Vegan Strongman Eats One Meal a Day


To lovetruthsite … “Do you have enough handwavium?”

Just Worldview

Do you or your ‘Prime Creator’ have enough handwavium?
If you or your Prime Creator can simply suspend all people on this planet from all their activities, immediately, and have a court system where all the person’s memories, their past activities are clearly out in the open, and a person can provide all the evidence needed to sustain the arguments, then a certain conclusion can be clearly made, in regards to who is guilty of what, and how that person should be judged. For me, this can happen anytime from here on, and with all the evidence provided and with all the records out there, everything can be shown as to whom is guilty of what.
Do you want the truth about how multiple people from multiple countries created the so called condition of ‘enslavement’ and manipulation? US is not the only country involved, and one of the biggest suspects…

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Possibilities and Timelines – The best possibilities are Tao Te Ching followed by a Conservative Revolution

Once upon a time, a thought came by.
Thoughts come and go, but this wouldn’t stand by.
Focused on it’s rigid evolution, five possibilities it lived by.
Until Tao Te Ching… , after that, possibility zero came by.

What is possibility zero?
Too many things are named, yet this has this name.
It’s basis is… Tao Te Ching…

This article is focused on possible outcomes for the world.
The most favourable outcome for the world, is, by far, a truly Conservative Revolution.
This revolution needs to be defined by adopting a Truly Conservative lifestyle.
The most correct Conservative lifestyle relies on the buddhist principles of:
-Being a vegetarian, thus respecting almost all forms of life
-Not doing any harm, and practicing Buddhist values well explained in it’s respective documents
-Not practicing any form of sexual misconduct, and this means, no sex before marriage and no sex with persons you are not married with.
A conservative revolution that focuses on speaking Truth to lies, and living by the correct values of the Eightfold path.
It needs to enter all the levels of government and education, and to not seek contriving.
There are a lot of people in various communities( like zerohedge), who promote the use of violence. That is not a correct view. Through it’s polarization it might give disastrous results. Also, there is one more thing to mention, that, both the ‘americans’ and ‘russians’ participating in the commentaries(on zh or rt) sometimes promote wrong views of violence.
So, this means that the current so called ‘conservative’ movement is anything but conservative, and needs to improve itself. But the same holds true for the oppositon formed with the so called ‘democrats’ who have become in the end, nothing short of ‘mob rule’. Also the so called ‘republicans’ barely show any sign of life and resolve to sustain correct reforms.
This happens to be reflecting the similar mindsets in all the other various communities, be it in the area of ‘european politics’ , where it’s generally similarly anemic as the republicans, or in the area of ‘chinese politics’ which has been in the past and is in the present, a vicious, aggressive form of mob rule, endlessly demanding rights, while at the same time lying and cheating whenever possible, and willing sometimes to sacrifice it’s own people for the good of the ‘party’, which is nothing more than mob rule. (look for China Uncensored youtube channel).
And these bad relations create tensions that can escalade into very violent responses.
And this situation creates the ‘acceptance’ of the general public, that, sometimes, ends up sustaining the bad reforms and decisions by the people.
This in turn can affect in a certain percentage, even the most independent minded people.
This is why, only the very few who manage to build themselves a very valuable set of values and knowledge to keep it to themselves, have the luxury to think more freely, because most don’t even have time to really think at all.
A conservative revolution is based on a new system that can truly sustain those values, and apply them to the population exponentially.
It may create polarity at first. The solution to polarity, however, is Tao Te Ching.
This may take place in the next 2-5 years.

The second possibility:
Is defined, when a conservative revolution may not work…
Is to favor Virtual Reality development, and scenarios to make people understand the consequences of their actions.
And if VR willingly might not work… then from there on, only forced outcomes would manifest.
Re-education places, would consist in conditions where a person is given books and curriculum, and has to pass exams. If the person cannot pass the exams, it will sit into the prison forever and work as imprisoned labor force to pay it’s work.
Re-education places could consist of VR technology.
This may take place in the next 10-20 years.

If the first two possibilities “True Conservative Revolution” or “VR re-education” don’t work, then the other naturally occuring possibilites will likely manifest.
The third possibility is ‘conventional warfare’. Endless weapons, wars and killing in the world.
It does not benefit the world, it will slowly erode and destroy whatever ounce of goodness it had.
The fourth possibility is cataclysmic events like Hurricanes, Tornados and possibly the use of ballistic missles, sometimes with nuclear capability. Due to tensions, it might happen.
The fifth possibility is ‘extinction level event’ scenarios. A big Flood, big volcanos erupting or nuclear warfare… This outcome is probably the worst…

Currently humanity stands into possibility number 3, with ‘conventional warfare’, with potential bursts towards possibility number 4.
Possibility number 2 is VR tech, but it can be both used for good, and make people learn, or used for evil and make people more misguided than before.
Possibility number 1 is the most healthy for humanity. It means fixing all it’s problems from the bottom up. But it is, still, polarized.
Possibility number 0?
Read Tao Te Ching, get rid of the polarity as a result, and be one with the Tao.
If almost every person would read Tao Te Ching each day or even each week, slowly but surely humanity would have way higher chances to reach Possibility number 1.
Possibility number 0 is to be one with the Source, to be of one mind, to not contrive, to work harmoniously with one another, to give wealth when in excess, not take further away.
It is very similar to Maslow’s pyramid.
At possibility number 0, stands transcendence of humanity.
At possibility number 1, stands Self-Reflection or Self-Actualization.
At possibility number 2, stands Esteem, Aesthetic, Belonging and Love needs
At possibilities numer 3-5 stand a lot of the ‘survivalist’ aspects, like Safety needs

maslow's hierarchy of needs five stage pyramide

To recap, there are five main possibilities:
1. Conservative Revolution, people actually promote good principles by which humanity lives by
2. If no Conservative Revolution, then, VR-like education, with games and scenarios is a second choice to make things right.
3.If none of the first two possibilities happen, then wars will continue.
4.Very risky for human civilization
5.Extinction level events(cataclysms, floods, etc.)

Possibility number zero is:
-Reading Tao Te Ching, everyone, and refusing to continuously be polarized against one another. It is the way towards balance and peace. The alternatives are these uses of ‘force’, seen as possibilities 1-5, with possibility number 1(conservative revolution) being the best

Here is Tao Te Ching:

Gia Fu Feng translation:

Mitchell translation:

Last edited on 24 august 2017, 8:22pm(utc+3)

A review on Maslow’s pyramid, it’s misinterpretation, and it’s flaws

The best article that describes well, Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, is the one below, from simplypsychology, then there is a wikipedia article, and lastly an article that explains in a simple way, the basic concepts from verywell.

For now, let’s put a pyramid model, to see and understand the basics:

maslow's hierarchy of needs five stage pyramide

First, the first misinterpretation, is the one from wikipedia article, that says that some needs are more important than others, in different societies.

The truth is, this system of Maslow can be well interpreted, as needs that once satisfied, would go to higher needs on the levels of the pyramid.

But one aspect that is not mentioned, and should be mentioned is that, needs can be started and stopped at one’s will. Which means, that, through ascetism, discipline and control, one can skip some of the needs that are not necessary for survival(like belonging and love needs, esteem needs, aesthetic needs).

Self-Actualization can be defined, by the writer of this article(me), with one keyword.


Self-Actualization = Analysis.

The individuals who make analysis on their own behavior, own world, who study and analyze, compare, are practicing the process of Self-Actualization.

It is similar to how a Blockchain(with transactions and history) operates.

The wallet when seeks to update, it looks to take the best information out of the world, and seeks to be, up to date.

The process of Self-Actualization, however, in the real world, for people, is done through Analysis, that improves each time more information input is added. To call the process of Self-Actualization a continuing process is correct. It takes years, sometime tens of years of time, to fully reach a complete level of Self-Actualization.

Because, the Analysis, or the Cognitive factor has to be very accurate, and Self-Actualization is fully complete, when all there is to Analyze, from top to bottom, is complete. The more a person doing Self-Actualization manages to get a more fundamental, core like, perspective, the more that person is completing Self-Actualization. This is true, because, every action, has a source. Higher things create manifestations into lower things, and thus the real purpose of analysis is to look into the current lower things, to perceive higher things. Therefore, the process of Self-Actualization may never end, but it can be completed, by adding and learning a lot from history, continually re-testing to see if current theories may actually be not true in all environments, and thus learning all the exceptions.

Self-Transcendence is defined one time, as helping others to go into Self-Actualization.

Let it be a reminder, because some have said that Self-Actualized people are doing literature and art. Some people do it out of the desire to paint and write, with no care about how the world works, and how far things can go(the rabbit hole metaphor, the matrix, etc.). Those people are not fully into the process of Self-Actualization.

A person Self-Actualization level can be measured by how broad or big it’s perspective really is. One who is a painter and nothing else, could have a lower Self-Actualization level, while a person who would write a Constitution, A Declaration of Independence or do a political movement that is entirely beneficial to the rights of a person and improve other’s Self-Actualization levels is most likely having a higher Self-Actualization level.

So now, as to define, Self-Transcendence, these values can be defined as those of people like Buddha, Lao-Tzu, and likely some Hindu Gods, like Shiva, Brahma, Vishnu.

So, to further explain what Maslow wanted to provide with “Self-Transcendence” level, the best way is to be aware of teachings like Tao Te Ching, Buddha’s Eightfold Path, the path of Arihants and Siddhas.

To quote:

Arihant (Magadhi Prakritअरिहन्तarihantSanskritअर्हतárhat “conqueror”) or jina, is a soul who has conquered inner passions such as attachment, anger, pride and greed.[1] Arihant are also called kevalins (omniscient beings) as they possess Kevala Jnana (pure infinite knowledge).[2][3] An arihant is also called a Jina “conqueror”. At the end of their life, arihants destroy all four gathiya karmas and attain moksha(liberation) and become siddha (liberated soul). The Ṇamōkāra mantra, the fundamental prayer dedicated to Pañca-Parameṣṭhi (five supreme beings), begins with Ṇnamō arihantāṇnamṁ, “Obeisance to the arihants”.

In Jainism, omniscience is said to be the infinite, all-embracing knowledge that reflects, as it were in a mirror, all substances and their infinite modes, extending through the past, the present and the future.[7] According to Jain texts, omniscience is the natural attribute of the pure souls. The self-attaining omniscience becomes a kevalī.

Siddha (Tamil ‘Great thinker/wise man’, Sanskrit, “perfected one”) is a term that is used widely in Indian religions and culture. It means “one who is accomplished”.[1][2] It refers to perfected masters who have achieved a high degree of physical as well as spiritual perfection or enlightenment. In Jainism, the term is used to refer the liberated souls. Siddha may also refer to one who has attained a siddhi, paranormal capabilities.

In Jainism, the term siddha is used to refer the liberated souls who have destroyed all karmas and have obtained moksha.[5] They are free from the transmigratory cycle of birth and death (saṃsāra) and are above Arihantas (omniscient beings). Siddhas do not have a body; they are soul in its purest form. They reside in the Siddhashila, which is situated at the top of the Universe.[6] They are formless and have no passions and therefore are free from all temptations. They do not have any karmas and they do not collect any new karmas.

According to Jains, Siddhas have eight specific characteristics or qualities. Ancient Tamil Jain Classic ‘Choodamani Nigandu’ describes the eight characteristics in a poem, which is given below.[7]

“கடையிலா ஞானத்தோடு காட்சி வீரியமே இன்ப
மிடையுறு நாமமின்மை விதித்த கோத்திரங்களின்மை
அடைவிலா ஆயுஇன்மை அந்தராயங்கள் இன்மை
உடையவன் யாவன் மற்று இவ்வுலகினுக்கு இறைவனாமே”

“The soul that has infinite knowledge (Ananta jnāna, கடையிலா ஞானம்), infinite vision or wisdom (Ananta darshana, கடையிலா காட்சி), infinite power (Ananta labdhi, கடையிலா வீரியம்), infinite bliss (Ananta sukha, கடையிலா இன்பம்), without name (Akshaya sthiti, நாமமின்மை), without association to any caste (Being vitāraga, கோத்திரமின்மை), infinite life span (Being arupa, ஆயுள் இன்மை) and without any change (Aguruladhutaa, அழியா இயல்பு) is God.”

The following table summarizes the eight supreme qualities of a liberated soul.[8]

Quality Meaning Manifestation
Kśāyika samyaktva infinite faith or belief in the tattvas or essential principles of reality manifested on the destruction of the faith-deluding (darśana mohanīya) karma
Kevala Jnāna infinite knowledge on the destruction of the knowledge-obscuring (jnānāvarnīya) karma.
Kevaladarśana infinite perception on the destruction of the perception-obscuring (darśanāvarnīya) karma
Anantavīrya infinite power on the destruction of the obstructive (antarāya) karma
Sūksmatva fineness manifested on the destruction of the life- determining (āyuh) karma
Avagāhan inter-penetrability manifested on the destruction of the name-determining (nāma) karma
Agurulaghutva literally, neither heavy nor light manifested on the destruction of the status-determining (gotra) karma
Avyābādha undisturbed, infinite bliss manifested on the destruction of the feeling-producing (vedanīya) karma

Because of the quality of Sūksmatva, the liberated soul is beyond sense-perception and its knowledge of the substances is direct, without the use of the senses and the mind. The quality of avagāhan means that the liberated soul does not hinder the existence of other such souls in the same space.

A soul after attaining Siddhahood goes to the top of the loka (as per jain cosmology) and stays there till infinity. Siddhas are formless and dwell in Siddhashila with the above mentioned eight qualities.

So, the path of Self-Transcendence is a path leading to enlightenment, and the levels of such persons can be described as ArihantsSiddhas and possibly individuals and/or personalities that were worshipped in the past as Gods.

A good look on more of these values, here:

Now, because the levels of Self-Actualization and Self-Transcendence are explained, a small commentary can be added. To go faster into levels of Self-Actualization and Self-Transcendence, one only needs to follow a Buddhist or Taoist or Jainist or Hindu path, that would lead one to levels such as Arihants or Siddhas.The reason for their success, is because they are actively practicing Cardinal Virtues, such as Temperance, through which they learn to control their own desires and thus more easily go into a path of Self-Actualization and later on Self-Transcendence.

One can simply skip Self-Actualization(which is more dependent on accumulation and analysis of knowledge) and go to Self-Transcendence.

So to make matters clear, Maslow’s pyramid of needs, generally sustains that some needs need to be fulfilled, before other needs will be found more interesting. That is generally true, but, with the willpower and likely discipline, as explained in Buddhist texts and other sacred texts, one can skip those needs and thus be more closer to Self-Actualization and Self-Transcendence needs.

Also, there have been characteristics or persons who can be described at a level of Self-Actualization, however they are not entirely true:

“3. Spontaneous in thought and action; ”

People who are methodical too, can be considered good in Self-Actualization, but let’s not forget, that everyone’s thoughts can be spontaneous, so it’s more of a characteristic for everyone, not just persons with Self-Actualization.

“5. Unusual sense of humor;”

Depending on one’s definition of  ‘humor’, and ‘unusual’, this is a process that describes people who are on the way to Self-Actualization, but have no interest in the process called Self-Transcendence. Humor and laughter comes from psychological values like pride satisfaction and other types of greed satisfaction. Thus, it’s a value more likely to be common for people with esteem needs and other basic needs rather than Self-Actualization needs.


Final points…

People with focus on lower needs, tend to find needs such as Self-Actualization to be uninteresting, especially when they are really focused on those lower needs. And sometimes, the discomfort of telling people that Self-Actualization might be better than lower needs(which some people are dependent on it, or in love with it), will cause them, sometimes, more rejection towards those values of Self-Actualization or higher values like Self-Transcendence.

The myth that one of the lower needs needs to be fulfilled so that higher needs can be fulfilled, stands in general, untrue, because the needs don’t need to be fulfilled, but instead made in such a way that they go away. One way, is through fulfilling that need via giving that person what it craves(esteem, etc.) or the other, that is to simply stop that need from happening, and with one’s will, it can be done, so that higher needs are pursued. As long as they are not needs that stand for survival, those can be supressed.

However, there are examples of basic needs that can be supressed, though rare.

These needs like food, might be supressed via fasting initially, all the way when one leaves as a breatharian(if possible), so that one does not eat anything, and only drinks.

The same thing can be said about sleeping needs, there is some Uberman practice that involves napping for only 20 minutes, 6 times a day, leaving one day with only 2 hours of sleep. But such practices need to be well timed with food practices too.

Of course one can go to tell about the argument that even temperature resistance is possible. Through advanced control of one’s body energy, one can sit naked in winter for extended periods of time, and at the same time, similar practice for walking in the desert. But likely, these practices would involve a lot of temperance and good practice of chi energy.

So, the practice of skipping, is the alternative, to getting into higher states, like Self-Actualization or Self-Transcendence.

With enough discipline, theoretically, everything can be skipped, even food and shelter.

Skipping the needs of esteem and respect are more easy, but some basic needs however needs practice and time.

Thus, persons who are highly focused on Self-Actualization and Self-Transcendence, are more likely to give less time and energy towards lower needs.

This is the end of the review, and the analysis about other articles.


Below, are the articles that were used to both strengthen some points and criticize other points:


Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

Maslow’s (1943, 1954) hierarchy of needs is a motivational theory in psychology comprising a five tier model of human needs, often depicted as hierarchical levels within a pyramid.

Maslow stated that people are motivated to achieve certain needs and that some needs take precedence over others. Our most basic need is for physical survival, and this will be the first thing that motivates our behaviour. Once that level is fulfilled the next level up is what motivates us, and so on.

maslow's hierarchy of needs five stage pyramide

This five stage model can be divided into deficiency needs and growth needs. The first four levels are often referred to as deficiency needs (D-needs), and the top level is known as growth or being needs (B-needs).

The deficiency needs are said to motivate people when they are unmet. Also, the need to fulfil such needs will become stronger the longer the duration they are denied. For example, the longer a person goes without food, the more hungry they will become.

One must satisfy lower level deficit needs before progressing on to meet higher level growth needs. When a deficit need has been satisfied it will go away, and our activities become habitually directed towards meeting the next set of needs that we have yet to satisfy. These then become our salient needs. However, growth needs continue to be felt and may even become stronger once they have been engaged. Once these growth needs have been reasonably satisfied, one may be able to reach the highest level called self-actualization.

Every person is capable and has the desire to move up the hierarchy toward a level of self-actualization. Unfortunately, progress is often disrupted by a failure to meet lower level needs. Life experiences, including divorce and loss of a job may cause an individual to fluctuate between levels of the hierarchy. Therefore, not everyone will move through the hierarchy in a uni-directional manner but may move back and forth between the different types of needs.

Maslow noted only one in a hundred people become fully self-actualized because our society rewards motivation primarily based on esteem, love and other social needs.

The original hierarchy of needsfive-stage model includes:

1. Biological and Physiological needs – air, food, drink, shelter, warmth, sex, sleep.

2. Safety needs – protection from elements, security, order, law, stability, freedom from fear.

3. Love and belongingness needs – friendship, intimacy, trust and acceptance, receiving and giving affection and love. Affiliating, being part of a group (family, friends, work).

4. Esteem needs – achievement, mastery, independence, status, dominance, prestige, self-respect, respect from others.

5. Self-Actualization needs – realizing personal potential, self-fulfillment, seeking personal growth and peak experiences.

maslow's hierarchy of needs five stage pyramide

Maslow posited that human needs are arranged in a hierarchy:

‘It is quite true that man lives by bread alone — when there is no bread. But what happens to man’s desires when there is plenty of bread and when his belly is chronically filled?

At once other (and “higher”) needs emerge and these, rather than physiological hungers, dominate the organism. And when these in turn are satisfied, again new (and still “higher”) needs emerge and so on. This is what we mean by saying that the basic human needs are organized into a hierarchy of relative prepotency’ (Maslow, 1943, p. 375).

The expanded hierarchy of needs:

It is important to note that Maslow’s (1943, 1954) five stage model has been expanded to include cognitive and aesthetic needs (Maslow, 1970a) and later transcendence needs (Maslow, 1970b).
Changes to the original five-stage model are highlighted and include a seven-stage model and a eight-stage model, both developed during the 1960’s and 1970s.

1. Biological and Physiological needs – air, food, drink, shelter, warmth, sex, sleep, etc.

2. Safety needs – protection from elements, security, order, law, stability, etc.

3. Love and belongingness needs – friendship, intimacy, trust and acceptance, receiving and giving affection and love. Affiliating, being part of a group (family, friends, work).

4. Esteem needs – self-esteem, achievement, mastery, independence, status, dominance, prestige, managerial responsibility, etc.

5. Cognitive needs – knowledge and understanding, curiosity, exploration, need for meaning and predictability.

6. Aesthetic needs – appreciation and search for beauty, balance, form, etc.


7. Self-Actualization needs – realizing personal potential, self-fulfillment, seeking personal growth and peak experiences.

8. Transcendence needs – helping others to achieve self actualization.
maslow's hierarchy of needs five stage pyramide


Instead of focusing on psychopathology and what goes wrong with people, Maslow (1943) formulated a more positive account of human behavior which focused on what goes right. He was interested in human potential, and how we fulfill that potential.

Psychologist Abraham Maslow (1943, 1954) stated that human motivation is based on people seeking fulfillment and change through personal growth. Self-actualized people are those who were fulfilled and doing all they were capable of.

The growth of self-actualization (Maslow, 1962) refers to the need for personal growth and discovery that is present throughout a person’s life. For Maslow, a person is always ‘becoming’ and never remains static in these terms. In self-actualization a person comes to find a meaning to life that is important to them.

As each individual is unique the motivation for self-actualization leads people in different directions (Kenrick et al., 2010). For some people self-actualization can be achieved through creating works of art or literature, for others through sport, in the classroom, or within a corporate setting.

Maslow (1962) believed self-actualization could be measured through the concept of peak experiences. This occurs when a person experiences the world totally for what it is, and there are feelings of euphoria, joy and wonder.

It is important to note that self-actualization is a continual process of becoming rather than a perfect state one reaches of a ‘happy ever after’ (Hoffman, 1988).

Maslow offers the following description of self-actualization:

‘It refers to the person’s desire for self-fulfillment, namely, to the tendency for him to become actualized in what he is potentially.

The specific form that these needs will take will of course vary greatly from person to person. In one individual it may take the form of the desire to be an ideal mother, in another it may be expressed athletically, and in still another it may be expressed in painting pictures or in inventions’ (Maslow, 1943, p. 382–383).

Are you self-actualized?

Characteristics of self-actualized people

Although we are all, theoretically, capable of self-actualizing, most of us will not do so, or only to a limited degree. Maslow (1970) estimated that only two percent of people would reach the state of self-actualization. He was especially interested in the characteristics of people whom he considered to have achieved their potential as individuals.

By studying 18 people he considered to be self-actualized (including Abraham Lincoln and Albert Einstein) Maslow (1970) identified 15 characteristics of a self-actualized person.

Characteristics of self-actualizers:

1. They perceive reality efficiently and can tolerate uncertainty;

2. Accept themselves and others for what they are;

3. Spontaneous in thought and action;

4. Problem-centered (not self-centered);

5. Unusual sense of humor;

6. Able to look at life objectively;

7. Highly creative;

8. Resistant to enculturation, but not purposely unconventional;

9. Concerned for the welfare of humanity;

10. Capable of deep appreciation of basic life-experience;

11. Establish deep satisfying interpersonal relationships with a few people;

12. Peak experiences;

13. Need for privacy;

14. Democratic attitudes;

15. Strong moral/ethical standards.

Behavior leading to self-actualization:

(a) Experiencing life like a child, with full absorption and concentration;

(b) Trying new things instead of sticking to safe paths;

(c) Listening to your own feelings in evaluating experiences instead of the voice of tradition, authority or the majority;

(d) Avoiding pretense (‘game playing’) and being honest;

(e) Being prepared to be unpopular if your views do not coincide with those of the majority;

(f) Taking responsibility and working hard;

(g) Trying to identify your defenses and having the courage to give them up.

The characteristics of self-actualizers and the behaviors leading to self-actualization are shown in the list above.  Although people achieve self-actualization in their own unique way, they tend to share certain characteristics.  However, self-actualization is a matter of degree, ‘There are no perfect human beings’ (Maslow,1970a, p. 176).

It is not necessary to display all 15 characteristics to become self-actualized, and not only self-actualized people will display them. Maslow did not equate self-actualization with perfection. Self-actualization merely involves achieving one’s potential. Thus, someone can be silly, wasteful, vain and impolite, and still self-actualize. Less than two percent of the population achieve self-actualization.

Educational applications

Maslow’s (1968) hierarchy of needs theory has made a major contribution to teaching and classroom management in schools. Rather than reducing behavior to a response in the environment, Maslow (1970a) adopts a holistic approach to education and learning. Maslow looks at the complete physical, emotional, social, and intellectual qualities of an individual and how they impact on learning.

Applications of Maslow’s hierarchy theory to the work of the classroom teacher are obvious. Before a student’s cognitive needs can be met they must first fulfil their basic physiological needs. For example a tired and hungry student will find it difficult to focus on learning. Students need to feel emotionally and physically safe and accepted within the classroom to progress and reach their full potential.

Maslow suggests students must be shown that they are valued and respected in the classroom and the teacher should create a supportive environment. Students with a low self-esteem will not progress academically at an optimum rate until their self-esteem is strengthened.

Critical evaluation

The most significant limitation of Maslow’s theory concerns his methodology. Maslow formulated the characteristics of self-actualized individuals from undertaking a qualitative method called biographical analysis.

He looked at the biographies and writings of 18 people he identified as being self-actualized. From these sources he developed a list of qualities that seemed characteristic of this specific group of people, as opposed to humanity in general.

From a scientific perspective there are numerous problems with this particular approach. First, it could be argued that biographical analysis as a method is extremely subjective as it is based entirely on the opinion of the researcher. Personal opinion is always prone to bias, which reduces the validity of any data obtained. Therefore Maslow’s operational definition of self-actualization must not be blindly accepted as scientific fact.

Furthermore, Maslow’s biographical analysis focused on a biased sample of self-actualized individuals, prominently limited to highly educated white males (such as Thomas Jefferson, Abraham Lincoln, Albert Einstein, William James, Aldous Huxley, Gandhi, Beethoven).

Although Maslow (1970) did study self-actualized females, such as Eleanor Roosevelt and Mother Teresa, they comprised a small proportion of his sample. This makes it difficult to generalize his theory to females and individuals from lower social classes or different ethnicity. Thus questioning the population validity of Maslow’s findings.

Furthermore, it is extremely difficult to empirically test Maslow’s concept of self-actualization in a way that causal relationships can be established.

Another criticism concerns Maslow’s assumption that the lower needs must be satisfied before a person can achieve their potential and self-actualize. This is not always the case, and therefore Maslow’s hierarchy of needs in some aspects has been falsified.

Through examining cultures in which large numbers of people live in poverty (such as India) it is clear that people are still capable of higher order needs such as love and belongingness. However, this should not occur, as according to Maslow, people who have difficulty achieving very basic physiological needs (such as food, shelter etc.) are not capable of meeting higher growth needs.

Also, many creative people, such as authors and artists (e.g. Rembrandt and Van Gogh) lived in poverty throughout their lifetime, yet it could be argued that they achieved self-actualization.

Psychologists now conceptualize motivation as a pluralistic behavior, whereby needs can operate on many levels simultaneously. A person may be motivated by higher growth needs at the same time as lower level deficiency needs.

Contemporary research by Tay & Diener (2011) has tested Maslow’s theory by analyzing the data of 60,865 participants from 123 countries, representing every major region of the world. The survey was conducted from 2005 to 2010.

Respondents answered questions about six needs that closely resemble those in Maslow’s model: basic needs (food, shelter); safety; social needs (love, support); respect; mastery; and autonomy. They also rated their well-being across three discrete measures: life evaluation (a person’s view of his or her life as a whole), positive feelings (day-to-day instances of joy or pleasure), and negative feelings (everyday experiences of sorrow, anger, or stress).


The results of the study support the view that universal human needs appear to exist regardless of cultural differences. However, the ordering of the needs within the hierarchy was not correct.

“Although the most basic needs might get the most attention when you don’t have them,” Diener explains, “you don’t need to fulfill them in order to get benefits [from the others].” Even when we are hungry, for instance, we can be happy with our friends. “They’re like vitamins,” Diener says about how the needs work independently. “We need them all.”


From wikipedia:


Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, represented as a pyramid with the more basic needs at the bottom[1]

Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is a theory in psychology proposed by Abraham Maslow in his 1943 paper “A Theory of Human Motivation” in Psychological Review.[2] Maslow subsequently extended the idea to include his observations of humans’ innate curiosity. His theories parallel many other theories of human developmental psychology, some of which focus on describing the stages of growth in humans. Maslow used the terms “physiological”, “safety”, “belonging” and “love”, “esteem”, “self-actualization”, and “self-transcendence” to describe the pattern that human motivations generally move through. The goal of Maslow’s Theory is to attain the sixth level of stage: self transcendent needs.[3]

Maslow studied what he called exemplary people such as Albert EinsteinJane AddamsEleanor Roosevelt, and Frederick Douglass rather than mentally ill or neurotic people, writing that “the study of crippled, stunted, immature, and unhealthy specimens can yield only a cripple psychology and a cripple philosophy.”[4]:236 Maslow studied the healthiest 1% of the college student population.[5]

Maslow’s theory was fully expressed in his 1954 book Motivation and Personality.[4] The hierarchy remains a very popular framework in sociology research, management training[6] and secondary and higher psychology instruction.



Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is often portrayed in the shape of a pyramid with the largest, most fundamental levels of needs at the bottom and the need for self-actualization and self-transcendence at the top.[1][7]

The most fundamental and basic four layers of the pyramid contain what Maslow called “deficiency needs” or “d-needs”: esteem, friendship and love, security, and physical needs. If these “deficiency needs” are not met – with the exception of the most fundamental (physiological) need – there may not be a physical indication, but the individual will feel anxious and tense. Maslow’s theory suggests that the most basic level of needs must be met before the individual will strongly desire (or focus motivation upon) the secondary or higher level needs. Maslow also coined the term “metamotivation” to describe the motivation of people who go beyond the scope of the basic needs and strive for constant betterment.[8]

The human brain is a complex system and has parallel processes running at the same time, thus many different motivations from various levels of Maslow’s hierarchy can occur at the same time. Maslow spoke clearly about these levels and their satisfaction in terms such as “relative”, “general”, and “primarily”. Instead of stating that the individual focuses on a certain need at any given time, Maslow stated that a certain need “dominates” the human organism.[4] Thus Maslow acknowledged the likelihood that the different levels of motivation could occur at any time in the human mind, but he focused on identifying the basic types of motivation and the order in which they should be met.

Physiological needs

Physiological needs are the physical requirements for human survival. If these requirements are not met, the human body cannot function properly and will ultimately fail. Physiological needs are thought to be the most important; they should be met first.

Air, water, and food are metabolic requirements for survival in all animals, including humans. Clothing and shelter provide necessary protection from the elements. While maintaining an adequate birth rate shapes the intensity of the human sexual instinct, sexual competition may also shape said instinct.[2]

Safety needs

Once a person’s physiological needs are relatively satisfied, their safety needs take precedence and dominate behavior. In the absence of physical safety – due to war, natural disaster, family violencechildhood abuse, etc. – people may (re-)experience post-traumatic stress disorder or transgenerational trauma. In the absence of economic safety – due to economic crisis and lack of work opportunities – these safety needs manifest themselves in ways such as a preference for job security, grievance procedures for protecting the individual from unilateral authority, savings accounts, insurance policies, disability accommodations, etc. This level is more likely to be found in children as they generally have a greater need to feel safe.

Safety and Security needs include:

  • Personal security
  • Financial security
  • Health and well-being
  • Safety net against accidents/illness and their adverse impacts

Social belonging

After physiological and safety needs are fulfilled, the third level of human needs is interpersonal and involves feelings of belongingness. This need is especially strong in childhood and it can override the need for safety as witnessed in children who cling to abusive parents. Deficiencies within this level of Maslow’s hierarchy – due to hospitalismneglectshunningostracism, etc. – can adversely affect the individual’s ability to form and maintain emotionally significant relationships in general, such as:

  • Friendships
  • Intimacy
  • Family

According to Maslow, humans need to feel a sense of belonging and acceptance among their social groups, regardless whether these groups are large or small. For example, some large social groups may include clubs, co-workers, religious groups, professional organizations, sports teams, and gangs. Some examples of small social connections include family members, intimate partners, mentors, colleagues, and confidants. Humans need to love and be loved – both sexually and non-sexually – by others.[2] Many people become susceptible to lonelinesssocial anxiety, and clinical depression in the absence of this love or belonging element. This need for belonging may overcome the physiological and security needs, depending on the strength of the peer pressure.


All humans have a need to feel respected; this includes the need to have self-esteem and self-respect. Esteem presents the typical human desire to be accepted and valued by others. People often engage in a profession or hobby to gain recognition. These activities give the person a sense of contribution or value. Low self-esteem or an inferiority complexmay result from imbalances during this level in the hierarchy. People with low self-esteem often need respect from others; they may feel the need to seek fame or glory. However, fame or glory will not help the person to build their self-esteem until they accept who they are internally. Psychological imbalances such as depression can hinder the person from obtaining a higher level of self-esteem or self-respect.

Most people have a need for stable self-respect and self-esteem. Maslow noted two versions of esteem needs: a “lower” version and a “higher” version. The “lower” version of esteem is the need for respect from others. This may include a need for status, recognition, fame, prestige, and attention. The “higher” version manifests itself as the need for self-respect. For example, the person may have a need for strength, competence, mastery, self-confidence, independence, and freedom. This “higher” version takes precedence over the “lower” version because it relies on an inner competence established through experience. Deprivation of these needs may lead to an inferiority complex, weakness, and helplessness.

Maslow states that while he originally thought the needs of humans had strict guidelines, the “hierarchies are interrelated rather than sharply separated”.[4] This means that esteem and the subsequent levels are not strictly separated; instead, the levels are closely related.


“What a man can be, he must be.”[4]:91 This quotation forms the basis of the perceived need for self-actualization. This level of need refers to what a person’s full potential is and the realization of that potential. Maslow describes this level as the desire to accomplish everything that one can, to become the most that one can be.[4]:92 Individuals may perceive or focus on this need very specifically. For example, one individual may have the strong desire to become an ideal parent. In another, the desire may be expressed athletically. For others, it may be expressed in paintings, pictures, or inventions.[4]:93 As previously mentioned, Maslow believed that to understand this level of need, the person must not only achieve the previous needs, but master them.


In his later years, Maslow explored a further dimension of needs, while criticizing his own vision on self-actualization.[9] The self only finds its actualization in giving itself to some higher goal outside oneself, in altruism and spirituality.[10] “Transcendence refers to the very highest and most inclusive or holistic levels of human consciousness, behaving and relating, as ends rather than means, to oneself, to significant others, to human beings in general, to other species, to nature, and to the cosmos” (Farther Reaches of Human Nature, New York 1971, p. 269).

Applying Maslow’s Theory to Nursing

Nurses can apply Maslow’s hierarchy of basic needs in the assessment, planning, implementation, and evaluation of patient care. It helps the nurse identify unmet needs as they become health care needs, and allows the nurse to locate the patient on the health-illness continuum and to incorporate the human dimensions and health models into meeting needs.

The Human Dimensions and Basic Human Needs

Physical dimension Physiologic needs Breathing, circulation, temperature, intake of food and fluids, elimination of wastes, movement.
Environmental dimension Safety and security needs Housing, community, climate.
Sociocultural dimension Love and belonging needs Relationships with others, communications with others, support systems, being part of community, feeling loved by others.
Emotional dimension Self-esteem needs Fear, sadness, loneliness, happiness, accepting self.
Intellectual and spiritual dimensions Self-actualization needs Thinking, learning, decision making, values, beliefs, fulfillment, helping others.

All basic human needs are interrelated and may require nursing actions at more than one level at a given time. For example, in caring for a person coming into the emergency department with a heart attack, the nurse’s immediate concern in the patient’s physiologic needs (e.g., oxygen and pain relief). At the same time, safety needs (e.g., for ensuring that the person does not fall off the examining table) and love and belonging needs (e.g., for having a family member nearby if possible) are still major considerations. [11]


Recent research appears to validate the existence of universal human needs, although the hierarchy proposed by Maslow is called into question.[12][13]

Following World War II, the unmet needs of homeless and orphaned children presented difficulties that were often addressed with the help of attachment theory, which was initially based on Maslow and others’ developmental psychology work by John Bowlby.[14] Originally dealing primarily with maternal deprivation and concordant losses of essential and primal needs, attachment theory has since been extended to provide explanations of nearly all the human needs in Maslow’s hierarchy, from sustenance and mating to group membership and justice.[15]



Global ranking

In their extensive review of research based on Maslow’s theory, Wahba and Bridwell found little evidence for the ranking of needs that Maslow described or for the existence of a definite hierarchy at all.[16]

The order in which the hierarchy is arranged has been criticized as being ethnocentric by Geert Hofstede.[17] Maslow’s hierarchy of needs fails to illustrate and expand upon the difference between the social and intellectual needs of those raised in individualistic societies and those raised in collectivist societies. The needs and drives of those in individualistic societies tend to be more self-centered than those in collectivist societies, focusing on improvement of the self, with self-actualization being the apex of self-improvement. In collectivist societies, the needs of acceptance and community will outweigh the needs for freedom and individuality.[18]

Ranking of sex

The position and value of sex on the pyramid has also been a source of criticism regarding Maslow’s hierarchy. Maslow’s hierarchy places sex in the physiological needs category along with food and breathing; it lists sex solely from an individualistic perspective. For example, sex is placed with other physiological needs which must be satisfied before a person considers “higher” levels of motivation. Some critics feel this placement of sex neglects the emotional, familial, and evolutionary implications of sex within the community, although others point out that this is true of all of the basic needs.[19][20] There are also people who do not want sex, such as some asexuals.[21][22][23]

Changes to the hierarchy by circumstance

The higher-order (self-esteem and self-actualization) and lower-order (physiological, safety, and love) needs classification of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is not universal and may vary across cultures due to individual differences and availability of resources in the region or geopolitical entity/country.

In one study,[24] exploratory factor analysis (EFA) of a thirteen item scale showed there were two particularly important levels of needs in the US during the peacetime of 1993 to 1994: survival (physiological and safety) and psychological (love, self-esteem, and self-actualization). In 1991, a retrospective peacetime measure was established and collected during the Persian Gulf War and US citizens were asked to recall the importance of needs from the previous year. Once again, only two levels of needs were identified; therefore, people have the ability and competence to recall and estimate the importance of needs. For citizens in the Middle East (Egypt and Saudi Arabia), three levels of needs regarding importance and satisfaction surfaced during the 1990 retrospective peacetime. These three levels were completely different from those of the US citizens.


The Five Levels of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

How Maslow’s Famous Hierarchy Explains Human Motivation


From Basic to More Complex Needs
hierarchy of needs
J. Finkelstein

Maslow’s hierarchy is most often displayed as a pyramid. The lowest levels of the pyramid are made up of the most basic needs, while the most complex needs are at the top of the pyramid.

Needs at the bottom of the pyramid are basic physical requirements including the need for food, water, sleep, and warmth. Once these lower-level needs have been met, people can move on to the next level of needs, which are for safety and security.

As people progress up the pyramid, needs become increasingly psychological and social. Soon, the need for love, friendship, and intimacy become important. Further up the pyramid, the need for personal esteem and feelings of accomplishment take priority.

Like Carl Rogers, Maslow emphasized the importance of self-actualization, which is a process of growing and developing as a person in order to achieve individual potential.




A look on Buddhism, Taoism, Jainism, Hinduism

This article is focused mostly on Buddhist values. There are some precepts from Taoism, that are similar to Buddhism, and from Jainism, the view of an Arihant, the view of God in Jainism, the view of Shaivism, a description of Rig Veda and a link to all the four Vedas(Rigveda, Samaveda, Yajurveda, Atharveda), and other sacred texts.

The Noble Eightfold Path is sometimes divided into three basic divisions, as follows:

Insight, wisdom (Sanskrit: prajñā, Pāli: paññā)
1. Right view
2. Right resolve
Moral virtue (Sanskrit: śīla, Pāli: sīla)
3. Right speech
4. Right action
5. Right livelihood
Meditation (Sanskrit and Pāli: samādhi)
6. Right effort
7. Right mindfulness
8. Right concentration

Right View: our actions have consequences; death is not the end, and our actions and beliefs have also consequences after death; the Buddha followed and taught a successful path out of this world and the other world (heaven and underworld/hell). Later on, right view came to explicitly include karma and rebirth, and the importance of the Four Noble Truths, when “insight” became central to Buddhist soteriology.
Right Resolve: the giving up home and adopting the life of a religious mendicant in order to follow the path; this concept, states Harvey, aims at peaceful renunciation, into an environment of non-sensuality, non-ill-will (to loving kindness), away from cruelty (to compassion). Such an environment aids contemplation of impermanence, suffering, and non-Self.
Right Speech: no lying, no rude speech, no telling one person what another says about him, speaking that which leads to salvation;
Right Conduct: no killing or injuring, no taking what is not given, no sexual acts.
Right Livelihood: beg to feed, only possessing what is essential to sustain life;
Right Effort: guard against sensual thoughts; this concept, states Harvey, aims at preventing unwholesome states that disrupt meditation.
Right Mindfulness: never be absent minded, being conscious of what one is doing; this, states Harvey, encourages the mindfulness about impermanence of body, feeling and mind, as well as to experience the five aggregates (skandhas), the five hindrances, the four True Realities and seven factors of awakening.
Right samadhi: practicing four stages of meditation (dhyāna) culminating into unification of the mind.

In the Mahācattārīsaka Sutta which appears in the Chinese and Pali canons, the Buddha explains that cultivation of the noble eightfold path of a learner leads to the development of two further paths of the Arhants, which are right knowledge, or insight (sammā-ñāṇa), and right liberation, or release (sammā-vimutti). These two factors fall under the category of wisdom (paññā)

Five Precepts
1. I undertake the training rule to abstain from killing. Pāṇātipātā veramaṇī sikkhāpadaṃ samādiyāmi.
2. I undertake the training rule to abstain from taking what is not given. Adinnādānā veramaṇī sikkhāpadaṃ samādiyāmi.
3. I undertake the training rule to avoid sexual misconduct. Kāmesumicchācāra veramaṇī sikkhāpadaṃ samādiyāmi.
4. I undertake the training rule to abstain from false speech. Musāvādā veramaṇī sikkhāpadaṃ samādiyāmi.
5. I undertake the training rule to abstain from fermented drink that causes heedlessness.
Eight Precepts
The Eight Precepts are for upāsakas and upāsikās who wish to practice Buddhism more strictly than through adherence to the five precepts. The eight precepts focus both on avoiding morally bad behaviour, as do the five precepts, and on leading a more ascetic life.

The Buddha gave teachings on how the eight precepts are to be practiced, and on the right and wrong ways of practicing the eight precepts.

1.I undertake to abstain from causing harm and taking life (both human and non-human).
2.I undertake to abstain from taking what is not given (for example stealing, displacements that may cause misunderstandings).
3.I undertake to abstain from sexual activity.
4.I undertake to abstain from wrong speech: telling lies, deceiving others, manipulating others, using hurtful words.
5.I undertake to abstain from using intoxicating drinks and drugs, which lead to carelessness.
6.I undertake to abstain from eating at the wrong time (the right time is after sunrise, before noon).
7.I undertake to abstain from singing, dancing, playing music, attending entertainment performances, wearing perfume, and using cosmetics and garlands (decorative accessories).
8.I undertake to abstain from luxurious places for sitting or sleeping, and overindulging in sleep.
In Theravada Buddhist countries such as Sri Lanka and Thailand, laypersons will often[citation needed] spend one day a week (on the Uposatha days: the new moon, first-quarter moon, full moon and last-quarter moon days) living in a vihara and practicing the eight precepts.

The Ten Precepts refer to the precepts or training rules for śrāmaṇeras (novice monks) and śrāmaṇerīs (novice nuns). They are the same in most schools of Buddhism.

1.Refrain from killing living creatures.
2.Refrain from stealing.
3.Refrain from unchastity (sensuality, sexuality, lust).
4.Refrain from incorrect speech.
5.Refrain from taking intoxicants.
6.Refrain from taking food at inappropriate times (after noon).
7.Refrain from singing, dancing, playing music or attending entertainment programs (performances).
8.Refrain from wearing perfume, cosmetics and garlands (decorative accessories).
9.Refrain from sitting on high chairs and sleeping on luxurious, soft beds.
10.Refrain from accepting money.

The Four Right Exertions (cattārimāni sammappadhānāni) are defined with the following traditional phrase:

“There is the case where a monk generates desire, endeavors, activates persistence, upholds & exerts his intent for:
“[i] the sake of the non-arising [anuppādāya] of evil, unskillful qualities that have not yet arisen.
“[ii] … the sake of the abandonment [pahānāya] of evil, unskillful qualities that have arisen.
“[iii] … the sake of the arising [uppādāya] of skillful qualities that have not yet arisen.
“[iv] … the maintenance [ṭhitiyā], non-confusion, increase, plenitude, development, & culmination of skillful qualities that have arisen.”

The four exertions (cattārimāni padhānāni) are summarized as:

Restraint (saṃvara padhāna) of the senses.
Abandonment (pahāna padhāna) of defilements.
Cultivation (bhāvanā padhāna) of Enlightenment Factors.
Preservation (anurakkhaṇā padhāna) of concentration, for instance, using charnel-ground contemplations.

In Buddhism, the Seven Factors of Enlightenment (Pali: satta bojjhaṅgā or satta sambojjhaṅgā; Skt.: sapta bodhyanga) are:

Mindfulness (sati) i.e. to recognize the dhammas (phenomena or reality, two ways one can translate “dhamma”).
Investigation (dhamma vicaya) of dhammas.
Energy (viriya) also determination
Joy or rapture (pīti)
Relaxation or tranquility (passaddhi) of both body and mind
Concentration, clear awareness (samādhi) a calm, one-pointed state of concentration of mind, or clear awareness
Equanimity (upekkha), to be fully aware of all phenomena without being lustful or averse towards them.

Threefold Partition, Eightfold Path, Method of Practice
Wisdom – Knowing Four Noble Truths
Right View
Right Intention
Virtue – Five Laymen Vows
Right Speech
Right Action
Right Livelihood
Mind – Dwelling in the four jhanas (meditation)
Right Effort
Right Mindfulness
Right Concentration

(written in 16th july 2017)

(what is below, is written on 27th July 2017)

Five Precepts, from Taoism

According to The Ultra Supreme Elder Lord’s Scripture of Precepts, the five basic precepts are:

The first precept: No Murdering;
The second precept: No Stealing;
The third precept: No Sexual Misconduct;
The fourth precept: No False Speech;
The fifth precept: No Taking of Intoxicants.
Their definitions can be found in an excerpt of The Ultra Supreme Elder Lord’s Scripture of Precepts:

The Elder Lord said: “The precept against killing is: All living beings, including all kinds of animals, and those as small as insects, worms, and so forth, are containers of the uncreated energy, thus one should not kill any of them.”

The Elder Lord said: “The precept against stealing is: One should not take anything that he does not own and is not given to him, whether it belongs to someone or not.”

The Elder Lord said: “The precept against sexual misconduct is: If a sexual conduct happens, but it is not with your married spouse, it is a Sexual Misconduct. As for a monk or nun, he or she should never marry or practice sexual intercourse with anyone.”*

The Elder Lord said: “The precept against false speech is: If one did not witness what happened himself but telling something to others, or if one lies with knowing it’s a lie, this constitutes False Speech.”

The Elder Lord said: “The precept against taking of intoxicants is: One should not take any alcoholic drinks, unless he has to take some to cure his illness, to regale the guests with a feast, or to conduct religious ceremonies.”**

The Elder Lord had said: “These five precepts are the fundamentals for keeping one’s body in purity, and are the roots of the upholding of the holy teachings. For those virtuous men and virtuous women who enjoy the virtuous teachings, if they can accept and keep these precepts, and never violate any of them till the end of their lifetimes, they are recognized as those with pure faith, they will gain the Way to Tao, will gain the holy principles, and will forever achieve Tao — the Reality.”

*The precept against sexual misconduct also outlines that sexual acts such as premarital sexual conduct, adultery, prostitution, having intercourse with prostitutes, etc., are all sexual misconduct. (Original commentary: If the married spouses have intercourse too frequently, that is also considered sexual misconduct.)

*The term for married spouses (Chinese: 夫婦) usually means “husband and wife”; the scripture itself does not explicitly mention homosexuality. (Original commentary: sexual misconduct is unfaithful sexual relationships [不貞為婬])


The Ten Precepts of Taoism were outlined in a short text that appears in Dunhuang manuscripts (DH31, 32). The precepts are the classical rules of medieval Taoism as applied to practitioners attaining the rank of Disciple of Pure Faith. They first appeared in the Scripture on Setting the Will on Wisdom (DZ325).[1]

There is one rule that is divided into Ten Precepts. That rule is the Tao (or Dao).

The Precepts[edit]
Do not kill but always be mindful of the host of living beings.
Do not be lascivious or think depraved thoughts.
Do not steal or receive unrighteous wealth.
Do not cheat or misrepresent good and evil.
Do not get intoxicated but always think of pure conduct.
I will maintain harmony with my ancestors and family and never disregard my kin.
When I see someone do a good deed, I will support him with joy and delight.
When I see someone unfortunate, I will support him with dignity to recover good fortune.
When someone comes to do me harm, I will not harbor thoughts of revenge.
As long as all beings have not attained the Tao, I will not expect to do so myself.


Five Wisdoms
The Five Wisdoms are:

Tathatā-jñāna, the wisdom of Suchness or Dharmadhatu, “the bare non-conceptualizing awareness” of Śūnyatā, the universal substrate of the other four jñāna;
Ādarśa-jñāna, the wisdom of “Mirror-like Awareness”, “devoid of all dualistic thought and ever united with its ‘content’ as a mirror is with its reflections”;
Samatā-jñāna, the wisdom of the “Awareness of Sameness”, which perceives the sameness, the commonality of dharmas or phenomena.
Pratyavekṣaṇa-jñāna, the wisdom of “Investigative Awareness”, that perceives the specificity, the uniqueness of dharmas.
Kṛty-anuṣṭhāna-jñāna, the wisdom of “Accomplishing Activities”, the awareness that “spontaneously carries out all that has to be done for the welfare of beings, manifesting itself in all directions”.
The Five Wisdoms “emerge through a transformation (parāvṛtti) of the eight consciousnesses at the moment of enlightenment”.

Four Dharmadhatu
Huayan teaches the Four Dharmadhātu, four ways to view reality:

All dharmas are seen as particular separate events;
All events are an expression of the absolute;
Events and essence interpenetrate;
All events interpenetrate.

Four ways of knowing
See also: Four Dharmadhatu and Five Wisdoms
Asanga, one of the main proponents of Yogacara, introduced the idea of four ways of knowing: the perfection of action, observing knowing, universal knowing, and great mirror knowing. He relates these to the Eight Consciousnesses:

The five senses are connected to the perfection of action,
Samjna (cognition) is connected to observing knowing,
Manas (mind) is related to universal knowing,
Alaya-vijnana is connected to great mirror knowing.
In time, these ways of knowing were also connected to the doctrine of the three bodies of the Buddha (Dharmakāya, Sambhogakāya and Nirmanakaya), together forming the “Yuishiki doctrine”.

Hakuin related these four ways of knowing to four gates on the Buddhist path: the Gate of Inspiration, the Gate of Practice, the Gate of Awakening, and the Gate of Nirvana.

The Gate of Inspiration is initial awakening, kensho, seeing into one’s true nature.
The Gate of Practice is the purification of oneself by continuous practice.
The Gate of Awakening is the study of the ancient masters and the Buddhist sutras, to deepen the insight into the Buddhist teachings, and acquire the skills needed to help other sentient beings on the Buddhist path to awakening.
The Gate of Nirvana is the “ultimate liberation”, “knowing without any kind of defilement”.

The four stages of enlightenment in Theravada Buddhism are the four progressive stages culminating in full enlightenment as an Arahat.

These four stages are Sotapanna, Sakadagami, Anāgāmi, and Arahant. The Buddha referred to people who are at one of these four stages as noble people (ariya-puggala) and the community of such persons as the noble sangha (ariya-sangha).

The teaching of the four stages of enlightenment is a central element of the early Buddhist schools, including the Theravada school of Buddhism, which still survives.

Path and Fruit:

A Stream-enterer (Sotapanna) is free from:

1. Identity view
2. Attachment to rites and rituals
3. Doubt about the teachings
A Once-returner (Sakadagami) has greatly attenuated:

4. Sensual desire
5. Ill will
A Non-returner (Anāgāmi) is free from:

4. Sensual desire
5. Ill will
An Arahant is free from all of the five lower fetters and the five higher fetters, which are:

6. Craving for prosperity in the material world
7. Craving for existence in the ideal world (heaven)
8. Conceit
9. Restlessness
10. Ignorance
The Sutta Pitaka classifies the four levels according to the levels’ attainments. In the Sthaviravada and Theravada traditions, which teach that progress in understanding comes all at once, and that ‘insight’ (abhisamaya) does not come ‘gradually’ (successively – anapurva),”[4] this classification is further elaborated, with each of the four levels described as a path to be attained suddenly, followed by the realisation of the fruit of the path.

The process of becoming an Arahat is therefore characterized by four distinct and sudden changes, although in the sutras it says that the path has a gradual development, with gnosis only after a long stretch, just as the ocean has a gradual shelf, a gradual inclination with a sudden drop only after a long stretch. The Mahasanghika had the doctrine of ekaksana-citt, “according to which a Buddha knows everything in a single thought-instant” (Gomez 1991, p. 69). The same stance is taken in Chan Buddhism, although the Chán school harmonized this point of view with the need for gradual training after the initial insight.[citation needed] This “gradual training” is expressed in teachings as the Five ranks of enlightenment, Ten Ox-Herding Pictures which detail the steps on the Path, The Three mysterious Gates of Linji, and the Four Ways of Knowing of Hakuin. The same stance is taken in the contemporary Vipassana movement, especially the so-called “New Burmese Method”.[5]


The Four Noble Truths refer to and express the basic orientation of Buddhism in a short expression: we crave and cling to impermanent states and things,which are dukkha, “incapable of satisfying” and painful. This craving keeps us caught in samsara,the endless cycle of repeated rebirth and dying again, and the dukkha that comes with it. There is, however, a way to end this cycle,namely by attaining nirvana, cessation of craving, whereafter rebirth and associated dukkha will no longer arise again.This can be accomplished by following the eightfold path,restraining oneself, cultivating discipline, and practicing mindfulness and meditation.

In short form, the four truths are dukkha, samudaya (“arising,” “coming together”), nirodha (“cessation,” “confinement”), and magga, the path leading to cessation. As the “Four Noble Truths” (Sanskrit: catvāri āryasatyāni; Pali: cattāri ariyasaccāni), they are “the truths of the Noble Ones,”the truths or realities which are understood by the “worthy ones” who have attained nirvana.

Seven sets of thirty-seven qualities

In the Pali Canon‘s Bhāvanānuyutta sutta (“Mental Development Discourse,”[3] AN 7.67), the Buddha is recorded as saying:

‘Monks, although a monk who does not apply himself to the meditative development of his mind may wish, “Oh, that my mind might be free from the taints by non-clinging!”, yet his mind will not be freed. For what reason? “Because he has not developed his mind,” one has to say. Not developed it in what? In the four foundations of mindfulness, the four right kinds of striving, the four bases of success, the five spiritual faculties, the five spiritual powers, the seven factors of enlightenment and the Noble Eightfold Path.’[4]

Elsewhere in the Canon,[5] and in numerous places in the āgamas of other early schools,[6] these seven sets of thirty-seven qualities conducive to Enlightenment are enumerated as:

Four establishments of mindfulness

  1. Mindfulness of the body (kāyānupassanā, S. kayānupasthāna)
  2. Mindfulness of feelings (vedanānupassanā, S. vedanānupasthāna)
  3. Mindfulness of mental states (cittānupassanā, S. cittanupasthāna)
  4. Mindfulness of mental qualities (dhammānupassanā, S. dharmanupasthāna)

Four right exertions

  1. Exertion for the preventing of unskillful states to arise
  2. Exertion for the abandoning of the already arisen unskillful states
  3. Exertion for the arising of skillful states
  4. Exertion for the sustaining and increasing of arisen skillful states

Four bases of power

  1. Will (chanda, S. chanda)
  2. Energy (viriya, S. virya)
  3. Consciousness (citta, S. citta)
  4. Examination (vīmaṁsa or vīmaŋsā, S. mimāṃsā)

Five faculties

  1. Conviction[7] (saddhā, S. śraddā)
  2. Energy (viriya, s. virya)
  3. Mindfulness (sati, S. smṛti)
  4. Unification (samādhi, S. samādhi)
  5. Wisdom (paññā, S. prajñā)

Five powers

  1. Conviction (saddhā, S. śraddā)
  2. Energy (viriya, S. virya)
  3. Mindfulness (sati, S. smṛti)
  4. Unification (samādhi, S. samādhi)
  5. Wisdom (paññā, S. prajñā)

Seven factors of Enlightenment

  1. Mindfulness (sati, S. smṛti)
  2. Investigation (dhamma vicaya, S. dharmapravicaya)
  3. Energy (viriya, S. virya)
  4. Joy (pīti, S. prīti)
  5. Tranquillity (passaddhi, S. praśrabdhi)
  6. Unification (samādhi, S. samādhi)
  7. Equanimity (upekkhā, S. upekṣā)

Noble Eightfold Path

  1. Right Understanding (sammā diṭṭhi, S. samyag-dṛṣṭi)
  2. Right Intention (sammā saṅkappa, S. samyak-saṃkalpa)
  3. Right Speech (sammā vācā, S. samyag-vāc)
  4. Right Action (sammā kammanta, S. samyak-karmānta)
  5. Right Livelihood (sammā ājīva, S. samyag-ājīva)
  6. Right Energy (sammā vāyāma, S. samyag-vyāyāma)
  7. Right Mindfulness (sammā sati, S. samyak-smṛti)
  8. Right Unification (sammā samādhi, S. samyak-samādhi)


Arahant(Arhat) vs Arihant


Theravada Buddhism defines arhat (Sanskrit) or arahant (Pali) as “one who is worthy”[1] or as a “perfected person”[1][2] having attained nirvana.[2][1] Other Buddhist traditions have used the term for people far advanced along the path of Enlightenment, but who may not have reached full Buddhahood.[3]

The understanding of the concept has changed over the centuries, and varies between different schools of Buddhism and different regions. A range of views on the attainment of arhats existed in the early Buddhist schools. The SarvāstivādaKāśyapīyaMahāsāṃghikaEkavyāvahārikaLokottaravādaBahuśrutīyaPrajñaptivāda, and Caitika schools all regarded arhats as imperfect in their attainments compared to buddhas.[4][5][6]

Mahayana Buddhist teachings urge followers to take up the path of a bodhisattva, and to not fall back to the level of arhats and śrāvakas.[7] The arhats, or at least the senior arhats, came to be widely regarded[by whom?] as “moving beyond the state of personal freedom to join the Bodhisattva enterprise in their own way”.[3]

Mahayana Buddhism regarded a group of Eighteen Arhats (with names and personalities) as awaiting the return of the Buddha as Maitreya, and other groupings of 6, 8, 16, 100, and 500 also appear in tradition and Buddhist art, especially in East Asia.[8] They can be seen as the Buddhist equivalents of the Christian saints, apostles or early disciples and leaders of the faith.[8]

Arihant (Jainism)

Gommateshwara statue dedicated to Arihant Bahubali

Arihant (Magadhi Prakritअरिहन्त arihantSanskritअर्हत árhat “conqueror”) or jina, is a soul who has conquered inner passions such as attachment, anger, pride and greed.[1] Arihant are also called kevalins (omniscient beings) as they possess Kevala Jnana (pure infinite knowledge).[2][3] An arihant is also called a Jina “conqueror”. At the end of their life, arihants destroy all four gathiya karmas and attain moksha(liberation) and become siddha (liberated soul). The Ṇamōkāra mantra, the fundamental prayer dedicated to Pañca-Parameṣṭhi (five supreme beings), begins with Ṇnamō arihantāṇnamṁ, “Obeisance to the arihants”.

Kevalī (omniscient beings) are said to be of two kinds[2]

  1. Tirthankara kevalī: 24 human spiritual guides who after attaining omniscience teach the path to salvation.[4]
  2. Sāmānya kevalī: Kevalī who are concerned with their own liberation.


According to Jains, every soul has the potential to become arihant. A soul which destroys all kashayas or inner enemies like anger, ego, deception, and greed – responsible for the perpetuation of ignorance – becomes an Arihant.[1] According to Jain texts, omniscience is attained on the destruction of the deluding, the knowledge-obscuring, the perception-obscuring and the obstructive karmas, in the order mentioned.[5] The Arihant are said to be free from the following eighteen imperfections:[6]

  1. janma – (re)birth;
  2. jarā – old-age;
  3. triśā – thirst;
  4. kśudhā – hunger;
  5. vismaya – astonishment;
  6. arati – displeasure;
  7. kheda – regret;
  8. roga – sickness;
  9. śoka – grief;
  10. mada – pride;
  11. moha – delusion;
  12. bhaya – fear;
  13. nidrā – sleep;
  14. cintā – anxiety;
  15. sveda – perspiration;
  16. rāga – attachment;
  17. dveśa – aversion; and
  18. maraņa – death.


In Jainism, omniscience is said to be the infinite, all-embracing knowledge that reflects, as it were in a mirror, all substances and their infinite modes, extending through the past, the present and the future.[7] According to Jain texts, omniscience is the natural attribute of the pure souls. The self-attaining omniscience becomes a kevalī.

The four infinitudes (ananta chatushtaya) are:[6]

  1. ananta jñāna, infinite knowledge
  2. ananta darśana, perfect perception due to the destruction of all darshanavarniya karmas.
  3. ananta sukha, infinite bliss; and
  4. ananta vīrya – infinite energy.


Image of Vardhaman Mahāvīra, the 24th and last tirthankara of present half time cycle

Those Arihants who re-establish the Jain faith are called Tirthankaras. Tirthankaras revitalize the sangha, the fourfold order consisting of male saints (sādhus), female saints (sādhvis), male householders (śrāvaka) and female householders (Śrāvika).

The first Tirthankara of the current time cycle was R̥ṣabhadēva, and the twenty-fourth and last Tirthankara was Mahavira, who lived from 599 BCE to 527 BCE.

Jain texts mention forty-six attributes of arihants or tirthankaras. These attributes comprise four infinitudes (ananta chatushtaya), thirty-four miraculous happenings (atiśaya), and eight splendours (prātihārya).[6]

The eight splendours (prātihārya) are:[8]

  1. aśoka vrikśa – the Ashoka tree;
  2. siṃhāsana– bejeweled throne;
  3. chatra – three-tier canopy;
  4. bhāmadal – halo of unmatched luminance;
  5. divya dhvani – divine voice of the Lord without lip movement;
  6. puśpa-varśā – shower of fragrant flowers;
  7. camara – waving of sixty-four majestic hand-fans; and
  8. dundubhi – dulcet sound of kettle-drums and other musical instruments.


At the time of nirvana (final release), the arihant sheds off the remaining four aghati karmas:

  1. Nam (physical structure forming) Karma
  2. Gotra (status forming) Karma,
  3. Vedniya (pain and pleasure causing) Karma,
  4. Ayushya (life span determining) Karma.

These four karmas do not affect the true nature of the soul and are therefore called aghati karmas. After attaining salvation from these arihants become siddhas.


Hathigumpha inscription of King Khāravela at Udayagiri Caves, 2nd Century BCE, starts with Namokar Mantra

In the Namokara Mantra, Namo Arihantanam, Namo Siddhanam, Jains worship the arihants first and then to the siddhas even though the latter are perfected souls who have destroyed all karmas and are considered to be at a higher spiritual stage than arihants. Since siddhashave attained ultimate liberation, they are not accessible. However arihants are accessible for spiritual guidance to human society until their nirvana.

Dravyasaṃgraha, a major Jain text mentions:

Having destroyed the four inimical varieties of karmas (ghātiyā karmas), possessed of infinite faith, happiness, knowledge and power, and housed in most auspicious body (paramaudārika śarīra), that pure soul of the World Teacher (Arhat) should be meditated on.

— Dravyasaṃgraha (50)[9]


God in Jainism

In Jainism, godliness is said to be the inherent quality of every soul. This quality however is subdued by the soul’s association with karmic matter. All souls who have achieved the natural state of infinite bliss, infinite knowledge (kevala jnana), infinite power and infinite perception are regarded as ‘God in Jainism’. Jainism rejects the idea of a creator deity responsible for the manifestation, creation, or maintenance of this universe. According to Jain doctrine, the universe and its constituents (soul, matter, space, time, and principles of motion) have always existed. All the constituents and actions are governed by universal natural laws and perfect soul, an immaterial entity cannot create or affect a material entity like the universe.[1]

Five supreme beings

Stella depicting Pañca-Parameṣṭhi(five supreme beings) worthy of veneration as per Jainism

In Jainism, the Pañca-Parameṣṭhi (Sanskrit for “five supreme beings”) are a fivefold hierarchy of religious authorities worthy of veneration. The five supreme beings are:

  1. Arihant
  2. Siddha
  3. Acharya (Head of the monastic order)
  4. Upadhyaya (“Preceptor of less advanced ascetics”)
  5. Muni or Jain monks


A human being who conquers all inner passions and possesses infinite right knowledge (Kevala Jnana) is revered as an arihant in Jainism.[5]They are also called Jinas (conquerors) or Kevalin (omniscient beings). An arihant is a soul who has destroyed all passions, is totally unattached and without any desire and hence is able to destroy the four ghātiyā karmas and attain kevala jñāna, or omniscience. Such a soul still has a body and four aghātiyā karmasArihantas, at the end of their human life-span, destroys all remaining aghātiyā karmas and attain Siddhahood. There are two kinds of kevalin or arihant:[6]

  • Sāmānya Kevalin–Ordinary victors, who are concerned with their own salvation.
  • Tirthankara Kevalin–Twenty-four human spiritual guides (teaching gods), who show the true path to salvation.[7]



Siddha (Tamil ‘Great thinker/wise man’, Sanskrit, “perfected one”) is a term that is used widely in Indian religions and culture. It means “one who is accomplished”.[1][2] It refers to perfected masters who have achieved a high degree of physical as well as spiritual perfection or enlightenment. In Jainism, the term is used to refer the liberated souls. Siddha may also refer to one who has attained a siddhi, paranormal capabilities.

Siddhas may broadly refer to siddharsnathsasceticssadhus, or yogis because they all practice sādhanā.[3]

The Svetasvatara (II.12) presupposes a ‘Siddha body.[4]


Although the siddhas (the liberated beings) are formless and without a body, this is how the Jain temples often depict them.

Siddhashila (the realm of the liberated beings) according to Jain cosmology

In Jainism, the term siddha is used to refer the liberated souls who have destroyed all karmas and have obtained moksha.[5] They are free from the transmigratory cycle of birth and death (saṃsāra) and are above Arihantas (omniscient beings). Siddhas do not have a body; they are soul in its purest form. They reside in the Siddhashila, which is situated at the top of the Universe.[6] They are formless and have no passions and therefore are free from all temptations. They do not have any karmas and they do not collect any new karmas.

According to Jains, Siddhas have eight specific characteristics or qualities. Ancient Tamil Jain Classic ‘Choodamani Nigandu’ describes the eight characteristics in a poem, which is given below.[7]

“கடையிலா ஞானத்தோடு காட்சி வீரியமே இன்ப
மிடையுறு நாமமின்மை விதித்த கோத்திரங்களின்மை
அடைவிலா ஆயுஇன்மை அந்தராயங்கள் இன்மை
உடையவன் யாவன் மற்று இவ்வுலகினுக்கு இறைவனாமே”

“The soul that has infinite knowledge (Ananta jnāna, கடையிலா ஞானம்), infinite vision or wisdom (Ananta darshana, கடையிலா காட்சி), infinite power (Ananta labdhi, கடையிலா வீரியம்), infinite bliss (Ananta sukha, கடையிலா இன்பம்), without name (Akshaya sthiti, நாமமின்மை), without association to any caste (Being vitāraga, கோத்திரமின்மை), infinite life span (Being arupa, ஆயுள் இன்மை) and without any change (Aguruladhutaa, அழியா இயல்பு) is God.”

The following table summarizes the eight supreme qualities of a liberated soul.[8]

Quality Meaning Manifestation
Kśāyika samyaktva infinite faith or belief in the tattvas or essential principles of reality manifested on the destruction of the faith-deluding (darśana mohanīya) karma
Kevala Jnāna infinite knowledge on the destruction of the knowledge-obscuring (jnānāvarnīya) karma.
Kevaladarśana infinite perception on the destruction of the perception-obscuring (darśanāvarnīya) karma
Anantavīrya infinite power on the destruction of the obstructive (antarāya) karma
Sūksmatva fineness manifested on the destruction of the life- determining (āyuh) karma
Avagāhan inter-penetrability manifested on the destruction of the name-determining (nāma) karma
Agurulaghutva literally, neither heavy nor light manifested on the destruction of the status-determining (gotra) karma
Avyābādha undisturbed, infinite bliss manifested on the destruction of the feeling-producing (vedanīya) karma

Because of the quality of Sūksmatva, the liberated soul is beyond sense-perception and its knowledge of the substances is direct, without the use of the senses and the mind. The quality of avagāhan means that the liberated soul does not hinder the existence of other such souls in the same space.

A soul after attaining Siddhahood goes to the top of the loka (as per jain cosmology) and stays there till infinity. Siddhas are formless and dwell in Siddhashila with the above mentioned eight qualities.

Thiruvalluvar in his Tamil book Thirukural refers to the eight qualities of God,[9] in one of his couplet poems.


In Hinduism, the first usage of the term Siddha occurs in the Maitreya Upanishad in chapter Adhya III where the writer of the section declares “I am Siddha.”

Siddha or siddhar (Tamil tradition)

In Tamil Nadu, South India, a siddha (see Siddhar) refers to a being who has achieved a high degree of physical as well as spiritual perfection or enlightenment. The ultimate demonstration of this is that siddhas allegedly attained physical immortality. Thus siddha, like siddhar, refers to a person who has realised the goal of a type of sadhana and become a perfected being. In Tamil Nadu, South India, where the siddha tradition is still practiced, special individuals are recognized as and called siddhas (or siddhars or cittars) who are on the path to that assumed perfection after they have taken special secret rasayanas to perfect their bodies, in order to be able to sustain prolonged meditation along with a form of pranayama which considerably reduces the number of breaths they take. Siddha were said to have special powers including flight. These eight powers are collectively known as attamasiddhigal (ashtasiddhi). In Hindu cosmologySiddhaloka is a subtle world (loka) where perfected beings (siddhas) take birth. They are endowed with the eight primary siddhis at birth.

The 18 siddhars are listed below.

  1. Agasthiyar
  2. Kamalamuni
  3. Thirumoolar
  4. Kuthambai
  5. Korakkar
  6. Thanvandri
  7. Konganar
  8. Sattamuni
  9. Vanmeegar
  10. Ramadevar
  11. Nandeeswarar (Nandidevar)
  12. Edaikkadar
  13. Machamuni
  14. Karuvoorar
  15. Bogar
  16. Pambatti Siddhar
  17. Sundarandandar
  18. Patanjali


Shaivism (IASTŚaivism) or “Saivam” is one of the major traditions in Hinduism that reveres Shiva as the Supreme Being or its metaphysical concept of Brahman.[1][2][note 1] The followers of Shaivism are called “Shaivites” or “Saivites”.[3] Like much of Hinduism, the Shaiva have many sub-traditions, ranging from devotional dualistic theism such as Shaiva Siddhanta to yoga-oriented monistic non-theism such as Kashmiri Shaivism.[4][5][6] It considers both the Vedas and the Agama texts as important sources of theology.[7][8][9]

Shaivism has ancient roots, traceable in the Vedic literature of 2nd millennium BCE, but this is in the form of the Vedic deity Rudra.[10]The ancient text Shvetashvatara Upanishad dated to late 1st millennium BCE mentions terms such as Rudra, Shiva and Maheshwaram,[11][12] but its interpretation as a theistic or monistic text of Shaivism is disputed.[13][14] In the early centuries of the common era is the first clear evidence of Pāśupata Shaivism.[10] Both devotional and monistic Shaivism became popular in the 1st millennium CE, rapidly becoming the dominant religious tradition of many Hindu kingdoms.[10] It arrived in Southeast Asia shortly thereafter, leading to thousands of Shaiva temples on the islands of Indonesia as well as Cambodia and Vietnam, co-evolving with Buddhism in these regions.[15][16] In the contemporary era, Shaivism is one of the major aspects of Hinduism.[10]

Shaivism theology ranges from Shiva being the creator, preserver, destroyer to being the same as the Atman (self, soul) within oneself and every living being. It is closely related to Shaktism, and some Shaiva worship in Shiva and Shakti temples.[6] It is the Hindu tradition that most accepts ascetic life and emphasizes yoga, and like other Hindu traditions encourages an individual to discover and be one with Shiva within.[4][5][17] Shaivism is one of the largest traditions within Hinduism.[18][19]


The reverence for Shiva is one of the pan-Hindu traditions, found widely across India, Sri Lanka and Nepal.[28][29] While Shiva is revered broadly, Hinduism itself is a complex religion and a way of life, with a diversity of ideas on spirituality and traditions. It has no ecclesiastical order, no unquestionable religious authorities, no governing body, no prophet(s) nor any binding holy book; Hindus can choose to be polytheistic, pantheistic, monotheistic, monistic, agnostic, atheistic or humanist.[30][31][32]

Shaivism is a major tradition within Hinduism, with a theology that is predominantly related to the Hindu god Shiva. Shaivism has many different sub-traditions with regional variations and differences in philosophy.[33] Shaivism has a vast literature with different philosophical schools, ranging from nondualismdualism, and mixed schools.[34]

Yoga movements

Many Shaiva temples present Shiva in yoga pose.

Yoga and meditation has been an integral part of Shaivism, and it has been a major innovator of techniques such as those of Hatha Yoga.[267][268][269] Many major Shiva temples and Shaiva tritha (pilgrimage) centers depict anthropomorphic iconography of Shiva as a giant statue wherein Shiva is a loner yogi meditating,[270] as do Shaiva texts.[271]

In several Shaiva traditions such as the Kashmir Shaivism, anyone who seeks personal understanding and spiritual growth has been called a Yogi. The Shiva Sutras (aphorisms) of Shaivism teach yoga in many forms. According to Mark Dyczkowski, yoga – which literally means “union” – to this tradition has meant the “realisation of our true inherent nature which is inherently greater than our thoughts can ever conceive”, and that the goal of yoga is to be the “free, eternal, blissful, perfect, infinite spiritually conscious” one is.[272]

Many Yoga-emphasizing Shaiva traditions emerged in medieval India, who refined yoga methods such as by introducing Hatha Yoga techniques. One such movement had been the Nath Yogis, a Shaivism sub-tradition that integrated philosophy from Advaita Vedanta and Buddhism traditions. It was founded by Matsyendranathand further developed by Gorakshanath.[273][220][221] The texts of these Yoga emphasizing Hindu traditions present their ideas in Shaiva context.[note 7]

Hindu performance arts

Shiva is the lord of dance and dramatic arts in Hinduism.[275][276][277] This is celebrated in Shaiva temples as Nataraja, which typically shows Shiva dancing in one of the poses in the ancient Hindu text on performance arts called the Natya Shastra.[276][278][279]

Dancing Shiva as a metaphor for celebrating life and arts is very common in ancient and medieval Hindu temples. For example, it is found in Badami cave templesEllora CavesKhajurahoChidambaram and others. The Shaiva link to the performance arts is celebrated in Indian classical dances such as Bharatanatyam and Chhau.[280][281][282]


Buddhism and Shaivism have interacted and influenced each other since ancient times, in both South Asia and Southeast Asia. Their Siddhas and esoteric traditions, in particular, have overlapped to an extent where Buddhists and Hindus would worship in the same temple such as in the Seto Machindranath. In southeast Asia, the two traditions were not presented in competitive or polemical terms, rather as two alternate paths that lead to the same goals of liberation, with theologians disagreeing which of these is faster and simpler.[283] Scholars disagree whether a syncretic tradition emerged from Buddhism and Shaivism, or it was a coalition with free borrowing of ideas, but they agree that the two traditions co-existed peacefully.[284]

The earliest evidence of a close relationship between Shaivism and Buddhism comes from the archaeological sites and damaged sculptures from the northwest Indian subcontinent, such as Gandhara. These are dated to about the 1st-century CE, with Shiva depicted in Buddhist arts.[285][note 8] The Buddhist Avalokiteshvara is linked to Shiva in many of these arts,[286] but in others Shiva is linked to Bodhisattva Maitreya with he shown as carrying his own water pot like Vedic priests.[285] According to Richard Blurton, the ancient works show that the Bodhisattva of Compassion in Buddhism has many features in common with Shiva in Shaivism.[286] The Shaiva Hindu and Buddhist syncretism continues in the contemporary era in the island of Bali, Indonesia.[287] In Central Asian Buddhism, and its historic arts, syncretism and a shared expression of Shaivism, Buddhism and Tantra themes has been common.[288]

The syncretism between Buddhism and Shaivism was particularly marked in southeast Asia, but this was not unique, rather it was a common phenomenon also observed in the eastern regions of the Indian subcontinent, the south and the Himalayan regions.[76] This tradition continues in predominantly Hindu Bali Indonesia in the modern era, where Buddha is considered the younger brother of Shiva.[76][note 9] In the pre-Islamic Java, Shaivism and Buddhism were considered very close and allied religions, though not identical religions.[290][note 10] This idea is also found in the sculptures and temples in the eastern states of India and the Himalayan region. For example, Hindu temples in these regions show Harihara (half Shiva, half Vishnu) flanked by a standing Buddha on its right and a standing Surya (Hindu Sun god) on left.[292][293]

On major festivals of Bali Hindus, such as the Nyepi – a “festival of silence”, the observations are officiated by both Buddhist and Shaiva priests.[76][294][295]


Jainism co-existed with Shaiva culture since ancient times, particularly in western and southern India where it received royal support from Hindu kings of Chaulukya, Ganga and Rashtrakuta dynasties.[296] In late 1st millennium CE, Jainism too developed a Shaiva-like tantric ritual culture with Mantra-goddesses.[296][297] These Jain rituals were aimed at mundane benefits using japas (mantra recitation) and making offerings into Homa fire.[296]

According to Alexis Sanderson, the link and development of Shaiva goddesses into Jaina goddess is more transparent than a similar connection between Shaivism and Buddhism.[298]The 11th-century Jain text ‘’Bhairavapadmavatikalpa’’, for example, equates Padmavati of Jainism with Tripura-bhairavi of Shaivism and Shaktism. Among the major goddesses of Jainism that are rooted in Hindu pantheon, particularly Shaiva, include Lakshmi and Vagishvari (Sarasvati) of the higher world in Jain cosmology, Vidyadevis of the middle world, and Yakshis such as Ambika, Cakreshvari, Padmavati and Jvalamalini of the lower world according to Jainism.[296]

Shaiva-Shakti iconography is found in major Jain temples. For example, the Osian temple of Jainism near Jodhpur features Chamunda, Durga, Sitala and a naked Bhairava.[299] While Shaiva and Jain practices had considerable overlap, the interaction between Jain community and Shaiva community differed on the acceptance of ritual animal sacrifices before goddesses. Jain remained strictly vegetarian and avoided animal sacrifice, while Shaiva accepted the practice.[300]


The Rigveda (Sanskritऋग्वेद ṛgveda, from ṛc “praise, shine”[1] and veda “knowledge”) is an ancient Indian collection of Vedic Sanskrithymns. It is one of the four canonical sacred texts (śruti) of Hinduism known as the Vedas.[2][3] The text is a collection of 1,028 hymns and 10,600 verses, organized into ten books (Mandalas).[4] A good deal of the language is still obscure and many hymns as a consequence seem unintelligible.[5][6][7]

The hymns are dedicated to Rigvedic deities.[4] For each deity series the hymns progress from longer to shorter ones; and the number of hymns per book increases.[2] In the eight books that were composed the earliest, the hymns predominantly discuss cosmology and praise deities.[8][9] Books 1 and 10, which were added last, deal with philosophical or speculative[9] questions about the origin of the universe and the nature of god,[10] the virtue of dāna (charity) in society,[11] and other metaphysical issues in its hymns.[12]

Rigveda is one of the oldest extant texts in any Indo-European language.[13] Philological and linguistic evidence indicate that the Rigveda was composed in the north-western region of the Indian subcontinent, most likely between c. 1500 and 1200 BC,[14][15][16] though a wider approximation of c. 1700–1100 BC has also been given.[17][18][note 1]

Some of its verses continue to be recited during Hindu rites of passage celebrations such as weddings and religious prayers, making it probably the world’s oldest religious text in continued use.[22][23]

As for a good translation and a library of texts, for Rigveda, here:

Also, more sources for the vedas, here: