara pyjama” and a prototype of the present-day “Nehru
shirt.”

450-535: Life of Bodhidharma of South India, 28th patriarch of India’s Dhyana
Buddhist sect, founder of Ch’an Buddhism in China (520), known as Zen in Japan.

ca 450: Hephtalite invasions (ca 450-565) take a great toll in North India. These
“white Huns” (or Hunas) from China are probably not related to Europe’s Hun
invaders.

ca 450: As the Gupta Empire declines, Indian sculptural style evolves and continues
until the 16th century. The trend is away from the swelling modeled forms of the
Gupta period toward increasing flatness and linearity.

453: Attila the Hun dies after lifetime of plundering Europe.

499: Aryabhata I (476-ca 550), Indian astronomer and mathematician, using Hindu
(aka Arabic) numerals accurately calculates pi () to 3.1416, and the solar year to
365.3586805 days. A thousand years before Copernicus, Aryabhata propounds a
heliocentric universe with elliptically orbiting planets and a spherical Earth spinning
on its axis, explaining the apparent rotation of the heavens. Writes Aryabhatiya,
history’s first exposition on plane and spherical trigonometry, algebra and arithmetic.

ca 500: Mahavamsa, chronicling Sri Lankan history from -500 is written in Pali,
probably by Buddhist monk Mahanama. A sequel, Chulavamsha, continues the
history to 1500.

ca 500: Sectarian folk traditions are revised, elaborated and reduced to writing as
the Puranas, Hinduism’s encyclopedic compendium of culture and mythology.

500: World population is 190 million. India population is 50 million: 26.3% of
world.

510: Hephtalite Mihirakula from beyond Oxus River crushes imperial Gupta power.
Soon controls much of N.C. India.

ca 533: Yashovarman of Malva and Ishanavarman of Kanauj defeat and expel the
Hephtalites from North India.

ca 543: Pulakeshin I founds Chalukya Dynasty (ca 543-757; 975-1189) in Gujarat
and later in larger areas of West India.

548: Emperor Kimmei officially recognizes Buddhism in Japan by accepting a gift
image of Buddha from Korea.

553: Council of Constantinople II denies doctrine of soul’s existence before
conception, implying reincarnation is incompatible with Christian belief.

565: The Turks and Persians defeat the Hephtalites.

570-632: Lifetime of Mohammed, preacher of the Quraysh Bedoin tribe, founder of
Islam. Begins to preach in Mecca, calling for an end to the “demons and idols” of
Arab religion and conversion to the ways of the one God, Allah.

ca 590-671: Lifetime of Saiva saint Nayanar Tirunavukkarasu, born into a farmer
family at Amur, now in South Arcot, Tamil Nadu. He writes 312 songs, totalling
3,066 Tirumurai verses. Cleaning the grounds of every temple he visits, he
exemplifies truly humble service to Lord Siva. His contemporary, the child-saint
Nayanar Sambandar, addresses him affectionately as Appar, “father.”

ca 598-665: Lifetime of Brahmagupta, preeminent Indian astronomer, who writes
on gravity and sets forth the Hindu astronomical system in his Brahma Sphuta
Siddhanta. Two of 25 chapters are on sophisticated mathematics.

ca 600: Religiously tolerant Pallava King Narasinhavarman builds China Pagoda, a
Buddhist temple, at the Nagapatam port for Chinese merchants and visiting monks.

ca 610: Muhammed begins prophecies, flees to Mecca in 622.

ca 600-900: Twelve Vaishnava Alvar saints of Tamil Nadu flourish, writing 4,000
songs and poems (assembled in their cannon Nalayira Divya Prabandham) praising
Narayana, Rama and narrating the love of Krishna and the gopis.

ca 600: Life of Banabhatta, Shakta master of Sanskrit prose, author of
Harshacharita (story of Harsha) and Kadambari.

606: Buddhist Harshavardhana, reigning 606-644, establishes first great kingdom
after the Hephtalite invasions, eventually ruling all India to the Narmada River in the
South.

ca 630: Vagbhata writes Ashtanga Sangraha on ayurveda.

630-34: Chalukya Pulakeshin II becomes Lord of South India by defeating
Harshavardhana, Lord of the North.

630-44: Chinese pilgrim Hiuen-Tsang (Huan Zang) travels in India, recording
voluminous observations. Population of Varanasi is 10,000, mostly Saiva. Nalanda
Buddhist university (his biographer writes) has 10,000 residents, including 1,510
teachers, and thousands of manuscripts.

641-45: Arab Muslims conquer Mesopotamia, Egypt and Persia.

ca 650: Lifetime of Nayanar Saiva saint Tirujnana Sambandar. Born a brahmin in
Tanjavur, he writes 384 songs totalling 4,158 verses that make up the first three
books of Tirumurai. At 16, he disappears into the sanctum of Nallur temple, near
Tiruchi, Tamil Nadu.

ca 650: More than 60 Chinese monks have traveled to India and her colonies. Four
hundred Sanskrit works have been translated into Chinese, 380 survive to the
present day.

686-705: Reign of Pallava King Rajasinha. He inherits the stone-carving legacy of
Emperor Mahendra and his son, Narasinha, who began the extensive sculptural art
in the thriving sea-port of Mahabalipuram.

ca 700: Over the next 100 years the Indonesian island of Bali receives Hinduism
from its neighbor, Java.

712: Muslims conquer Sind region (Pakistan), providing base for pillaging
expeditions that drain North India’s wealth.

732: French prevent Muslim conquest of Europe, stopping Arabs at Poitiers,
France, the NW limit of Arab penetration.

739: Chalukya armies beat back Arab Muslim invasions at Navasari in modern
Maharashtra.

ca750-1159: Pala dynasty arises in Bihar and Bengal, last royal patrons of
Buddhism, which they help establish in Tibet.

ca 750: Kailasa temple is carved out of a hill of rock at Ellora.

ca 750: Hindu astronomer and mathematician travels to Baghdad, with
Brahmagupta’s Brahma Siddhanta (treatise on astronomy) which he translates into
Arabic, bestowing decimal notation and use of zero on Arab world.

ca 750: Lifetime of Bhavabhuti, Sanskrit dramatist, second only to Kalidasa. Writes
Malati Madhava, a Shakta work.

ca 750: Valmiki writes 29,000-verse Yoga Vasishtha.

ca 750: A necklace timepiece, kadikaram in Tamil, is worn by an Emperor
(according to scholar M. Arunachalam).

788: Adi Shankara (788-820) is born in Malabar, famous monk philosopher of
Smarta tradition who writes mystic poems and scriptural commentaries including
Viveka Chudamani, and regularizes ten monastic orders called Dashanami.
Preaches Mayavada Advaita, emphasizing the world as illusion and God as the sole
Reality.

ca 800: Bhakti revival curtails Buddhism in South India. In the North, Buddha is
revered as Vishnu’s 9th incarnation.

ca 800: Life of Nammalvar, greatest of Alvar saints. His poems shape the beliefs of
Southern Vaishnavas to the present day.

ca 800: Lifetime of Vasugupta, modern founder of Kashmir Saivism, a monistic,
meditative school.

ca 800: Lifetime of Auvaiyar, woman saint of Tamil Nadu, great devotee of Lord
Ganesha and author of Auvai Kural. She is associated with the Lambika kundalini
school. (A second date for Auvaiyar of 200 bce is from a story about Auvaiyar and
Saint Tiruvalluvar as siblings. A third Auvaiyar reference is dated at approximately
1000. (Auvaiyar is a Tamil word meaning “old, learned woman;” some believe it
may refer to three different persons.)

ca 800: Lifetime of Karaikkal Ammaiyar, one of the 63 Saiva saints of Tamil Nadu.
Her mystical and yogic hymns, preserved in the Tirumurai, remain popular to the
present day.

ca 825: Nayanar Tamil saint Sundarar is born into a family of Adishaiva temple
priests in Tirunavalur in present-day South Arcot. His 100 songs in praise of Siva
(the only ones surviving of his 38,000 songs) make up Tirumurai book 7. His Tiru
Tondattohai poem, naming the Saiva saints, is the basis for Saint Sekkilar’s
Periyapuranam.

ca 800: Lifetime of Andal, woman saint of Tamil Nadu. Writes devotional poetry to
Lord Krishna, disappears at age 16.

ca 825: Vasugupta discovers the rock-carved Siva Sutras.

846: Vijayalaya reestablishes his Chola dynasty, which over the next 100 years
grows and strengthens into one of the greatest South Indian Empires ever known.

ca 850: Shri Vaishnava sect established in Tamil Nadu by Acharya Nathamuni,
forerunner of great theologian Ramanuja.

ca 850: Life of Manikkavasagar, Saiva Samayacharya saint, born in Tiruvadavur,
near Madurai, into a Tamil brahmin family. Writes famed Tiruvasagam, 51 poems
of 656 verses in 3,394 lines, chronicling the soul’s evolution to God Siva.
Tirupalli-eluchi and Tiruvembavai are classic examples of his innovative style of
devotional songs.

875: Muslim conquests extend from Spain to Indus Valley.

885: Cholas kill Aparajita, king of the Pallavas, in battle.

ca 900: Lifetime of Matsyendranatha, exponent of the Natha sect emphasizing
kundalini yoga practices.

ca 900: Under the Hindu Malla dynasty (ca 900-1700) of Nepal, legal and social
codes influenced by Hinduism are introduced. Nepal is broken into several
principalities.

ca 900-1001: Lifetime of Sembiyan Ma Devi, queen of Maharaja Gandaraditta
Chola from 950-957 and loyal patron of Saivism, builds ten temples and inspires
and molds her grand-nephew prince, son of Sundara Chola, into the great
temple-builder, Emperor Rajaraja I.

900: Mataramas dynasty in Indonesia reverts to Saivism after a century of
Buddhism, building 150 Saiva temples.

ca 950: Lifetime of Gorakshanatha, Natha yogi who founds the order of Kanphatha
Yogis and Gorakshanatha Saivism, the philosophical school called Siddha
Siddhanta.

ca 950-1015: Lifetime of Kashmir Saiva guru Abhinavagupta.

960: Chola King Vira, after having a vision of Siva Nataraja dancing, commences
enlargement of the Siva temple at Chidambaram, including the construction of the
gold-roofed shrine. The enlargement is completed in 1250 ce.

985: Rajaraja I (reign 985-1014) ascends the South Indian Chola throne and ushers
in a new age of temple architecture exemplified at Tanjavur, Darasuram,
Tirubhuvanam and Chidambaram. Pallava architectural influences (dominant
vimanas, inconspicuous gopuras) fade.

ca 1000: Gorakshanatha writes Siddha Siddhanta Paddhati, “Tracks on the
Doctrines of the Adepts.” The nature of God and universe, structure of chakras,
kundalini force and methods for realization are explained in 353 verses. 


Hindu Timeline Part 3
1000ce to 1500ce

1000: World population is 265 million. India population is 79 million, 29.8% of
world.

ca 1000: A few Hindu communities from Rajasthan, Sindh and other areas, the
ancestors of present-day Romani, or Gypsies, gradually move to Persia and on to
Europe.

ca 1000: Vikings reach North America, landing in Nova Scotia.

ca 1000: Polynesians arrive in New Zealand, last stage in the greatest migration and
navigational feat in history, making them the most widely-spread race on Earth.

1001: Turkish Muslims sweep through the Northwest under Mahmud of Ghazni,
defeating Jayapala of Hindu Shahi Dynasty of S. Afghanisthan and Punjab at
Peshawar. This is the first major Muslim conquest in India.

ca 1010: Tirumurai, Tamil devotional hymns of Saiva saints, is collected as an
anthology by Nambiandar Nambi.

1017: Mahmud of Ghazni sacks Mathura, birthplace of Lord Krishna, and
establishes a mosque on the site during one of his 17 Indian invasions for holy war
and plunder.

1017-1137: Life of Ramanuja of Kanchipuram, Tamil philosopher-saint of Shri
Vaishnava sect that continues bhakti tradition of S. Indian Alvar saints. His strongly
theistic nondual Vishishtadvaita Vedanta philosophy restates Pancharatra tradition.
Foremost opponent of Shankara’s system, he dies at age 120 while head of
Shrirangam monastery.

1018-1060: Lifetime of Bhojadeva Paramara, Gujarati king, poet, artist and
monistic Saiva Siddhanta theologian.

1024: Mahmud of Ghazni plunders Somanath Siva temple, destroying the Linga and
killing 50,000 Hindu defenders. He later builds a mosque on the remaining walls.

1025: Chola ruler Maharaja Rajendra I sends victorious naval expeditions to Burma,
Malaysia and Indonesia, initiating decline of Mahayana Buddhist empire of
Shrivijaya.

ca 1040: Chinese invent the compass and moveable type and perfect the use of
gunpowder, first invented and used in India as an explosive mixture of saltpetre,
sulfur and charcoal to power guns, cannons and artillery.

ca 1050: Lifetime of Shrikantha, promulgator of Siva Advaita, a major philosophical
school of Saivism.

ca 1130-1200: Lifetime of Nimbarka, Telegu founder of the Vaishnava Nimandi
sect holding the philosophy of dvaitadvaita, dual-nondualism. He introduces the
worship of Krishna together with consort Radha. (Present-day Nimavats revere
Vishnu Himself, in the form of the Hamsa Avatara, as the originator of their sect.)

ca 1130: Lifetime of Sekkilar, Tamil chief minister under Chola Emperor
Kulottunga II (reign 1133-1150) and author of Periyapuranam, 4,286-verse epic
biography (hagiography) of the 63 Saiva saints and 12th book of Tirumurai.

ca 1150: Life of Basavanna, renaissance guru of the Vira Saiva sect, stressing free
will, equality, service to humanity and worship of the Sivalinga worn around the
neck.

ca 1150: Khmer ruler Suryavarman II completes Angkor Wat temple (in
present-day Cambodia), where his body is later entombed and worshiped as an
embodiment of Vishnu. This largest Hindu temple in Asia is 12 miles in
circumference, with a 200-foot high central tower.

ca 1162: Mahadevi is born, female Saiva ascetic saint of Karnataka, writes 350
majestic and mystical poems.

1175: Toltec Empire of Mexico crumbles.

1185: Mohammed of Ghur conquers Punjab and Lahore.

1191: Eisai founds Rinzai Zen sect in Japan after study in China.

1193: Qutb ud-Din Aybak founds first Muslim Sultanate of Delhi, establishing the
Mamluk Dynasty (1193-1290).

1197: Great Buddhist university of Nalanda is destroyed by Muslim Ikhtiyar ud-din.

1200: All of North India is under Muslim domination.

1200: India population reaches 80 million.

ca 1200: An unknown author writes Yoga Yajnavalkya.

1215: King John is forced to sign the Magna Carta, giving greater rights to citizens
in England.

1227: Mongolian Emperor Genghis Khan, conqueror of a vast area from Beijing,
China, to Iran and north of Tibet, the largest empire the world has yet seen, dies.

1230-60: Surya temple at Konarak, Orissa, India, is constructed.

1238-1317: Lifetime of Ananda Tirtha, Madhva, venerable Vaishnava dualist and
opponent of Shankara’s mayavadin advaita philosophy. He composes 37 works and
founds Dvaita Vedanta school, the Brahma Vaishnava Sampradaya and its eight
monasteries, ashtamatha, in Udupi.

ca 1250: Lifetime of Meykandar, Saiva saint who founds the Meykandar school of
pluralistic Saiva Siddhanta, of which his 12-sutra Sivajnanabodham becomes its
core scripture.

1260: Meister Eckhart, the German mystic, is born.

1268-1369: Lifetime of Vedanta Deshikar, gifted Tamil scholar and poet who
founds sect of Vaishnavism called Vadakalai, headquartered at Kanchipuram.

1270-1350: Lifetime of Namadeva, foremost poet saint of Maharashtra’s Varkari
(“pilgrim”) Vaishnava school, disciple of Jnanadeva. He and his family compose a
million verses in praise of Lord Vithoba (Vishnu).

1272: Marco Polo visits India en route to China.

1274: Council of Lyons II declares that souls go immediately to heaven, purgatory
or hell; interpreted by Catholic fathers as condemning the doctrine of reincarnation.

1275-96: Lifetime of Jnanadeva, Natha-trained Vaishnava saint, founder of the
Varkari school, who writes Jnaneshvari, a Marathi verse commentary on Bhagavad
Gita, which becomes Maharashtra’s most popular book.

1279: Muktabai is born, Maharashtrian Varkari saint and Natha yogini, writes 100
sacred verses.

1280: Mongol (Yuen) dynasty (1280-1368) begins in China, under which occurs the
last of much translation work into Chinese from Sanskrit.

1296: Ala-ud-din, second king of Khalji dynasty, rules most of India after his
General Kafur conquers the South, extending Muslim dominion to Rameshwaram.

ca 1300: Lifetime of Janabai, Maharashtrian Varkari Vaishnava woman saint who
writes a portion of Namadeva’s million verses to Vithoba (Vishnu).

ca 1300: The Ananda Samucchaya is written, 277 stanzas on hatha yoga, with
discussion of the chakras and the nadis.

1300: Muslim conquerors reach Cape Comorin at the southernmost tip of India and
build a mosque there.

1317-72: Life of Lalla of Kashmir. Saiva renunciate, mystic poetess contributes
significantly to the Kashmiri language.

1336: Vijayanagara Empire (1336-1565-1646) of South India is founded. European
visitors are overwhelmed by the wealth and advancement of its 17-square-mile
capital.

1345: Aztecs establish great civilization in Mexico.

1346-90: Life of Krittivasa, translator of Ramayana into Bengali.

1347: Plague called the Black Death spreads rapidly, killing 75 million worldwide
before it recedes in 1351.

ca 1350: Svatmarama writes Hatha Yoga Pradipika.

ca 1350: Lifetime of Appaya Dikshita, South Indian philosoper saint whose writings
reconcile Vaishnavism and Saivism. He advances Siva Advaita and other Saiva
schools and compiles a temple priests’ manual still used today.

1398: Tamerlane (Timur) invades India with 90,000 cavalry and sacks Delhi
because its Muslim Sultanate is too tolerant of Hindu idolatry. A Mongolian
follower of Sufism, he is one of the most ruthless of all conquerors.

1399: Hardwar, Ganga pilgrimage town, is sacked by Timur.

ca 1400: Goraksha Upanishad is written.

1414: Hindu prince Parameshvara of Malaysia converts to Islam.

1414-80: Life of Gujarati Vaishnava poet-saint Narasinha Mehta.

1415: Bengali poet-singer Baru Chandidas writes Shrikrishnakirtana, a collection of
exquisite songs praising Krishna.

1429: Joan of Arc, age 17, leads the French to victory over the English.

ca 1433: China cloisters itself from outside world by banning further voyages to the
West. (First bamboo curtain.)

1440-1518: Lifetime of Kabir, Vaishnava reformer with who has both Muslim and
Hindu followers. (His Hindi songs remain immensely popular to the present day.)

ca 1440: Johannes Gutenberg (ca 1400-1468) invents the West’s first
moveable-type printing press in Germany.

1450?-1547: Lifetime of Mirabai, Vaishnava Rajput princess saint who, married at
an early age to the Rana of Udaipur, devotes herself to Krishna and later renounces
worldly life to wander India singing to Him beautiful mystic compositions that are
sung to the present day.

1469-1538: Lifetime of Guru Nanak, founder of Sikhism, originally a reformist
Hindu sect stressing devotion, faith in the guru, repetition of God’s name and
rejection of renunciation and caste. (Most Sikhs in the present day consider
themselves members of a separate religion.)

1478: Spanish Inquisition begins. Over the next 20 years, Christians burn several
thousand persons at the stake.

1479-1531: Lifetime of Vallabhacharya, a married Telegu brahmin saint who
teaches pushtimarga, “path of love,” and a lofty nondual philosophy, Shuddhadvaita
Vedanta, in which souls are eternally one with Brahman. Vallabhacharya’s
Vaishnavism worships Krishna in the form of Shri Nathji.

1483-1563: Lifetime of Surdas, sightless Hindi bard of Agra, whose hymns to
Krishna are compiled in the Sursagar.

1486-1543: Life of Chaitanya, Bengali founder of popular Vaishnava sect which
proclaims Krishna Supreme God and emphasizes sankirtan, group chanting and
dancing.

1492: Looking for India, Christopher Columbus lands on San Salvador island in the
Caribbean, thus “discovering” the Americas and proving that the earth is round, not
flat.

1498: Portugal’s Vasco da Gama sails around Cape of Good Hope to Calicut,
Kerala, first European to find sea route to India.

ca 1500: Life of Arunagirinathar, Tamil saint, author of Tiruppugal hymns;
emphasizes feeding the hungry during a time of Muslim oppression and disrupted
family life.

ca 1500: Buddhist and Saiva Hindu princes are forced off Java by invading
Muslims. They resettle on neighboring Bali, with their overlapping priesthoods and
vast royal courts: poets, dancers, musicians and artisans. Within 100 years they
construct what many call a fairytale kingdom. 


Hindu Timeline Part 4
1500ce to 1800ce

1500: World population 425 million; 105 million live in India.

1503-1566: Lifetime of Nostradamus, French physician and astrologer who wrote
Centuries (1555), a book of prophecies.

1509-1529: Reign of Maharaja Krishnadevaraya of the Vijayanagara Empire in
Andhra Pradesh.

1510: Portuguese Catholics conquer Goa to serve as capital of their Asian maritime
empire, beginning conquest and exploitation of India by Europeans.

1517: Luther begins Protestant reformation in Europe.

ca 1520: Poet-saint Purandardas (1480-1564) of the Vijayanagara court
systematizes Karnatak music.

1526: Mughal conqueror Babur (1483-1530) defeats the Sultan of Delhi and
captures the Koh-i-noor diamond. Occupying Delhi, by 1529 he founds the Indian
Mughal Empire (1526-1761), consolidated by his grandson Akbar.

1528: Emperor Babur destroys temple at Lord Rama’s birthplace in Ayodhya,
erects Muslim masjid, or monument.

1532-1623: Life of Monk-poet Tulasidasa. Writes Ramacharitamanasa (1574-77),
greatest medieval Hindi literature (based on Ramayana). It advances Rama worship
in the North.

1542: Portuguese Jesuit priest Francis Xavier (1506-1552), most successful
Catholic missionary, lands in Goa. First to train and employ native clergy in
conversion efforts, he brings Christianity to India, Malay Archipelago and Japan.

1544-1603: Life of Dadu, ascetic saint of Gujarat, founder of Dadupantha, which is
guided by his Bani poems in Hindi.

1556: Akbar (1542-1605), grandson of Babur, becomes third Mughal Emperor at
age 13. Disestablishes Islam as state religion and declares himself impartial ruler of
Hindus and Muslims; encourages art, culture, religious tolerance.

1565: Muslim forces defeat and completely destroy the city of Vijayanagara.
Empire’s final collapse comes in 1646.

1565: Polish astronomer Copernicus’ (1473-1543) Heliocentric system, in which the
Earth orbits the sun, gains popularity in Europe among astronomers and
mathematicians.

1569: Akbar captures fortress of Ranthambor, ending Rajput independence. Soon
controls nearly all of Rajasthan.

ca 1570: Ekanatha (1533-99), Varkari Vaishnava saint and mystic composer, edits
Jnanadeva’s Jnaneshvari and translates Bhagavata Purana, advancing Marathi
language.

1588: British ships defeat the Spanish Armada off the coast of Calais, France, to
become rulers of the high seas.

1589: Akbar rules half of India, shows tolerance for all faiths.

1595: Construction is begun on Chidambaram Temple’s Hall of a Thousand Pillars
in South India, completed in 1685.

ca 1600: “Persian wheel” to lift water by oxen is adopted, one of few farming
innovations since Indus Valley civilization.

1600: Royal Charter forms the East India Company, setting in motion a process that
ultimately results in the subjugation of India under British rule.

1603-4: Guru Arjun compiles Adi Granth, Sikh scripture.

1605: Akbar the Great dies at age 63. His son Jahangir succeeds him as fourth
Mughal Emperor.

1605: Sikh Golden Temple (Harimandir) at Amritsar, Punjab, is finished,
completely covered with gold leaf.

1608-49: Lifetime of Tukaram, beloved Varkari sant famed for his abhangas,
“unbroken hymns,” to Krishna. Considered greatest Marathi spiritual composer.

1608-81: Lifetime of Ramdas, mystic poet, Sivaji’s guru, Marathi saint, who gives
Hindus the dhvaja, saffron flag.

1610: Galileo of Italy (1564-1642) perfects the telescope, with which he confirms
the Copernican theory. Condemned a heretic by the Catholic Inquisition for his
discoveries.

1613-14: British East India Company sets up trading post at Surat.

1615-18: Mughals grant Britain right to trade and establish factories in exchange for
English navy’s protection of the Mughal Empire, which faces Portuguese sea
power.

1619: Jaffna kingdom is annexed and Sri Lanka’s ruling dynasty deposed by
Portuguese Catholics who, between 1505 and 1658, destroy most of the island’s
Hindu temples.

1619: First black slaves from Africa are sold in the USA.

1620: European pilgrims land and settle at Plymouth Rock, US.

1627-80: Life of Sivaji, valiant general and tolerant founder of Hindu Maratha
Empire (1674-1818). Emancipates large areas confiscated by Muslims, returning
them to Hindu control. First Indian ruler to build a major naval force.

ca 1628-88: Lifetime of Kumaraguruparar, prolific poet-saint of Tamil Nadu who
founds monastery in Varanasi to propound Saiva Siddhanta philosophy.

1630: Over the next two years, millions starve to death as Shah Jahan (1592-1666),
fifth Mughal Emperor, empties the royal treasury to buy jewels for his “Peacock
Throne.”

1647: Shah Jahan completes Taj Mahal in Agra beside Yamuna River. Its
construction has taken 20,000 laborers 15 years, at a total cost equivalence of
US$25 million.

1649: Red Fort is completed in Delhi by Shah Jahan.

ca 1650: Dharmapuram Aadheenam, Saiva monastery, founded near Mayuram,
South India, by Guru Jnanasambandar.

ca 1650: Robert de Nobili (1577-1656), Portuguese Jesuit missionary noted for
fervor and intolerance, arrives in Madurai, declares himself a brahmin, dresses like
a Hindu monk and composes Veda-like scripture extolling Jesus.

ca 1650: Two yoga classics, Siva Samhita and Gheranda Samhita, are written.

1654: A Tamil karttanam is written and sung to celebrate recovery installation of
Tiruchendur’s Murugan murti.

1658: Zealous Muslim Aurangzeb (1618-1707) becomes Mughal Emperor. His
discriminatory policies toward Hindus, Marathas and the Deccan kingdoms
contribute to the dissolution of the Mughal Empire by 1750.

1660: Frenchman Francois Bernier reports India’s peasantry is living in misery
under Mughal rule.

1664: Great Plague of London kills 70,000, 15% of the population.

1675: Aurangzeb executes Sikh Guru Tegh Bahadur, beginning the Sikh-Muslim
feud that continues to this day.

1679: Aurangzeb levies Jizya tax on non-believers, Hindus.

1688: Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb demolishes all temples in Mathura, said to
number 1,000. (During their reign, Muslim rulers destroy roughly 60,000 Hindu
temples throughout India, constructing mosques on 3,000 sites.)

1700: World population is 610 million. India population is 165 million: 27% of
world.

1705-42: Lifetime of Tayumanavar, Tamil Saiva poet saint and devotional yogic
philosopher of Tiruchirappalli.

1708: Govind Singh, tenth and last Sikh guru, is assassinated.

1708-37: Jai Singh II builds astronomical observatories in Delhi, Jaipur, Ujjain,
Benares and Mathura.

1718-75: Lifetime of Ramprasad, Bengali Shakta poet-saint.

1722: Peter the Great rules in Russia.

ca 1725: Jesuit Father Hanxleden compiles first Sanskrit grammar in a European
language.

ca 1750: Shakta songs of Bengali poets Ramprasad Sen and Kamalakanta
Bhattacharya glorify Her as loving Mother and Daughter and stimulate a rise in
devotional Shaktism.

1751: Robert Clive, age 26, seizes Arcot in modern Tamil Nadu as French and
British fight for control of South India.

1760: Saiva sannyasis fight Vaishnava vairagis in tragic battle at Hardwar Kumbha
Mela; 18,000 monks are killed.

1760: Eliezer (Besht), liberal founder of Hasidic Judaism, dies.

1761: Afghan army of Ahmad Shah Durrani routs Hindu Maratha forces at Panipat,
ending Maratha hegemony in North India. As many as 200,000 Hindus are said to
have died in the strategic eight-hour battle.

1764: British defeat the weak Mughal Emperor to become rulers of Bengal, richest
province of India.

1769: Prithivi Narayan Shah, ruler of Gorkha principality, conquers Nepal Valley;
moves capital to Kathmandu, establishing present-day Hindu nation of Nepal.

ca 1770-1840: Life of Rishi from the Himalayas, guru of Kadaitswami and first
historically known satguru of the Nandinatha Sampradaya’s Kailasa Parampara
since Tirumular.

1773: British East India Company obtains monopoly on the production and sale of
opium in Bengal.

ca 1780-1830: Golden era of Karnatik music. Composers include Tyagaraja,
Dikshitar and Shastri.

1781: George Washington defeats British at Yorktown, US.

1781-1830: Lifetime of Sahajanandaswami, Gujarati founder of the Swaminarayan
sect (with 1.5 million followers today).

1784: Judge and linguist Sir William Jones founds Calcutta’s Royal Asiatic Society.
First such scholastic institution.

1786: Sir William Jones uses the Rig Veda term Aryan (“noble”) to name the parent
language (now termed Indo-European) of Sanskrit, Greek, Latin and Germanic
tongues.

1787-95: British Parliament impeaches Warren Hastings, Governor General of
Bengal (1774-85) for misconduct.

1787: British Committee for the Abolition of the Slave Trade is formed, marking
the beginning of the end of slavery.

1789: French revolution begins with storming of the Bastille.

1792: Britain’s Cornwallis defeats Tipu Sahib, Sultan of Mysore and most powerful
ruler in South India, main bulwark of resistance to British expansion in India.

1793: Eli Whitney invents the cotton gin in the US, greatly affecting the institution
of slavery.

1796: Over two million worshipers compete for sacred Ganga bath at Kumbha Mela
in Hardwar. Five thousand Saiva ascetics are killed in tragic clash with Sikh
ascetics.

1799: Sultan Tipu is killed in battle against 5,000 British soldiers who storm and
raze his capital, Srirangapattinam. 


Hindu Timeline  Part 5
1800ce to the Present and Beyond!

1803: Second Anglo-Maratha war results in British Christian capture of Delhi and
control of large parts of India.

1803: India’s population is 200 million.

1803-82: Lifetime of Ralph Waldo Emerson, American poet who helps popularize
Bhagavad Gita and Upanishads in US.

1807: Importation of slaves is banned in the US through an act of Congress
motivated by Thomas Jefferson.

1809: British strike a bargain with Ranjit Singh for exclusive areas of influence.

ca 1810-75: Lifetime of renaissance guru Kadaitswami, born near Bangalore, sent
to Sri Lanka by Rishi from the Himalayas to strengthen Saivism against Catholic
incursion.

1812: Napoleon’s army retreats from Moscow. Only 20,000 soldiers survive out of
a 500,000-man invasion force.

1814: First practical steam locomotive is built.

1817-92: Lifetime of Bahaullah, Mirza Husayn ‘Ali, founder of Baha’i faith (1863),
a major off-shoot religion of Islam.

1818-78: Lifetime of Sivadayal, renaissance founder of the esoteric reformist
Radhasoami Vaishnava sect in Agra.

1820: First Indian immigrants arrive in the US.

1822-79: Life of Arumuga Navalar of Jaffna, Sri Lanka, renaissance activist who
propounds Advaita Siddhanta, writes first Hindu catechism and translates Bible into
Tamil so it can be compared faithfully to the Vedas and Agamas.

1823-74: Life of Ramalingaswami, Tamil saint, renaissance founder of Vadalur’s
“Hall of Wisdom for Universal Worship.”

1824-83: Lifetime of Swami Dayananda Sarasvati, renaissance founder of Arya
Samaj (1875), Hindu reformist movement stressing a return to the values and
practices of the Vedas. Author of Satya Prakash, “Light on Truth.”

1825: First massive immigration of Indian workers from Madras is to Reunion and
Mauritius. This immigrant Hindu community builds their first temple in 1854.

1828: Ram Mohan Roy (1772-1833) founds Adi Brahmo Samaj in Calcutta, first
movement to initiate religio-social reform. Influenced by Islam and Christianity, he
denounces polytheism, idol worship; repudiates the Vedas, avataras, karma and
reincarnation, caste and more.

1831-91: Lifetime of Russian mystic Madame H.P. Blavatsky, founder of
Theosophical Society in 1875, bringing aspects of psychism, Buddhism and
Hinduism to the West.

1831: British Christians defeat Ranjit Singh’s forces at Balakot, in Sikh attempt to
establish a homeland in N.W. India.

1833: Slavery is abolished in British Commonwealth countries, giving impetus to
abolitionists in United States.

1835: Civil service jobs in India are opened to Indians.

1835: Macaulay’s Minute furthers Western education in India. English is made
official government and court language.

1835: Mauritius receives 19,000 immigrant indentured laborers from India. Last
ship carrying workers arrives in 1922.

1836-86: Lifetime of Shri Ramakrishna, God-intoxicated Bengali Shakta saint, guru
of Swami Vivekananda. He exemplifies the bhakti dimension of Shakta
Universalism.

1837: Britain formalizes emigration of Indian indentured laborers to supply cheap
labor under a system more morally acceptable to British Christian society than
slavery, illegal in the British Empire since 1833.

1837: Kali-worshiping Thugees are suppressed by British.

1838: British Guyana receives its first 250 Indian laborers.

1838-84: Lifetime of Keshab Chandra Sen, Hindu reformer who founds Brahma
Samaj of India, a radical offshoot of the Adi Brahmo Samaj of Ram Mohan Roy.

1840-1915: Lifetime of Satguru Chellappaswami of Jaffna, Sri Lanka, initiated at
age 19 by Siddha Kadaitswami as next satguru in the Nandinatha Sampradaya’s
Kailasa Parampara.

1840: Joseph de Goubineau (1816-1882), French scholar, writes The Inequality of
Human Races. Proclaims the “Aryan race” superior to other great strains and lays
down the aristocratic class-doctrine of Aryanism that later provides the basis for
Adolf Hitler’s Aryan racism.

1842-1901: Life of Eknath Ranade, founder of Prarthana Samaj. His social-reform
thinking inspires Gokhale and Gandhi.

1843: British conquer the Sind region (present-day Pakistan).

1845: Trinidad receives its first 197 Indian immigrant laborers.

1846: British forcibly separate Kashmir from the Sikhs and sell it to the Maharaja of
Jammu for pounds1,000,000.

1849: Sikh army is defeated by the British at Amritsar.

1850: First English translation of the Rig Veda by H.H. Wilson, first holder of
Oxford’s Boden Chair, founded “to promote the translation of the Scriptures into
English, so as to enable his countrymen to proceed in the conversion of the natives
of India to the Christian religion.”

1851: Sir M. Monier-Williams (1819-99) publishes English-Sanskrit Dictionary. His
completed Sanskrit-English Dictionary is released in 1899 after three decades of
work.

1853-1920: Lifetime of Shri Sharada Devi, wife of Shri Ramakrishna.

1853: Max Muller (1823-1900), German Christian philologist and Orientalist,
advocates the term Aryan to name a hypothetical primitive people of Central Asia,
the common ancestors of Hindus, Persians and Greeks. Muller speculates that this
“Aryan race” divided and marched west to Europe and east to India and China
around 1500 bce. Their language, Muller contends, developed into Sanskrit, Greek,
Latin, German, etc., and all ancient civilizations descended from this Aryan race.

1856: Catholic missionary Bishop Caldwell coins the term Dravidian to refer to
South Indian Caucasian peoples.

1857: First Indian Revolution, called the Sepoy Mutiny, ends in a few months with
the fall of Delhi and Lucknow.

1858: India has 200 miles of railroad track. By 1869 5,000 miles of steel track have
been completed by British railroad companies. In 1900, total track is 25,000 miles,
and by World War I, 35,000 miles. By 1970, at 62,136 miles, it has become the
world’s greatest train system. Unfortunately, this development depletes India’s
forest lands.

1859: Charles Darwin, releases controversial book, The Origin of Species,
propounding his “natural selection” theory of evolution, laying the foundations of
modern biology.

1860: S.S. Truro and S.S. Belvedere dock in Durban, S. Africa, carrying first
indentured servants (from Madras and Calcutta) to work sugar plantations. With
contracts of five years and up, thousands emigrate over next 51 years.

1861: American Civil War begins in Charleston, S. Carolina.

1861-1941: Lifetime of Bengali poet Rabindranath Tagore, awarded the Nobel
Prize for Literature in 1913.

1863-1902: Life of Swami Vivekananda, dynamic renaissance missionary to West
and catalyst of Hindu revival in India.

1869-1948: Lifetime of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, Indian nationalist and
Hindu political activist who develops the strategy of nonviolent disobedience that
forces Christian Great Britain to grant independence to India (1947).

1870: Papal doctrine of infallibility is asserted by the Vatican.

1872-1964: Lifetime of Satguru Yogaswami, Natha renaissance sage of Sri Lanka,
Chellappaswami’s successor in the Kailasa Parampara of the Nandinatha
Sampradaya.

1872-1950: Life of Shri Aurobindo Ghosh, Bengali Indian nationalist and
renaissance yoga philosopher. His 30-volume work discusses the “superman,” the
Divinely transformed individual soul. Withdraws from the world in 1910 and founds
international ashram in Pondicherry.

1873-1906: Lifetime of Swami Rama Tirtha, who lectures throughout Japan and
America spreading “practical Vedanta.”

1875: Madame Blavatsky founds Theosophical Society in New York, later
headquartered at Adyar, Madras, where Annie Besant, president (1907-1933), helps
revitalize Hinduism with metaphysical defense of its principles.

1876: British Queen Victoria (1819-1901), head of Church of England, is
proclaimed Empress of India (1876-1901).

1876: Alexander Graham Bell invents the telephone.

1876-1990: Max Muller, pioneer of comparative religion as a scholarly discipline,
publishes 50-volume Sacred Books of the East, English translations of
Indian-Oriental scriptures.

1877-1947: Lifetime of Sri Lanka’s Ananda Coomaraswamy, foremost interpreter
of Indian art and culture to the West.

1879: Incandescent lamp is invented by Thomas Edison (1847-1931). The
american inventor patents more than a thousand inventions, among them the
microphone (1877) and the phonograph (1878). In New York (1881-82) he installs
the world’s first central electric power plant.

1879: The “Leonidas,” first emigrant ship to Fiji, adds 498 Indian indentured
laborers to the nearly 340,000 already working in other British Empire colonies.

1879-1966: Lifetime of Sadhu T.L. Vaswani, altruistic Sindhi poet and servant of
God, founds several Hindu missions in India and seven Mira Educational
Institutions.

1879-1950: Lifetime of Shri Ramana Maharshi, Hindu Advaita renunciate
renaissance saint of Tiruvannamalai, South India.

1882-1927: Lifetime of Hazrat Inayat Khan, Indian-born Muslim mystic,
instrumental in bringing Sufism to the West.

1884-1963: Lifetime of Swami Ramdas, known as “Papa,” Indian saint and devotee
of Lord Rama.

1885: A group of middle-class intellectuals in India, some of them British, found the
Indian National Congress to be a voice of Indian opinion to the British government.
This was the origin of the later Congress Party.

1885: First automobile powered by an internal combustion engine is produced by
Karl Benz in Mannheim, Germany. Henry Ford makes his first car in 1893 in the
US and later invents assembly line production.

1886: Rene Guenon is born, first European philosopher to become a Vedantin, says
biographer Robin Waterfield.

1887-1963: Life of Swami Sivananda, Hindu universalist renaissance guru, author
of 200 books, founder of Divine Life Society, with 400 branches worldwide in
present day.

1888: Max Muller, revising his stance, writes, “Aryan, in scientific language, is
utterly inapplicable to race. If I say Aryas, I mean neither blood nor bones, nor hair
nor skull; I mean simply those who spoke the Aryan language.”

1888-1975: Lifetime of Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, renowned Tamil panentheist,
renaissance philosopher, eminent writer; free India’s first vice-president and second
president.

1891: Maha Bodhi Society, an organization to encourage Buddhist studies in India
and abroad, is founded in Sri Lanka by Buddhist monk Anagarika Dharmapala.

1893: Swami Vivekananda represents Hinduism at Chicago’s Parliament of the
World’s Religions, first ever interfaith gathering, dramatically enlightening Western
opinion as to the profundity of Hindu philosophy and culture.

1893-1952: Life of Paramahamsa Yogananda, universalist Hindu, renaissance
founder of Self Realization Fellowship (1925) in US, author of famed
Autobiography of a Yogi (1946), popular book globalizing India’s spiritual traditions.

1894: Gandhi drafts first petition protesting the indentured servant system. Less
than six months later, British announce the halt of indentured emigration from India.

1894-1994: Lifetime of Swami Chandrashekarendra, venerated Shankaracharya
saint of Kanchi monastery in South India.

1894-1969: Life of Meher Baba of Poona, silent sage whose mystical teachings
stress love, self-inquiry and God consciousness.

1896-1982: Lifetime of Anandamayi Ma, God-intoxicated yogini and mystic Bengali
saint. Her spirit lives on in devotees.

1896: Nationalist leader, Marathi scholar Bal Bangadhar Tilak (1857-1920) initiates
Ganesha Visarjana and Sivaji festivals to fan Indian nationalism. He is first to
demand complete independence, Purna Svaraj, from Britain.

1896-1977: Lifetime of Vaishnava Hindu renaissance activist Bhaktivedanta Swami
Pradhupada. Founds Krishna Consciousness (ISKCON) in US in 1966. Dies 11
years later.

1896: American humorist Mark Twain writes Following the Equator, describing his
three-month stay in India, during voyage to Hawaii, Fiji, New Zealand, Australia,
Sri Lanka, Mauritius, South Africa and England. According to him and his critics, it
is one of his finest works.

1897: Swami Vivekananda founds Ramakrishna Mission.

1898-1907: Cholera epidemic claims 370,000 lives in India.

1900: World population is 1.6 billion. India population is 290 million: 17.8% of
world.

1900: India’s tea exports to Britain reach 137 million pounds.

1900-77: Uday Shankar of Udaipur, dancer and choreographer, adapts Western
theatrical techniques to Hindu dance, popularizing his ballet in India, Europe and the
US.

1905: Lord Curzon, arrogant British Viceroy of India, resigns.

1905: Sage Yogaswami, age 33, is initiated by Chellappaswami at Nallur, Sri Lanka;
later becomes the next preceptor in the Nandinatha Sampradaya’s Kailasa
Parampara.

1906: Muslim League political party is formed in India.

1906: Dutch Christians overtake Bali after Puputan massacres in which Hindu
Balinese royal families are murdered.

1908-82: Lifetime of Swami Muktananda, global Kashmir Saiva renaissance satguru
and founder of Siddha Yoga Dham.

1909-69: Lifetime of Dada Lekhraj (1909-1969), Hindu renaissance founder of
Brahma Kumaris, Saivite social reform movement stressing meditation and world
peace.

1909: Gandhi and assistant Maganlal agitate for better working conditions and
abolition of indentured servitude in S. Africa. Maganlal continues Gandhi’s work in
Fiji.

1912: Anti-Indian racial riots on the US West Coast expel large Hindu immigrant
population.

1913: New law prohibits Indian immigration to S. Africa, primarily in answer to
white colonists’ alarm at competition of Indian merchants and expired labor
contracts.

1914: US government excludes Indian citizens from immigration. Restriction stands
until 1965.

1914: Austria’s Archduke Ferdinand is assassinated by Christian Serb nationalists.
Chain reaction leads to W.W. I.

1914: Swami Satchidananda is born, founder of Integral Yoga Institute and Light of
Truth Universal Shrine in the US.

1917: Communists under Lenin seize power in Russia, 1/6th of the Earth’s land
mass, following the Bolshevik Revolution.

1917: Last Hindu Indian indentured laborers are brought to British Christian
colonies of Fiji and Trinidad.

1917-93: Life of Swami Chinmayananda, Vedantist writer, lecturer, Hindu
renaissance founder of Chinmaya Mission and a co-founder of the Vishva Hindu
Parishad.

1918: World War I ends. Death toll is estimated at ten million.

1918: Spanish Influenza epidemic kills 12.5 million in India, 21.6 million worldwide.

1918: Shirdi Sai Baba, saint to both Hindus and Muslims, dies at approximately age
70.

1919: Brigadier Dyer orders Gurkha troops to shoot unarmed demonstrators in
Amritsar, killing 379. Massacre convinces Gandhi that India must demand full
independence from oppressive British Christian rule.

1920: Gandhi formulates the satyagraha, “firmness in truth,” strategy of
noncooperation and nonviolence against India’s Christian British rulers. Later
resolves to wear only dothi to preserve homespun cotton and simplicity.

1920: System of indentured servitude is abolished by India, following grassroots
agitation by Mahatma Gandhi.

1920: Ravi Shankar is born in Varanasi, sitar master, composer and founder of
National Orchestra of India, he inspires Western appreciation of Indian music.

1922: Pramukh Swami is born, renaissance traditionalist Hindu, head of
Bochasanwasi Swaminarayan Sanstha Sangh.

1922: Tagore’s school at Shantineketan (founded 1901) is made into Vishva Bharati
Univ. Becomes national Univ., 1951.

1923: US law excludes citizens of India from naturalization.

1924: Sir John Marshall (1876-1958) discovers relics of the Indus Valley Hindu
civilization. Begins large-scale excavations.

1925: Dr. Keshav Baliram (K B) Hedgewar (1889 Р1940) founds Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS), a
Hindu nationalist movement.

1926: Satya Sai Baba is born, Hindu universalist renaissance charismatic guru,
educationalist, worker of miracles.

1927: Sivaya Subramuniyaswami is born, present-day satguru in the Nandinatha
Sampradaya’s Kailasa Parampara.

1927: Maharashtra bars tradition of dedicating girls to temples as Devadasis, ritual
dancers. Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Orissa soon follow suit; 20 years later,
Tamil Nadu bans devotional dancing and singing by women in its thousands of
temples and in all Hindu ceremonies.

1927 & 34: Indians permitted to sit as jurors and court magistrates.

1928: Hindu leader Jawaharlal Nehru drafts plan for a free India; becomes president
of Congress Party in 1929.

1929: Chellachiamman, woman saint of Sri Lanka, dies. She was mentor to Sage
Yogaswami and Kandiah Chettiar.

1931: Shri Chinmoy is born in Bengal, yogi, artist, self-transcendence master and
United Nations peace ambassador.

1931: 2.5 million Indians reside overseas; largest communities are in Sri Lanka,
Malaya, Mauritius and S. Africa.

1931: Dr. Karan Singh is born, son and heir apparent of Kashmir’s last Maharaja;
becomes parliamentarian, Indian ambassador to the US and global Hindu
spokesman.

1934: Paul Brunton’s instantly popular A Search in Secret India makes known to
the West such illumined holy men as Shri Chandrashekharendra and Ramana
Maharshi.

1936-1991: Lifetime of Shrimati Rukmini Devi, founder of Kalakshetra-a school of
Hindu classical music, dance, theatrical arts, painting and handicrafts-in Madras.

1938: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan is founded in Bombay by K.M. Munshi to conserve,
develop and diffuse Indian culture.

1939: Adolph Hitler’s Mein Kampf (“My Struggle”), manifesto of Nazism,
published 1925, sells 5 million copies in 11 languages. It reveals his racist Aryan,
anti-Semitic ideology, strategy of revenge and Socialist rise to power.

1939: World War II begins September 3, as France and Britain declare war on
Germany after Germany invades Poland.

1939: Maria Montessori (1870-1952), first Italian female physician and “discoverer
of the child,” spends nine years in India teaching her kindergarten method and
studying Hinduism through the Theosophical Society in Adyar.

1939: Mohammed Ali Jinnah calls for a separate Muslim state.

1941: First US chair of Sanskrit and Indology established at Yale Univ.; American
Oriental Society founded in 1942.

1942: At sites along the lost Sarasvati River in Rajasthan, archeologist Sir Aurel
Stein finds shards with incised characters identical to those on Indus Valley seals.

1945: Germany surrenders to Allied forces. Ghastly concentration camps that killed
6 million Jews are discovered.

1945: US drops atomic bombs on Nagasaki and Hiroshima, Japan, ending World
War II. Total war dead is 60 million.

1945: United Nations founded by 4 Allied nations and China to “save succeeding
generations from the scourge of war.”

1947: India gains independence from Britain August 15. Pakistan emerges as a
separate Islamic nation, and 600,000 die in clashes during subsequent population
exchange of 14 million people between the two new countries.

1948: Britain grants colony of Sri Lanka Dominion status and self-government
under Commonwealth jurisdiction.

1948: Establishment of Sarva Seva Sangh, Gandhian movement for new social
order (Sarvodaya).

1948: Mahatma Gandhi is assassinated January 30th by Nathuram Godse, 35,
editor-publisher of a Hindu Mahasabha weekly in Poona, in retaliation for Gandhi’s
concessions to Muslim demands and agreeing to partition 27% of India to create the
new Islamic nation of Pakistan.

1949: Sri Lanka’s Sage Yogaswami initiates Sivaya Subramuniyaswami as his
successor in Nandinatha Sampradaya’s Kailasa Parampara. Subramuniyaswami
founds Saiva Siddhanta Church and Yoga Order the same year.

1949: India’s new constitution, authored chiefly by B.R. Ambedkar, declares there
shall be no “discrimination” against any citizen on the grounds of caste, jati, and that
the practice of “untouchability” is abolished.

1950: Wartime jobs in West, taking women out of home, have led to weakened
family, delinquency, cultural breakdown.

1950: India is declared a secular republic. Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru
(1947-1964) is determined to abolish casteism and industrialize the nation.
Constitution makes Hindi official national language; English to continue for 15
years; 14 major state languages are recognized.

1951: India’s Bharatiya Janata Sangh (BJP) party is founded.

1955-6: Indian government enacts social reforms on Hindu marriage, succession,
guardianship, adoption, etc.

1950-60s Tours of Ravi Shankar and Ali Akbar Khan lead to worldwide
popularization of Indian music.

1955: Albert Einstein (1879-1955), German physicist formulator of the relativity
theory dies. He declared Lord Siva Nataraja best metaphor for the workings of the
universe.

1956: Indian government reorganizes states according to linguistic principles and
inaugurates second Five-Year Plan.

1956: Swami Satchidananda makes first visit to America.

1957: Sivaya Subramuniyaswami founds Himalayan Academy and opens US’s first
Hindu temple, in San Francisco.

1959: Dalai Lama flees Tibet and finds refuge in North India as China invades his
Buddhist nation.

1959: The transistor makes computers smaller and faster than prototypes like the
51-foot-long, 8-foot high Mark I, containing I-million parts and 500 miles of wire,
invented for the US Navy in 1944 by IBM’s Howard Aiken. From the 1960s
onward, integrated circuitry and microprocessors will take computers-descendants
of the 5,000-year-old Oriental abacus-to unimaginable levels to revolutionize Earth’s
technology and society.

1960: Since 1930, 5% of immigrants to US have been Asians, while European
immigrants have constituted 58%.

1960: Border war with China shakes India’s nonaligned policy.

1961: India forcibly reclaims Goa, Damao and Diu from the Portuguese. Goa
became a state of India in 1987.

1963: US President Kennedy is assassinated in Dallas, Texas.

1963: Hallucinogenic drug culture arises in US. Hindu gurus decry the false promise
and predict “a chemical chaos.”

1964: India’s Vishva Hindu Parishad (VHP), a Hindu religious nationalist
movement, is founded to counter secularism.

1964: Rock group, the Beatles, practice Transcendental Meditation (TM), bringing
fame to Maharshi Mahesh Yogi.

1965: US immigration cancels racial qualifications and restores naturalization rights.
Welcomes 170,000 Asians yearly.

1966: J. Nehru’s daughter, Indira Gandhi, becomes Prime Minister of India, world’s
largest democracy, succeeding L. B. Shastri who took office after Nehru’s death in
1964.

1968: US Civil Rights leader Martin Luther King is assassinated.

1969: US astronaut Neil Armstrong sets foot on the moon.

1970: Kauai Aadheenam, Hindu monastery, site of Kadavul Hindu Temple, Saiva
Siddhanta Church headquarters, San Marga Sanctuary and editorial offices of
Hinduism Today is founded February 5 on Hawaii’s Garden Island.

1971: Rebellion in East Pakistan (formerly Bengal). Ten million Bengalis, mainly
Hindus, flee to India. Indo-Pak border clashes escalate to war. India defeats West
Pakistan. E. Pakistan becomes independent Bangladesh.

1972: A Historical Atlas of South Asia is produced by Joseph E. Schwartzberg, Siva
G. Bajpai, Raj B. Mathur, et al.

1972: Muslim dictator Idi Amin expels Indians from Uganda.

1973: Neem Karoli Baba, Hindu mystic and siddha, dies.

1974: India detonates a “nuclear device.”

1974: Watergate scandal. US President Nixon resigns.

1975: Netherlands gives independence to Dutch Guyana, which becomes Suriname;
one third of Hindus (descendants of Indian plantation workers) emigrate to
Netherlands for better social and economic conditions.

1977: One hundred thousand Tamil Hindu tea-pickers expatriated from Sri Lanka
are shipped to Madras, South India.

1979: Sivaya Subramuniyaswami founds Hinduism Today international newspaper
to promote Hindu solidarity.

1980: Grand South Indian counterpart to Kumbha Mela of Prayag, the
Mahamagham festival, held every 12 years in Kumbhakonam, on the river Kaveri,
two million attend.

1981: India has one-half world’s cattle: 8 cows for every 10 Indians.

1981: Deadly AIDS disease is conclusively identified.

1981: First bharata natyam dance in a temple since 1947 Christian-British ban on
Devadasis is arranged by Sivaya Subramuniyaswami at Chidambaram; 100,000
attend.

1983: Violence between Hindu Tamils and Buddhist Singhalese in Sri Lanka marks
beginning of Tamil rebellion by Tiger freedom fighters demanding an independent
nation called Eelam. Prolonged civil war results.

1984: Balasarasvati, eminent classical Karnatic singer and bharata natyam dancer of
worldwide acclaim, dies.

1984: Since 1980, Asians have made up 48% of immigrants to the US, with the
European portion shrinking to 12%.

1984: Indian soldiers under orders from Prime Minister Indira Gandhi storm Sikh
Golden Temple in Amritsar to crush rebellion. She is assassinated this year by her
Sikh bodyguards in retaliation. Her son Rajiv takes office.

1986: Swami Satchidananda dedicates Light of Truth Universal Shrine (LOTUS) at
Yogaville in Virginia, USA.

1986: Jiddha Krishnamurti, anti-guru guru, semi-existentialist philosophical Indian
lecturer and author, dies.

1986: World Religious Parliament in New Delhi bestows the title Jagadacharya,
“world teacher,” on five spiritual leaders outside India: Swami Chinmayananda of
Chinmaya Mission (Bombay, India); Satguru Sivaya Subramuniyaswami of Saiva
Siddhanta Church and Himalayan Academy (Hawaii-California, USA); Yogiraj
Amrit Desai of Kripalu Yoga Center (New York, USA); Pandit Tej Ramji Sharma
of Nepali Baba (Kathmandu, Nepal); Swami Jagpurnadas Maharaj (Port Louis,
Mauritius).

1987: Colonel S. Rabuka, a Methodist, leads coup deposing Fiji’s Indian-dominated
government and instituting military rule. July, 1990, constitution guarantees political
majority to ethnic (mostly Christian) Fijians.

1988: General Ershad declares Islam state religion of Bangladesh, outraging
12-million (11%) Hindu population.

1988: US allows annual influx of 270,000 Asian immigrants.

1988: First Global Forum of Spiritual and Parliamentary Leaders on Human
Survival is held at Oxford University, England. Hindus discuss international
cooperation with 100 religious leaders and 100 parliamentarians.

1989: Christian missionaries are spending US%165 million per year to convert
Hindus.

1990: The Berlin Wall is taken down February 12. Germany is reunited over the
next year. Warsaw Pact is dissolved.

1990: Under its new democratic constitution, Nepal remains the world’s only Hindu
country.

1990: Hindus flee Muslim persecution in Kashmir Valley.

1990: Foundation stones are laid in Ayodhya for new temple at the birthplace of
Lord Rama, as Hindu nationalism rises.

1990: Vatican condemns Eastern mysticism as false doctrine in letter by Cardinal
Ratzinger approved by Pope Paul II, to purge Catholic monasteries, convents and
clergy of involvement in Eastern meditation, yoga and Zen.

1990: Second Global Forum of Spiritual Leaders and Parliamentarians for Human
Survival, in Moscow, cosponsored by Supreme Soviet, gives stage for Hindu
thinking. Shringeri sannyasin Swami Paramananda Bharati concludes Forum with
Vedic peace prayer in Kremlin Hall, leading 2,500 world leaders in chanting Aum
three times.

1990: Communist leadership of USSR collapses, to be replaced by 12 independent
democratic nations.

1991: Hindu Renaissance Award is founded by Hinduism Today and declares
Swami Paramananda Bharati of Shringeri Matha “1990 Hindu of the Year.”

1991: Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi is assassinated in Tamil Nadu in May. India
blames Sri Lankan Tamil separatists.

1991: Indian tribals, adivasis, are 45 million strong.

1991: In Bangalore, India, Satguru Sivaya Subramuniyaswami authorizes renowned
architect V. Ganapati Sthapati to begin carving the Chola-style, white-granite,
moksha Iraivan Temple in a project guided by Shri Shri Trichy Swami, Shri Shri
Balagangadaranathaswami and Shri Sivapuriswami. Shipped to Hawaii’s Garden
Island of Kauai and erected on San Marga, Iraivan will be the Western
Hemisphere’s first all-stone Agamic temple.The world’s largest single-pointed,
six-sided crystal (700 lbs.), known as the Earthkeeper, will be enshrined as its
Sivalinga.

1992: Swami Chidananda Saraswati, spiritual head of Parmarth Niketan Trust, with
26 ashramas, is named Hinduism Today’s 1991 Hindu of the Year for founding
historic Encyclopedia of Hinduism Indian Heritage project.

1992: World population is 5.2 billion; 17% or 895 million, live in India. Of these,
85%, or 760 million, are Hindu.

1992: Third Global Forum of Spiritual Leaders and Parliamentarians for Human
Survival meets in Rio de Janeiro in conjunction with Earth Summit (UNCED).
Hindu views of nature, environment and traditional values help inform the 70,000
delegates planning global future.

1992: Hindu radicals demolish Babri Masjid built in 1548 on Rama’s birthplace in
Ayodhya by Muslim conqueror Babar after he destroyed a Hindu temple marking
the site. The monument was a central icon of Hindu resentment toward Muslim
destruction of 60,000 temples.

1993: Fourth Global Forum of Spiritual and Parliamentary Leaders on Human
Survival meets in Kyoto, Japan. Green Cross is founded for environmental
protection.

1993: Swami Chinmayananda is named 1992 Hindu of the Year, for lifetime of
dynamic service to Sanatana Dharma worldwide-attains mahasamadhi July 26, at
age 77.

1993: Swami Brahmananda Sarasvati, renowned yoga scholar, and Swami
Vishnu-devananda, author of world’s most popular manual on hatha yoga, reach
parinirvana.

1993: Chicago’s historic centenary Parliament of the World’s Religions convenes in
September. Presidents’ Assembly, a core group of 25 men and women representing
the world’s faiths, is formed to perpetuate Parliament goals.

1994: Harvard University research identifies over 800 Hindu temples open for
worship in the United States.

1994: Mata Amritanandamayi (1953-) charismatic woman saint of Kerala, is named
1993 Hindu of the Year.

1994: All India pays homage to Kanchi’s beloved peripatetic tapasvin sage, Shri la
Shri Shankaracharya Chandrashekharendra, who passes away January 7, during his
100th year.

1994: Hindu Heritage Endowment, first Hindu international trust, founded by
Satguru Sivaya Subramuniyaswami.

2000: World population is 6.2 billion. India population is 1.2 billion: 20% of world
(projection by World Watch).

2050: British historian Arnold Toynbee (1889-1975) predicted that at the close of
the 20th century the world would still be dominated by the West, but during the
21st century India will conquer her conquerors, preempting the place formerly held
by technology. Religion worldwide will be restored to its earlier importance, and the
center of world happenings will wander back from the shores of the Atlantic to the
East where civilization originated.

2094: Bharat (formerly India) is world’s most populous nation. Sanatana Dharma,
finding new expressions through interactive electronic tools, guides humankind’s
future. Time flows on. Live long and prosper.

Aum. Shanti, Shanti, Shanti. Aum.

 

A less detailed timeline:

Source: https://history-of-hinduism.blogspot.nl/2010/10/hinduism-timeline.html

Hinduism Timeline

2500‚Äď1500 B.C.E. ‚ÄĒThe Indus River Valley civilization develops and flourishes. Evidence of early Hindu practice is archaeologically dated to this vanished culture.

1600‚Äď1400 B.C.E.¬†‚ÄĒThe Aryan warrior culture conquers the Indus River Valley, bringing with it the Sanskrit language and major influences in the development of Hinduism.

1500‚Äď1200 B.C.E.¬†‚ÄĒThe Vedic Age in which the Rig Veda is written, reflecting the influence of joining the Aryan and Indus River Valley cultures.

1000‚Äď300 B.C.E.¬†‚ÄĒThe Brahmanas and Upanishads are written and added to the original Vedas.

600‚Äď500 B.C.E.¬†‚ÄĒThe Age of Protest as Buddhism and Jainism break away from the main flow of Hinduism.

400 B.C.E.‚Äď800 C.E.¬†‚ÄĒThe Hindu response to Buddhism and Jainism results in further changes to the main teachings of Hinduism.

326 B.C.E.¬†‚ÄĒAlexander the Great brings his army and the influence of Greek civilization into the northernmost regions of India. The Indian Mauryan Empire is created to counter this Greek invasion of culture and ideas.

250 B.C.E. ‚ÄĒAshoka becomes Emperor of the Mauryan Dynasty.

400‚Äď500 C.E.¬†‚ÄĒ Hinduism returns as the dominant religion of India. Temples and monuments are built to honor Hindu ideas, gods and beliefs. This is the era of the Hindu Renaissance.

800‚Äď1000 C.E.¬†‚ÄĒ Bhakti movements begin to develop in India.

900 C.E.¬†‚ÄĒ Shankara teaches the reality of One Brahman or One God, introducing significant monotheistic beliefs into Hinduism.

1100 C.E.¬†‚ÄĒ Muslims arrive in India and influence the evolution of the Hindu faith.

1400‚Äď1700 C.E.¬†‚ÄĒ Europeans arrive in India to pursue colonization and commercial goals within the Hindu world.

1919‚Äď1948 C.E.¬†‚ÄĒ The era of Mahatma Gandhi‚Äôs profound influence on Hinduism and India.

1948‚Äď1990 C.E.¬†‚ÄĒ India and Pakistan become independent countries and enter the modern era. Both possess nuclear weapons and suffer from religious tension among their Muslim and Hindu populations.

—————————–
Most of them start at:2500‚Äď1500 B.C.E. ‚ÄĒThe Indus River Valley civilization develops and flourishes.”
Not many sources describe a timeline for what happens before 2500 BC.
Also here tells the story of Vishnu helping Manu survive the flood:
Vishnu appears as another avatar in the form of the fish Matsya. Manu, the sage and son of Vivsavat-Sun, was washing in a river one day when a small fish suddenly jumped into his hand. About to throw the fish back into the water, he was stopped by the pleadings of the fish, who was afraid of the monsters that might eat him. Manu, therefore, kept the fish in a small bowl but, overnight, the fish grew bigger and so had to be moved to a jar. Still the fish kept growing and so Manu threw it into a lake. However, the fish continued to grow and reached such a prodigious size that Manu was obliged to put it into the sea. The fish then made a prophecy that in seven days there would be a great flood but Manu was not to worry about this catastrophe as the fish would send him a large boat so that he might escape unharmed. The fish instructed Manu to fill the boat with pairs of all the creatures of the world and seeds of all the plants and, during the flood, to tie his boat to the fish by using a giant snake – Vasuki. After some time, just as the fish had predicted, the ocean slowly and relentlessly rose up and flooded the world. Vishnu then reappeared on the scene as the gigantic fish, this time with golden scales and a single horn, and carrying the promised ship for Manu. The sage promptly boarded with his vast collection of animals and so, by surviving the flood, became the founder of the human race.
More from wiki source here: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shraddhadeva_Manu
So, after all, this proof, a “Flood” did happen, actually by some sources, more than one Flood. It is possible that Noah’s Flood happened at the time of¬† the Great Flood of China, at around 2300-2200BC during Emperor Yao.

 

Now, for a timeline for islam:

Source: http://www.religionfacts.com/islam/timeline

Timeline of Islam

c. 570 CE Birth of Muhammad.
c. 610 CE Muhammad receives first vision in a cave near Mecca.
c. 610-22 CE Muhammad preaches in Mecca.
622 CE Hijira – Muhammad and followers flee to Medina.
Islamic calendar (AH, Anno Hegirae) begins.
624 CE Muslims successfully attack Meccan caravans at Badr.
625 Muslims are defeated by Meccans at Uhud.
630 Muslims capture Mecca. Ka’ba is cleansed, pilgrimage rites are Islamicized, tribes of Arabia vow allegiance to Muhammad
632 Death of Muhammad. Abu Bakr chosen as caliph.
632-33 Wars of ridda (apostasy) restore allegiance to Islam
633 Muslim conquests (Futuhat) begin.
633-42 Muslim armies take the Fertile Crescent (Egypt, Syria, Palestine, Mesopotamia), North African coast, parts of Persian and Byzantine Empires
c. 650 Caliph Uthman has the Qur’an written down.
656 Uthman is murdered; Ali becomes fourth caliph.
657 Battle of Siffin. Mu’awiya, governor of Syria, claims the caliphate.
659 Arbitration at Adruh is opposed by Ali’s supporters.
661 Ali is murdered; Mu’awiya becomes caliph. Beginning of Umayyad Caliphate (661-750).
680 Death of Husayn marks beginning of the Shi’at Ali (“party of Ali”) or Shi’a sect.
685-705 Reign of Abd al-Malik. Centralization of administration – Arabic becomes official written language (instead of Greek and Persian) and Arab coinage is established.
late 600s Ruling classes in East and West Africa convert to Islam.
700-800s Groups of ascetics and mystics begin to form
710 Arab armies enter Spain from North Africa.
732 Muslim empire reaches its furthes extent. Battle of Tours prevents further advance northwards.
747 Revolt defeats the Umayyads.
750 Abu l’Abbas becomes caliph in Iraq
754 Baghdad (Madinat al-Salam, “city of peace”) becomes the new capital of the Abbasid empire.
755 Abd ar-Rahman founds an Umayyad Dynasty in Cordoba, Spain.
765 Division within Shi’ites – majority are the modern Imamiyya (Twelvers) who co-exist with Abbasid caliphs; minority are more extreme Isma’iliyaa (Seveners).
786-809 Reign of Harun ar-Rashid, best known through the stories of The Thousand and One Nights.
800s Written collections of Hadith (sayings of the Prophet) are compiled. Sicily comes under Muslim rule.
813-33 Reign of Ma’mun. Theological controversy over whether the Qur’an is created or uncreated and eternal. Center for translation of texts from Greek to Arabic founded in Baghdad.
869-883 Uprisings of black slaves (Zanj) are eventually defeated.
908 First Fatimid caliph in Tunisia.
928 Umayyad Abd ar-Rahman III declares himself caliph in Cordoba.
940 Muhammad al-Mahdi, the twelfth imam, disappears. Twelvers still await the future return of the “Hidden Imam.”
945 The Buyids (Persian) invade Baghdad and take power from caliph.
969 Fatimids gain power in Egypt and attack Palestine, Syria, and Arabia. Cairo (Al-Qahira, “the victorious city”) is founded.
980-1037 Life of Avicenna, Iranian physician and Aristotelian philosopher.
996-1021 Reign of Fatimid al-Hakim. Hamza ibn Ali forms basis of esoteric Druze religion.
late 900s West Africa begins to convert to Islam
1030 Umayyad caliphate in Cordoba defeated by the Christian Reconquista.
1055 Seljuk Turks take Baghdad; Abbasids now only nominal rulers.
1000s Reconquista takes more of Spain, Sicily falls to the Normans, Crusader kingdoms are briefly established in Palestine and Syria.
1071 Seljuk Turks defeat Byzantines at Battle of Manzikert.
1090 Hasan-i Sabbah takes Alamut in the Persian mountains, the Assassin sect forms around him.
1099 Christian Crusaders take Jerusalem.
1100-1200s Sufi orders (turuq) are founded.
1126-98 Life of Averro√ęs, Muslim philosopher from Cordoba who sought to integrate Islam with Greek thought.
1171 Fatimid power ends in Egypt with the conquests of Saladin.
1174 Saladin declares himself sultan of Egypt and Syria.
1193 Death of Saladin; most of Crusader states have returned to Islam.
1200s Assassins wipes out by the Mongols. Indian rulers in Delhi take title of Sultan. Spanish mystic Muhyi al-Din ibn al-Arabi (1165-1240) flourishes.
1221 Genghis Khan and the Mongols enter Persia.
1241 Mongols take the Punjab.
1258 Mongols capture Baghdad; city is sacked and caliph is killed. End of Abbasid caliphate.
1281-1324 Reign of Uthman (Osman), who founds the Ottoman Empire. Muslim merchants and missionary Sufis settle in SE Asia.
mid-1300s Ottomans capture Bursa and Iznik and move into Europe.
1366 Capital of Ottoman Empire moved from Bursa to Adrianople.
late 1300s Ottomas take control of the Balkans.
1400s Islam reaches the Philippines.
1453 Mehmet Fatih (rules 1451-81) conquers Constantinople. The two halves of the Ottoman Empire are united and the sultan becomes Byzantine emperor.
1492 Castile and Aragon capture Granada. All Muslims (and Jews) expelled from Spain.
1501 Isma’il (1487-1524) claims to be the Hidden Imam and is proclaimed Shah (king) of Persia. Twelver Shi’ism becomes official religion of Persia.
1516 Ottomans conquer Syria and Egypt.
1517 Ottomans control Mecca and Medina.
1520-66 Reign of Suleyman the Magnificent; Ottoman Empire reaches its zenith. Hungary and coastlands of Algeria and Tunisia come under Ottoman rule.
1526 Babur (Mongolian) seizes the Delhi sultanate and takes control of northern India.
1556 Akbar founds the Mughal dynasty in northern India.
1600-1700s Venetians, Habsburgs, and Russians divide European Ottoman lands between them.
1625 Java comes under rule of Muslim kingdom of Mataram.
1699 Treaty of Karlowitz confirms first substantial losses of Ottoman Empire in Europe.
1700s Muhammad Abd al-Wahhab rejects Sufism and all innovation (bid’a). Founds what becomes the Saudi Arabian kingdom. Hindus regain power from Mughals in northern India.
1738 Mughal empire invaded by the Afghans.
1779 Afghans ousted by Qajar dynasty, which rules Persia until 1925.
1798 Napoleon’s expedition to Egypt.
1805 Muhammad Ali becomes governor of Egypt, which becomes independent of the Ottomans, gains control of western Arabia and extends into the Sudan.
1807-76 Tanzimat period. Ottoman Empire undergoes extensive program of modernization in government, law, and medicine.
1830 Greece regains independence from Ottomans.
1850s Non-Muslim Ottoman citizens granted equality with Muslims.
1858 Last Mughal in India is deposed and India comes under British rule.
1876-1908 Reign of Abd al-Hamid II; autocratic and religiously conservative period in Ottoman rule.
1878 Congress of Berlin recognizes independence of Balkan states previously under Muslim rule.
1882-1952 Egypt occupied by the British.
1908-18 Last decade of Ottoman rule. Rise of nationalistic “Young Turks.” More liberal policies develop.
1912 Founding of Islamic Union (Sareket Islam), a modernizing movement in SE Asia.
1918 Fall of Ottoman Empire. League of Nations grants Britain mandatory status over Palestine and Iraq, and France over Lebanon and Syria.
1923 Republic of Turkey established. Mustafa Kemal (Ataturk) is first president.
1927 Tablighi Jamaat reform movement founded in India.
1928 Ikhwan al-Muslimun (Muslim Brothers) founded in Egypt.
1941 Jamaat-i Islami reform movement founded in Lahore, India.
1945 Indonesia becomes independent republic.
1945-60s Islam spreads to the West with mass migrations from Asia, Africa, and India.
1947 Pakistan founded as an Islamic nation. Islam becomes a minority religion in India.
1957 Independent Malayan state established with Islam as the official religion but guaranteed tolerance.
1960s Familes from SE Asia and North Africa emigrate to Europe and the Americas.
1979 Shah of Iran is overthrown by Ayatullah Ruhullah Khumayni, who establishes strict fundamentalist rule of Shi’a principles.
late 1990s Taliban come to power in Afghanistan.
2001 Muslim extremists attack the United States.
2003 Saddam Hussein ousted by Western forces.
8 Jun 632 Death of the Prophet Muhammad

Islam looks to be a religion more violent than other religions, a religion that generally had much more military conflict than other religions. There is one video that shows the amount of conflicts created by each religion over time:

For Islam:

A map that shows the spread of religions around the world:

 

And, The History of The World, a very detailed, good video!

Disclaimer: I don’t guarantee that the informations provided in the video above^(it’s not made by me) is 100% accurate. As all historical data, whether they are all 100% accurate. You(the reader) may have heard the quoute: “History is a Lie!”.

This has been a long post, which probably achieved it’s first purpose to review The Flood and the Timelines.

Now, for second purpose, it would be about the so called “Israel vs Palestine situation”.

Ideally, for this conflict to be solved, the best solution would be to have one state, one religion in that area. By default, the religion with ‘almost’ the best mentality and logic in the world, is Judaism. The ‘Kosher’ rules are correct, the Noahide Laws, the 10 Commandments are also correct, but somehow the 613 Commandments are contradictory with both the Noahide Laws and the Ten Commandments, in regard to the “Thou shalt not kill.”. One of the 613 commandments sometimes encourages the eliminating entire people and entire nations and they still apply capital punishments ( See commandment 596.¬†Destroy the seven Canaanite nations,597.¬†Not to let any of them remain alive, 544-548. The courts must carry out the death penalty of stoning, burning, strangulation, of the sword; 549.The courts must hang those stoned for blasphemy or idolatry; Which are against the “Thou shalt not kill” from the 10 commandments).

However, both Judaism and Islam apply capital punishments and thus their war will continue. The emphasis was that the religion with best logic would be Judaism, but the people of Palestine have suffered a lot, are less educated and lack the knowledge and the resources necessary and pretty much no one helps them. And there is a lot of ‘hatemongering’ fueling either the palestinian people and it’s citizens. And let’s not forget, palestinians and the people of israel are more than likely to share similar blood(palestinians to have been with israeli origins). The real problem is, still, lack of proper education and religion.

The Islam religion has one of the most practical, simple and efficient cleansing rituals, and that is Wudu(ablution), Ghusl and Tayammum(dry ablution). As for the rest…

Halal vs Kosher. Halal is good for prohibiting alcohol, while Kosher tells to consume in moderation. Kosher is better in terms of which animals should be eaten and also to not consume dairy products with meat. Kosher in general is better in many aspects.

Still, the ideal food would be vegetarian, something that is not suggested in either religion(as far as I am aware). In halal, the animal is sacrificed in front of the idol, which would count as sacrifice to idols, something that both jews and christians does not consider correct.

Jainism and Buddhism have the advantages of recommending a vegan diet, but who to follow?

Thus, Islam has the most to offer so far, the cleansing rituals.

The ideal solution to have a long term solving for palestine conflict, is for palestinians to be happy, thus being the underdog winner, by not killing, but by building good relations, it would be a good idea of a combined religion that accepts jewish tradition while adding the wudu/ghusl and tayammum to it, plus the prayers that the islam practices(like salat), to be not mandatory, only once a day, just like at Judaism.

So, for palestine to win, they have to accept jewish tradition and habits, recognise most/all of their writings, except those who encourage violence, killing and murder. They are encouraged to practice ablution(Wudu/Ghusl/Tayammum) and pray to either YHVH/Elah/Allah, from their religious texts.

The alternative would only further stretch conflict, which is not necessary.

In the long run, the practices of religions that encourage spiritual development and a clean diet(Like Buddhism, Jainism and sometimes Hinduism) will be the religions or schools of thought of the future!