World Population Since Creation

From this article:

World Population Since Creation

by Lambert Dolphin

Display created by Ed Stephan

The Antediluvian World

Genesis 4 and 5 records the history of the Antediluvian world in a highly condensed account. From the genealogical list, which is probably complete without any gaps, the time between Adam and the flood of Noah—which occurred when the latter was 600 years old—can be calculated to be almost exactly 1656 years. If one takes Barry Setterfield’s chronology as more accurate, the time period from Adam to the Flood was 2256 years.

During this time period, man was much healthier than he is now; the gene pool, less corrupted by subsequent harmful mutations and other defects; and the environment on earth, was much more favorable to good health and long life, as can be seen by the recorded pre-flood longevities.

While classical evolutionary theory presupposes earth’s early atmosphere was a reducing atmosphere (devoid of Oxygen) newer scientific evidence confirms what Bible scholars had previously suspected: the earth’s ancient atmosphere probably contained a larger fraction of oxygen than it does at present. It is even possible that photosynthesis in plant life was more efficient than it is now. A warmer average climate in ancient times would also mean a higher rate of oxygen generation by the more numerous plant life.

At age 65, Enoch became the father of a son whom he named Methuselah, a name which means “when he dies it (the flood) shall come.” Enoch went on to walk with God another 300 years and was taken up (“translated”) into heaven by God without dying. Methuselah survived to age 969, the oldest man who ever lived. True to prediction, the flood came the year Methuselah died.

Ray C. Stedman in his book Understanding Man has analyzed the meaning of the names of the descendants in the line of Seth to Noah and gives the following explanation:

“a way of escape [for man] is indicated again in a most fascinating way in this chapter by the meaning of the names listed. There is some difference among authorities as to the meaning of these names, depending upon the root from which they are judged to be taken. But one authority gives a most interesting sequence of meanings. The list begins with Seth, which means ‘Appointed.’ Enosh, his son, means ‘Mortal;’ and his son, Kenan, means ‘Sorrow.’ His son Mahalalel, means ‘The Blessed God.’ He named his boy Jared which means ‘Came Down,’ and his boy, Enoch, means ‘Teaching.’ Methuselah, as we saw, means ‘His death shall bring;’ Lamech means ‘Strength,’ and Noah, ‘Comfort.’ Now put that all together:

God has Appointed that Mortal man shall Sorrow;
but The Blessed God, Came Down,
Teaching, that His Death Shall Bring,
Strength and Comfort.

“Is this book (Genesis) from God? God has given you and me a life to watch just as Methuselah’s generation watched his. It is your own life. God has written “Methuselah” on each one of us. “His death shall bring it,” or “When he dies, it will come.” How far is it till the end of the world for you? When you die. That is the end of the world. That is the end of man’s day. Is it fifty years from now, ten, tomorrow? Who knows? But at any moment, when he dies, it will come.”

Population Growth Estimates

Growth of world population during various epochs of earth history can be calculated by a well-known formula:

In this formula Pn is the population after n generations beginning with one man and one woman; n is the number of generations—found by dividing the total time period by the number of years per generation.

The variable x can be thought of as the number of generations that are alive when P(n) is evaluated. Therefore, if x is 2, the generations that are alive are generations n and n-1. This means that only a generation and its parents are alive. It seems reasonable to choose x = 3 most of the time. Taking x = 3 means that when P(n) is evaluated generations n, n-1, and n-2 are all alive.

C is half the number of children in the family. If each family has only two children, the population growth rate is zero, but a reasonable and conservative number of children per family is 2.1 to 2.5 as far as historical records are concerned. (The derivation of the above equation has been added as Note A at the end of this article).

Allowing for famine, disease, war, and disaster, a few sample calculations will show that the earth’s population could have easily reached several billions of people between the time of Adam and the time of the flood. It is even quite possible that the preflood population was much higher than it is now.

Genesis 4:21-22 gives suggestions of the development of music and advanced technology during this period. Family reunions must have been spectacular affairs with average life-spans well over 900 years! Human culture and even technological achievements before the flood may well have been superior and dazzling in comparison to what we see now, even though evil in that society eventually increased to the point of that civilization’s self-destruction. When the Flood destroyed the Antediluvian world only eight persons were rescued on the Ark of Noah.

A home computer spread sheet or a hand calculator can be used to iterate world population growth rates for various realistic values of n, C, and x. This will soon convince the skeptic that the earth can be easily filled full of people in a few thousands of years.

Henry Morris (Ref. 1) gives the following examples of possible population growth rates of the earth at various times in history:

“…Assume that C = 2 and x = 2, which is equivalent to saying that the average family has 4 children who later have families of their own, and that each set of parents lives to see all their grandchildren. For these conditions which are not at all unreasonable, the population at the end of 5 generation would be 96, after 10 generations, 3,070; after 15 generations, 98,300; after 20 generations, 3,150,000; and after 30 generations, 3,220,000,000. In one more generation (31) the total would increase to 6.5 billion.

“The next obvious question is: How long is a generation? Again, a reasonable assumption is that the average marriage occurs at age 25 and that the four children will have been born by age 35. Then the grandchildren will have been born the parents have lived their allotted span of 70 years. A generation is thus about 35 years. Many consider a generation to be only 30 years. This would mean that the entire present world population could have been produced in approximately 30 x 35, or 1,050 years.

“The fact that it has actually taken considerably longer than this to bring the world population to its present size indicates that the average family is less than 4 children, or that the average life-span is less than 2 generations, or both. For comparison, let us assume then that the average family has only 3 children, and that the life-span is 1 generation (i.e., that C = 1.5 and x = 1). Then…in 10 generations the population would be 106 after 20 generations, 6,680; after 30 generations, 386,000; and after 52 generations, 4,340,000,000…At 35 years per generation, this would be only 1,820 years. Evidently even 3 children per family is too many for human history as a whole.”

With regard to the Old Testament and the time period between Adam and Noah, Morris says,

“…the recorded average age of the nine antediluvian patriarchs was 912 years. Recorded ages at the births of their children ranged from 65 years (Mahalalel, Gen. 5:15; Enoch, Gen. 5:21) to 500 years (Noah, Gen. 5:32). Everyone of them is said to have had “sons and daughters” so that each family had at least 4 children, and probably more.

“As an ultraconservative assumption, let C = 3, x = 5, and n = 16.56. These constants correspond to an average family of six children, an average generation of 100 years and an average lifespan of 500 years. On this basis the world population at the time of the Flood would have been 235 million people. This probably represents in a gross underestimate of the numbers who actually perished in the Flood.

“Multiplication was probably more rapid than assumed in this calculation, especially in the earliest centuries of the antediluvian epoch. For example, if the average family size were 8, instead of 6, and the length of a generation 93 years, instead of 100, the population at the time of Adam’s death, 930 years after his creation, would already have been 2,800,000. At these rates, the population at the time of the Deluge would have been 137 billion! Even if we use rates appropriate for the present world (x = 1 and C = 1.5), over 3 billion people could easily have been on the earth at the time of Noah.”

With regard to the effects of plagues, wars, and disasters on population growth rates, Ian T. Taylor (Ref. 2.) notes,

“The use of formulas gives the maximum figure possible from the variables that have been selected, and it is cogently argued that natural disasters have always played a hand in keeping human population in check; the long-term picture is thus seen to be one of population stability. History shows, for example, that the Justinian plague, A.D. 540-90, took 100 million lives; the Black Death, A.D. 1348-80, swept away 150 million from Europe alone; and even as late as 1918-19, the influenza epidemic took 25 million lives (Wallace 1969; Webster 1799)… the awful figures for natural disasters are very quickly made up for by the subsequent rates of increase among the survivors (Langer 1964).” Taylor gives the following typical recovery curve after a plague for which data is available:

Consider the descendants of Jacob (Israel) who numbered 70 persons (Ex. 1:5, Dt. 10:2) when they went down to stay there while Joseph was Prime Minister. They remained 400 years (Gen. 15:13, Acts 7:6; Ex. 12:41 says “430 years”), and numbered 600,000 able-bodied men, plus women and children when they left under Moses (Ex. 12:37, Nu. 11:21). If a generation was 40 years, then 10 generations is the total. A total population of 2 million would be generated, starting with only couple, if the average number of children per family was 8, which is an entirely reasonable number, since Genesis 47:27 says the Jews “multiplied exceedingly” during their sojourn in Egypt. If a generation were 30 years, then the number of children per family would have averaged 5.6. The lifespans of the average person were evidently longer than today, Moses lived 120 years (Ex. 33:39) and his brother Aaron 123. Their father Amram lived to be 137 (Ex. 6:20).

The above formula readily shows the absurdity of evolutionary time scales for mankind. In one million years, if n = 23,256 generations, C = 1.25, and x = 3, the present population of the world would be

P = 3.7 x 102091 persons.

In contrast the total number of electrons in the universe is only 1090!

Assuming that man has been on the earth for a million years or so, as the evolutionist adamantly insists, we calculate that the entire universe would now be filled full of dead bodies! A population of 1090 in one million years requires that the number of children per family be less than 2.0176.

The total surface area of the earth is about 5 x 1014 square meters. If we allowed every man, woman and child a square meter and filled all the land masses with people the earth would hold no more than 1014 persons. (That is, one hundred thousand billion persons). In one million years this number would be reached only if the average number of children per family were less than 2.0026. The average number of children per family over the past 2000 years has been of the order of 2.1.

The following chart assumes the human race began with two persons, Adam and Eve, relatively recently. Population growth was very rapid for 1656 years until the Flood of Noah reduced the population to eight persons (4 couples). I have arbitrarily chosen the population at the time of the Flood as 9 billion, though as shown above this may be too conservative. Very little data on world population is available until recent times, so a few intermediate points have been selected. I have guessed the world population at the time of Abraham at 5 million. For example there seems to be broad agreement that the world population at the time of Christ was between 200 and 300 million. The latest demographic data used to plot this chart is available on the Internet and is referenced below. See Note B.

In order to show the narrow range of values of C which will generate very large populations in a short time, my associate Gordon A. Hunt of Stanford University ( has plotted sets of curves from the standard population for x = 2 and x = 3 and for several values of C. His plots are shown below in Note C.

Note D has been added as a comment on the uncertainty of world population at the time of Christ.

Jewish Population Down through History

The following graph is helpful in correlating population growth of the world with population estimates for the Jewish population in the world from Jewish scholars. Adapted from A Historical Address of the Jewish People, Ed. by Eli Baranavi, Schocken Books, New Yoprk, 1992, by Simon Burckhardt.


Note A. Derivation of the Population Growth Equation

The formula is a standard one and easily derived.

If one starts with two people and you assume an average of 2c children per family, then the number of children in the first generation would be 2c. The total population after one generation would be 2 + 2c. In the second generation one gets 2c2 individuals, and in the third generation, 2c3 and so on. Assuming no deaths, at the end of n generations one has

S(n) = 2 + 2c + 2c2 + 2c3 +….+2cn individuals.

Multiply both sides of the equation by c and subtract from the previous equation. This gives,

S(n) = 2 [c(n+1) – 1] / (c-1).

However we have to allow for people dying all the time. Let the average life-span be represented by x generations.

In the nth generation then all those who were in the (n-x) generation will have died.


S(n-x) = 2[c(n-x+1) – 1] / (c-1)

And, P(n), the total surviving population in the nth generation is,

P(n) = S(n) – S(n-x) = 2[c(n-x+1)][cx – 1] / (c-1).

The way to understand this formula in practice is to use a hand calculator and play around with some “typical” values of x and c. If c = 1 then of course the population growth is zero. We do not know much about ancient population growth rates, but there is reasonable data for the past 2000 years, and 2.1 children per family seems to be typical. Evolutionary time scales require that the average number of offspring over most of history would have been only of the order of 2.0026 children per family. If this is the case, why a jump from 2c = 2.0026 to 2c = 2.1 only in the last 2000 years or so? Helpful illustrative examples can also be quickly run on a spreadsheet program such as Microsoft Excel. It is then very easy to vary x and c over a whole range of limits.

It is impossible to prove conclusively that the world fully populates itself in only a few thousand years. The point is, this short time scale scenario is actually more reasonable than millions of years given what we do know about population growth rates in the last millennia or two.

Note B. Approximate relationships:

As noted above, we have very little actual population data except for the past 200 years. For the time of Christ, most demographers make an intelligent guess that the world population was between 100 and 300 million. The lower figure tends to be preferred.

We are not entirely ignorant of the world population between about 3000 BC and the time of Christ. The size and extent of ancient cities and their approximate periods of prominence are known from archaeology. Ancient historians give us some clues, and of course Christians consider the Bible to be fully accurate as it relates to Israel and the surrounding region. There is legitimate reason to speculate on the time interval between Noah and Abraham, but Abraham’s day seems to have been around 2000 BC. The traditional date for the Exodus of the Jews from Egypt is approximately 1400 BC.

Henry Morris (Ref. 1) offers further comments:

“The evolutionist may object and say that the rate has drastically accelerated only in recent centuries. So, let us consider that the “normal” growth was such as to produce only the earth’s population as many people have been born into the world as it was at the time of Christ, about 200 million people. This is the oldest date for which anyone has even a reasonable guess as to the population.

The value of c necessary to give 200 million people in 25,000 generations can be calculated as 1.0007 and the corresponding number of people who had lived and died in that period would still be over 300 billion.

Therefore, using the most conservative figures for which we have even the remotest justification, if the theory of human evolution is true, there have been at least 300 billion people who have lived and died on the earth–almost all of them a long time before Christ came into the world and before any other revelation was given to man about God!

A good question to consider is: Where were they buried and what happened to their bones? An even more disturbing question is: What happened to their souls?

It may be claimed that none of these calculations really prove anything, since no one really has any way of knowing exactly what birth and death rates and what population figures existed in prehistoric times. This is quite true, of course, but the known facts of population growth do fit the Biblical chronology very well and they do not fit the assumed evolutionary chronology at all.

Scientists work in terms of “models” and try to evaluate each proposed model of a particular process in terms of the “degree of fit” of the known data into that model. On this basis, we are abundantly justified in concluding that the creationist model with its brief chronology fits the actual known data of population statistics far better than does the million-year evolutionary model. In terms of scientifically-accepted standards of evaluation, this can only mean that, on this issue at least, creationism is much more “scientific” than evolutionism.

Other population models could be used, of course, and no one knows which is best, nor that the assumed rates have been constant. A simpler approach (as used by Malthus and Darwin) would be to assume a simple geometric increase in population, and to assume that only one generation is living at any one time. That is, in the standard population equation, assume that x = 1. Then the equation becomes simply:

P(n) = 2 cn

The results using this equation are practically the same as from the full equation, when n becomes large.

If one wishes to think in terms of a constant annual percentage increase in population, the population equation can be written as:

P(y) = 2 (1 + G/100)y years

where G is the annual percentage increase in population and P(y) is the population after y years. From this equation, one can calculate that G would have to be about 0.5 percent per year to produce the present world population in the assumed 4,300 years since the Flood. This is only one-fourth the present growth rate of ~2 percent per year.

It is possible, of course, to specify changing growth rates of family sizes on any arbitrary basis one chooses, in order to make the results come out to any predetermined value. This is what evolutionists have to do in order to account for such a small present world population after such a long imagined evolutionary history. Nevertheless, the simplest and most straightforward population models, based upon all the real population statistics that are available, clearly correlate with the Biblical chronology as the true framework of human history.

The total world population, of course, has long since been subdivided into various nations and other groupings, even though the original population was all in one small group. When, and on what basis did these subdivisions take place? The development of different nations is in the domain of ethnology.”

Note C: Some Plots of the Population Growth Equation.

The following sets of curves are plots of the equation,

Both the x and y axes are logarithmic. The vertical axis is the total population and the x axis is the number of generations required to reach a given population starting from 2 people in the first generation. C is half of the number of children per family, on average. To convert the horizontal axis to years after creation, multiply n by the average number of years per generation, i.e., the number of years elapsing from first-born to first-born. In populations where people marry young and have many children population soars. Thus no society can sustain growth rates where C = 2.5 to 3.0 for very long. On the other hand there is no historical evidence for very low overall population growth rates over very long periods of time (hundreds of thousands or millions of years). The total population after 300 generations is indicated on each chart.

Note D. Population at the time of Christ

Because of the uncertainty in world population 2000 years ago, my colleague Eric Charles Abbott has kindly provided the following note:

Let us put reasonable bounds on the value of the world’s population in AD 1. For the sake of example, I’ll choose a lower bound of 50,000,000 (8 significant figures specified), and an upper bound of 200,000,000 (9 sig. figs. specified). Similarly, I’ll put bounds on the population in AD 1000 at 250,000,000 and 350,000,000 (both exact).

Note that the world’s population must be an integer greater than or equal to 0; therefore, these values are exact — there can be no loss of precision in the calculation due to these numbers. Using x = 2 (exact) and a generation length of (exactly) 40 years, we generate the following table :


AD 1 | AD 1000 | C (rounded for convenience)

50 mil | 250 mil | 1.0665
200 mil | 250 mil | 1.00897 (min)
50 mil | 350 mil | 1.0809 (max)
200 mil | 350 mil | 1.02264

P(n) is a monotonically increasing function of c for the values of x and n chosen. Therefore, if the actual populations in AD 1 and AD 1000 lie within the given bounds, then c must lie within the interval [1.00897, 1.0809].

The following plot is a rough estimate of world population from the time of the Flood of Noah, until the birth of Jesus, (53 generations). For discussion purposes the population at the time of Abraham, eleven generations after the Flood, has been taken to be one million people. The population at the time of Christ was assumed to be 300 million people. The date of the Flood was taken to be about 3500 BC, based on Barry Setterfield’s chronology.


1. Henry M. Morris, The Biblical Basis for Modern Science, Appendix 6 (Baker Book House; Grand Rapids, 1984). This book gives many more examples of population growth rates, considerations of disease, war, famine. etc. Available from the Institute of Creation Research (ICR). PO Box 2667, El Cajon, CA 92021. Excerpt: Babel and the World Population: Biblical Demography and Linguistics.

2. Ian T. Taylor gives his own population estimates consistent with those of Morris in In The Minds Of Men: Darwin And The New World Order.

3. Robert Craig Long, author of a very interesting book, “The Politicians: things of heaven and things of earth” has detailed estimates of population growth rates calculated by a different method than given by the above formula. Long’s overall conclusions, included on his web page, are similar to those presented above.

4a. World Population Clock and Calculator

4b. World Clock and Age Calculator

5.The Population of the PreFlood World, by Tom Pickett (added April 8, 1998).

6. Population Before the Flood

From Adam to Noah, average human lifetimes were very nearly 1000 years. First-born children arrived when their parents were of the order of 100 years in age. The time period from Adam to Noah is 1656 years in a tight reading of the genealogy, or 2256 years if one chooses to use the preferred Hebrew text of the Old Testament.  The First-century historian Josephus, (Antiquities of the Jews, Chap. 2 vs. 3 footnote), says that Adam and Eve had 33 sons and 23 daughters, that is, c = 28. If this was a typical family size, the total world population before the Flood would have been totally beyond any reasonable numbers. There were ten generations from Adam to Noah and a more reasonable family size would appear to be at least 5 children per family. Based on the assumption of 4 to 9 children per family on average, the following sets of curves have been prepared.

The line of Seth given in Genesis 5 suggests that children began to be born when the parents were of the order of a hundred years old. The name of the son (the heir) is given first in this list and then the text continues, “…and (so and so) begat (other) sons and daughters.” This would suggest an average family size of at least 5. But more than 5 or 6 surviving children per generation would lead to an impossibly large total population by the time of the Flood. However, this assumes present-day mortality rates. The genealogies in Genesis 5 all begin with a son. But, there could well have been daughters born earlier, or non-inheriting sons. We are merely told the name of the next in line in the family descent, i.e., the name of the heir.

Small family sizes when men and women were capable of bearing children for more than 400 years seems strange to us today–unless the sexual drive was much different then as compared to now. On the other hand, death rates could have been very high before the Flood. When a new disease appeared suddenly amongst the Antediluvians the death rate might have been enormous. Human bodies as yet had no immunity to new diseases back then, no antibodies to fight a new disease. Humans were created with the capacity to adapt over time to fight germs and infections. Nowadays, late in time, our bodies carry all manner of antibodies against a myriad of germs and infections. But what was it like when our race was just adjusting in a fallen world full of deadly perils?

Probably the world population by the time of the Flood was indeed many billions of people, but there is a lot we do not know about this amazing period of human history before the Flood.

7. A Population Growth Simulation, by Paul Gossilin (in French)

8. U.S. Census Bureau World Population Clocks

9. Human Population Dynamics Revisited with the Logistic Model: How Much Can Be Modeled and Predicted?

10. Population Control Questions, Helen Fryman (Setterfield), CARM

11. Biodiversity and Conservation: A Hypertext Book by Peter J. Bryant

12. Where are all the People? by Don Batten (Creation Ex Nihilo, 23(3):52­55 June­August 2001)

13. World Overpopulation Awareness

14. World Population: A Guide to the WWW, by Richard Jensen , July 2005

15. Population Through History, 1 AD-2020 AD–animated maps

16. eHistory : World History 10,000 BC to 2000 AD | Data Plotted: (10,000 BC to 2000 AD)

17. World Population Growth, 1750-2150 (Population Reference Bureau)

Population Data:

  • World Population (Wikipedia)
  • General: For most of history, human population had an almost imperceptible impact on the Earth, reaching only about 5 million by 8000 B.C. It continued its slow growth and reached 500 million around 1650. At this rate, it was doubling about every 1,500 years. Then, a population explosion occurred. By about 1810, human population had doubled to a billion in less than 200 years. It doubled again to 2 billion in just over 100 years. Today, human population growth continues to accelerate, doubling now in just 39 years!
  • Zero Population Growth ( 1400 16th Street, N.W., Suite 320 Washington, D.C. 20036 Zero-Population Growth
  • World Population Clock Updates every thirty seconds.
  • Population by Country with Trends
  • Milestones in World Population.
  • Estimates back to 10,000 BC, US Census Bureau by various authorities: (
  • PopNet: Global Population Information Source: (
  • Brief History: The electronic version of the following table is being made available by the Population Information Network (POPIN) Gopher of the United Nations Population Division, Department for Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis:
  • A discussion on Population problems, with helpful links, from CARM (Christian Apologetics and Research Ministry):


Historical Estimates of World Population
(Population in millions. When lower and upper estimates are the same they are shown
under "Lower.")
    --Summary-- Bira- --Durand---     and Thomlinson- -UN, 1973--  UN,
Year  Lower Upper  ben Lower Upper Haub Jones Lower Upper Lower Upper 1995 USBC
-10000   1  10               4   1  10
 -8000   5               5
 -6500   5  10                        5  10
 -5000   5  20               5   5  20
 -4000   7                  7
 -3000  14                 14
 -2000  27                 27
 -1000  50                 50
 -500  100                 100
 -400  162     162
 -200  150  231  231           150
   1  170  400  255  270  330  300  170  200     200  400  300
  200  190  256  256           190
  400  190  206  206           190
  500  190  206  206           190
  600  200  206  206           200
  700  207  210  207           210
  800  220  224  224           220
  900  226  240  226           240
 1000  254  345  254  275  345     265              310
 1100  301  320  301           320
 1200  360  450  400        450  360
 1250  400  416  416                          400
 1300  360  432  432           360  400
 1340  443     443
 1400  350  374  374           350
 1500  425  540  460  440  540     425              500
 1600  545  579  579           545
 1650  470  545           500  545  500     470  545
 1700  600  679  679           610  600
 1750  629  961  770  735  805  795  720  700     629  961  790
 1800  813 1,125  954           900  900     813 1,125  980
 1850 1,128 1,402 1,241       1,265 1,200 1,200    1,128 1,402 1,260
 1900 1,550 1,762 1,633 1,650 1,710 1,656 1,625 1,600    1,550 1,762 1,650
 1910 1,750                               1,750
 1920 1,860                               1,860
 1930 2,070                               2,070
 1940 2,300                               2,300
 1950 2,400 2,556 2,527       2,516 2,500 2,400    2,486    2,520 2,556
Biraben, Jean-Noel, 1980, An Essay Concerning Mankind's Evolution,
   Population, Selected Papers, December, table 2.

Durand, John D., 1974, "Historical Estimates of World Population:
   An Evaluation," University of Pennsylvania, Population Center,
   Analytical and Technical Reports, Number 10, table 2.

Haub, Carl, 1995, "How Many People Have Ever Lived on Earth?" Population
   Today, February, p. 5.

McEvedy, Colin and Richard Jones, 1978, "Atlas of World Population
   History," Facts on File, New York, pp. 342-351.

Thomlinson, Ralph, 1975, "Demographic Problems, Controversy
   Over Population Control," Second Edition, Table 1.

United Nations (UN), 1973, The Determinants and Consequences of 
   Population Trends, Population Studies, No. 50., p.10.

United Nations, 1996, "World Population From Year 0 to Stabilization",

U.S. Bureau of the Census (USBC), 1995, "Total Midyear Population for 
   the World: 1950-2050", Data updated 2-28-96,


Durand: J.D. Durand, 1974. Historical Estimates of World Population: An Evaluation (University of Pennsylvania, Population Studies Center, Philadelphia), mimeo.

D & C: United Nations, 1973. The Determinants and Consequences of Population Trends, Vol. 1 (United Nations, New York).

WPP63: United Nations, 1966. World Population Prospects as Assessed in 1963 (United Nations, New York).

WPP94: United Nations, 1993. World Population Prospects: The 1994 Revision (United Nations, New York)

LR: United Nations, 1992. Long-range World Population Projection: Two Centuries of Population Growth, 1950-2150 (United Nations, New York).

Interp: Estimate interpolated from adjacent population estimates.



Data from the Population Division,
Department for Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis

World Population reached:

1 billion in 1804
2 billion in 1927, (123 years later)
3 billion in 1960, (33 years later)
4 billion in 1974, (14 years later)
5 billion in 1987, (13 years later)

World Population may reach:

6 billion in 1998, (11 years later)
7 billion in 2009, (11 years later)
8 billion in 2021, (12 years later)
9 billion in 2035, (14 years later)
10 billion in 2054, (19 years later)
11 billion in 2093, (39 years later)

The World-Wide Web Virtual Library: Demography & Population Studies. Source: Demography & Population Studies

Recent Related Report:


Increasing Death Rate Could Decimate Developing World

[This text is adapted from a Worldwatch Institute press release dated April 12, 1999, and summarizes findings reported in a new book, “Beyond Malthus:

Nineteen Dimensions of the Population Challenge,” by Lester R. Brown, Gary Gardner, and Brian Halweil.]

For the first time since China’s great famine claimed 30 million lives in 1959-61, rising death rates are slowing world population growth. When the United Nations released its biennial population update in late 1998, it reduced the projected world population for 2050 from 9.4 billion to 8.9 billion. Of the 500 million drop, roughly one third is the result of rising death rates.

The two regions where death rates are already rising, or are likely to do so, are sub-Saharan Africa and the Indian subcontinent, which together contain 1.9 billion people, nearly one third of humanity.

This rise in mortality does not come as a surprise to those who track world population trends. The demand in many countries for food, water, and forest products is simply outrunning the capacity of local life support systems. If birthrates do not come down soon enough, natural systems deteriorate and social services fall short, forcing death rates up.

Lester Brown, Gary Gardner and Brian Halweil of the Worldwatch Institute have identified three specific threats that either are already pushing death rates up or that have the potential to do so–the HIV epidemic, aquifer depletion, and shrinking cropland area per person.

“Of these three threats, the HIV virus is the first to spiral out of control in developing countries,” says Brown. “The HIV epidemic should be seen for what it is: an international emergency of epic proportions, one that could claim more lives in the early part of the next century than World War II did in this century.” In sub-Saharan Africa, HIV already infects one fifth to one fourth of the adult population in Zimbabwe, Botswana, Namibia, Zambia and Swaziland. Barring a medical miracle, many African countries will lose one fifth or more of their adult population to AIDS within the next decade.

The virus has also established a foothold in the Indian subcontinent. With 4 million of its adults now HIV positive, India is home to more infected individuals than any other nation. And with the infection rate among India’s adults at roughly 1 percent–a critical threshold for potentially rapid spread–the HIV epidemic threatens to engulf the country if the government does not move quickly to check it.

In some countries, the HIV virus is reversing gains in life expectancy made in the last several decades. For example, in Botswana, life expectancy has fallen from 62 years in 1990 to 44 years in 1998. In Zimbabwe, it has fallen from 61 years in 1993 to 49 years in 2000 and could drop to 40 years in 2010.

A second consequence of continuing population growth is potentially life-threatening water shortages. If rapid population growth continues indefinitely, the demand for water eventually exceeds the sustainable yield of aquifers. The result is excessive water withdrawals and falling water tables. Since 40 percent of the world’s food comes from irrigated land, water shortages can quickly translate into food shortages.

Dozens of developing countries face acute water shortages early in the next century, but none illustrate the threat better than India, whose population, which is expanding by 18 million per year, will soon reach 1 billion. New estimates for India indicate that water withdrawals are now double the rate of aquifer recharge, a serious matter where half of the grain harvest comes from irrigated land.

“In a country where 53 percent of all children are already malnourished and underweight, a shrinking harvest could increase hunger-related deaths,” says Brown. In contrast to AIDS, which takes a heavy toll of young adults, hunger claims mostly infants and children.

The third threat hanging over countries where rapid population growth continues is shrinking cropland per person. As this occurs, at-risk nations become increasingly dependent upon imported food. But those same nations might not be able to afford the imported food–and, eventually, the food simply will not be available, as world import needs exceed exportable surpluses.

Among the larger countries where shrinking cropland per person threatens future food security are Nigeria, Ethiopia, and Pakistan. For example, as Nigeria’s population goes from 111 million today to a projected 244 million in 2050, its grainland per person will shrink from 0.15 hectares to 0.07 hectares. Pakistan’s projected growth from 146 million today to 345 million by 2050 will shrink its grainland per person from 0.08 hectares at present to 0.03 hectares, an area scarcely the size of a tennis court. Countries where grainland per person has shrunk to 0.03 hectares, such as Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan, each import some 70 percent of their grain.

The threats from HIV, aquifer depletion, and shrinking cropland are not new or unexpected. It has been recognized for at least 15 years that the HIV virus could decimate human populations if it was not controlled. Similarly, “the arithmetic of emerging water shortages is not difficult,” Brown says. A growing population with a water supply that is essentially fixed by nature means that the water supply per person will diminish over time. The same is true for cropland per person. “The mystery is our failure to respond to the threats associated with continuing population growth,” says Brown.

One of the keys to helping countries slow population growth is expanded international assistance for reproductive health and family planning. At the U.N.’s Conference on Population and Development held in Cairo in 1994, it was estimated that the annual cost of providing quality reproductive health services to all those in need in developing countries would cost $17 billion in the year 2000. By 2015, this would climb to $22 billion.

Industrial countries agreed at Cairo to provide one third of the funds, with the developing countries providing the remaining two thirds. While developing countries have largely honored their commitments, the industrial countries, importantly the United States, have reneged on theirs. In late 1998, the U.S. Congress withdrew all funding for the U.N. Population Fund, the principal source of international family planning assistance.

Beyond family planning, the forgiveness of international debts by governments in the industrial world could enable poor countries to make the heavy investments in education, especially of young females, that accelerates the shift to smaller families.

As U.N. delegates prepare in June, 1999 to evaluate the progress made since the 1994 Cairo conference, there is a desperate need for leadership in stabilizing world population as soon as possible, Brown emphasizes.

[The Worldwatch Institute is Washington, DC-based nonprofit research organization that analyzes global environmental and development issues. To order the book “Beyond Malthus: Nineteen Dimensions of the Population Challenge” by credit card, call (in the U.S.) 1-800-555-2028; or visit the institute website,]

Update: Growth Rate Slowing; Global Population in 2002 Tops 6.2 Billion, Reports Census Bureau

WASHINGTON, March 22 /U.S. Newswire/ — The world’s population increased by 1.2 percent in 2002 to total more than 6.2 billion, the U.S. Census Bureau said today in a report on global population trends. The rate of increase translated into a net addition of about 200,000 people per day and 74 million per year, roughly equivalent to the population of Egypt in 2002.

According to the report, Global Population Profile: 2002, the pace of global population growth peaked just over a decade ago. The increase of 74 million in 2002 is substantially below the annual high of 87 million people added in 1989-90. The rate of growth is well below the high of about 2.2 percent a year experienced 40 years ago.

Census Bureau projections show the slowdown continuing into the foreseeable future.

Some report highlights:

— The slowdown in global population growth is linked primarily to declines in fertility. In 1990, the world’s women, on average, were giving birth to 3.3 children over their lifetimes. By 2002, the average had dropped to 2.6 children — slightly above the level needed to assure replacement of the population. Census Bureau projections show the level of fertility for the world as a whole descending below replacement level before 2050.

— While fertility was the dominant factor underlying national, regional and global population growth during the past 50 years, the large proportion of women in their reproductive years in current national and global populations will account for much of the population change expected to occur over the next 50 years.

— “Population aging,” the rise in all regions in the size of older age groups relative to younger ones, will be an increasingly significant trend in coming decades. The world’s older population is expected to grow considerably. In 2050, there will be more than three times as many people age 65 and older as there are today. In contrast, the number of children is expected to remain relatively stable over the next five decades.

— Census Bureau projections indicate a number of African countries will experience levels of mortality during this decade that will lower the average life expectancy at birth to around 30 years by 2010, a level not seen since the beginning of the 20th century. Much of this decline in life expectancy is likely to result from AIDS (news – web sites) mortality.

The report summarizes the key trends in international demography at the dawn of the 21st century. It is accompanied by a special report on HIV (news – web sites)/AIDS, The AIDS Pandemic in the 21st Century, and a four-page summary, Global Population at a Glance: 2002 and Beyond.

All three were released by the Census Bureau’s International Programs Center, which collects and analyzes population and related statistical information from all countries.

Editor’s Note: The report can be accessed at

Addendum: Related Article from Nature

From Nature 431, 518 – 519 (30 September 2004); doi:10.1038/431518a

Human evolution: Pedigrees for all humanity


Jotun Hein is in the Department of Statistics, University of Oxford, 1 South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3TG, UK. e-mail:

Simulations based on a model of human population history and geography find that an individual that is the genealogical ancestor of all living humans existed just a few thousand years ago. Writing on page 562 of this issue, Rohde, Olson and Chang1 address a simple but fascinating question: how far back in time must we go to find an individual who was the ancestor of all present-day humans? After a little consideration, the existence of such an individual (the ‘universal ancestor’ or, as the authors put it, our ‘most recent common ancestor’) should not surprise: I have two parents, four grandparents, and the growth in the population of my ancestors is close to exponential as I trace them back in time. This is true for anybody’s ancestors, and there must soon be an overlap between the ancestors of two or more randomly chosen individuals (Fig.1).

Figure 1 Searching for our universal common ancestor. Full legend

High resolution image and legend (72k)

In simplified models, which assume random mating, the average number of generations back to a universal common ancestor has been estimated 2-4 to be around log2n, where n is the population size. So if, for instance, the present-day population were to consist of 1,000 people, the average number of generations back to the universal ancestor would be log2(1,000) ” about 10 generations. For populations of size 106, or the present human population of size 6 x 109, it would be 20 or 33 generations, corresponding to 500 or a bit more than 800 years, respectively (assuming a generation time of 25 years). This is surprisingly recent.

And an even more surprising conclusion from such models is that, only a little farther back in time, a large fraction of the population will be the ancestors of everybody alive today. The remaining individuals back then will be the ancestors of no one. As Rohde et al.1 describe it, “When genealogical ancestry is traced back beyond the [universal ancestor], more and more people in earlier generations become ancestors of the [whole] present-day population”. At a certain point in history (the ‘identical ancestors’ point), people can be divided into two groups: either they are common ancestors of all present-day humans, or their lineages have died out. Being the ancestor of only some living humans is not an option. At this point, Rohde et al. say, “everyone alive now had exactly the same ancestors”. In the simplest model, the fraction of ‘ancestors-of-all’ is about 80%, and in most estimates so far, the time back to the ‘identical ancestors’ point is a bit less than twice the number of generations back to the first universal ancestor.

These estimates are not only astonishing, however; they are also unrealistically low, because of the simplicity of the underlying models. Key missing factors are geography (which influences population structure) and history (which affects population growth), and these are the ingredients that Rohde et al. have taken seriously to arrive at more credible estimates of the time back to the universal and identical ancestors.

The authors carried out simulations based on several scenarios, incorporating different degrees of population growth and different degrees of isolation of subpopulations, with occasional migration linking these subpopulations. The authors’ first model is relatively simple and includes up to ten large subpopulations, which exchange just one pair of migrants per generation. In one set of estimates based on this model, the mean time back to the universal ancestor is 2,300 years (76 generations, assuming a generation time of a bit less than 30 years) and to the identical ancestors it is 5,000 years (169 generations) ” the time of Aristotle and the first pyramids, respectively. The latter date is especially startling: had you entered any village on Earth in around 3,000 BC, the first person you would have met would probably have been your ancestor! A considerably more detailed model, which describes population density within continents, the opening of ports and more, does not change these estimates much.

The main weakness in the models comes from migration. As the authors point out, if one region is totally isolated (something that they do not simulate), with no migrants connecting it to other subpopulations, then the universal ancestor must logically have lived before the period of isolation began. Only after that period ends would the dates for the universal ancestor become less distant. Because of the effects of isolation, had we been living in 1700, say, and tried to work out when our universal and identical ancestors lived, the answers would have been further back in time than the answers we obtain now. Tasmania, for instance, was conceivably completely isolated at the time, and probably had been for millennia; this would therefore have pushed back the dates for universal and identical ancestry. So uncertainties about population structure introduce uncertainty into the proposed dates.

The genealogical questions addressed by Rohde et al. are distinct from questions about the history of our genetic material. In models that trace genetic material back in time, any given nucleotide position in our genomes can eventually be found in a single individual and on a single chromosome. Thus, being in the pedigree of all of humanity does not imply that an individual makes a significant genetic contribution to the present population. In fact, that individual might have contributed nothing. This distinction is also illustrated by ‘mitochondrial Eve’ — the woman who purportedly lived hundreds of thousands of years ago and carried mitochondrial genes that are ancestral to all present mitochondrial genes. In Fig. 1 you would reach this Eve by tracing only female lineages backwards (rather than both lineages).

Universal common ancestry (in the pedigree sense) and genetic common ancestry thus occur on different timescales. The former is proportional to log2n, and if you were to double the current population size, the expected time back to the universal ancestor would move back by only one generation in the simple model. But the time back to the genetic common ancestor is typically proportional to the population size, and so doubling the population size would double the time back to that kind of ancestor. The fact that the number of ancestors in a pedigree increases exponentially, whereas the number of genetic ancestors increases much more slowly, has the consequence that not many generations ago (about six), members of our pedigree existed that did not contribute to us genetically. So being somebody’s great-great-great-great grandparent is no guarantee of genetic relatedness. To properly understand genetic ancestry, we need the concept of the ancestral recombination graph5, 6 a generalization of traditional phylogeny that traces genetic material back in time in the presence of genetic recombination.

The increased ease of obtaining genome-sequence data from individuals, and the number of large-scale projects cataloguing variation in the human population, will increase our ability to test hypotheses about human history. Combining pedigree and genetic ancestry will become more and more important, both for data analysis and in exploring properties of population models 7. Many interesting questions lie ahead. For instance, how much genetic material (if any) did the universal ancestor pass on to the present population? What about that for a non-universal ancestor from the same time? In the idealized models, how far back would one have to go to find a single couple who are the lone ancestors of everybody? And how much could be known about humanity’s pedigree if we knew the genome of everybody?


1. Rohde, D. L. T., Olson, S. & Chang, J. T. Nature 431, 562566 (2004). Article |

2. Kammerle, K. J. Appl. Prob. 27, 880885 (1989).

3. Chang, J. Adv. Appl. Prob. 31, 10021026 (1999). |  Article |

4. Derrida, B., Manrubia, S. C. & Zanette, D. H. J. Theor. Biol. 203, 303315 (2000). |  Article |  PubMed |  ChemPort |

5. Griffiths, R. C. Theor. Popul. Biol. 19, 169186 (1981).

6. Hudson, R. R. Theor. Popul. Biol. 23, 183201 (1983). |  PubMed ChemPort |

7. Hein, J. J., Schierup, M. H. & Wiuf, C. H. Gene Genealogies, Variation and Evolution (Oxford Univ. Press, 2004).

8. Total Numbers: How Many People Have Ever Lived on Earth? | How Many People Have Ever Lived?

9. Wikipedia Summary Article: Population

[nc]Media, Education and History…

As a reply to this article:

If you know about problem solving, you’d already know what needs to be done. Also in previous posts you mentioned 1m viewers. First you’d have to take measures to make sure your blog is actually read, not simply posting on your blog from time to time, and ‘hope’, that viewers will come along. As a matter of fact, there is a high probability that so called ‘social media’, which are ‘owned’ by ‘private corporations’ are censoring specific content for specific users. With that in mind, there is a high probability your articles and content will never reach normal, everyday citizen who wants to find out information. However, someway, you were found in search engines or other people’s blogs, when was looking for good content regarding specific subjects, and because what you write has a high probability of real value, your blog is read by me. Only intelligent persons, wanting to know the whole picture, will find your content anyways. So, even if you post on social media, if you’re really that censored, you’ll likely be censored. Here’s a post on ZH, regarding how twitter retweets are somewhat censored:

Now, if you really wanted all those viewers, all you had to do is go post, be active in the comment sections on multiple websites and draw attention to your articles. On one hand, posting away might give your information to multiple people, and on the other, you can have less to none views and continue to improve your knowledge and material.

As for teachers and educational system, it has to be an educational system with similar/same nucleus of knowledge, but the knowledge itself has to be free of bias, (like pride and other sins, especially in the liberal education, which is actually useless), and only allow specializations for jobs to be generally short(equivalent of the masters degree of 2 years). This is the only way to ensure that some people’s education never diverges too much from the main view, and with that divergence, some views will be harder to integrate.
The issue with the world system of education starts from university(at least it was from my view), in which people’s values are majorly diverged by having people educated 4-6 years in universities, with different degrees and different values. Some real economists become hedge fund managers and sometimes they rack billions of dollars per year(though they are few), forming themselves also an insatiable greed for their own views, robbing millions of people, both of their wealth and their own dreams. Thus university education is heavily biased, is heavily guilty of ‘partiality’ and in specific countries, at bachelors degree, for example, in economics, there is NO MENTION of what ‘hedge fund managers’ are, or what is a hedge fund manager.
Apparently, they manage ASSets…

As ridiculous as it is, normal people, if are to continue to exist and not be chipped and treated like slaves, need to actually understand economics, and managing finances.
Jesus hated the greed that was cultivated by these money managers.
But at the same time, in what he written at the time, he promoted the idea of having people very capable to manage their affairs.
The issue is that people have been educated by the dirty MSM with all the greed, lust and gluttony available, making them completely unaware and incapable of understanding concepts like prudence, determination, temperance and justice.
And those are needed, to not give in to bad spending habits.
People are bad at spending their money, let alone spending their time……

This is the issue. Educating them to be aware of their own selves, the resources available, the knowledge that can open doors to infinite possibilities.
Or else, end up like at the time of Noah, when, apparently to some sources of information, he built an ark for himself and his family(a total of 8 persons it says), some animals, and all the rest of the people on this planet were flooded 5000 years ago(an estimate of 3500 BC).
At that time, the lifespans of people have reported to be over 300+ years(at least Noah lived 350 years, at least that’s what is written in the Bible), and, as a result of that, the estimate population at 3500 BC was reported to be 9 Billion. The people did not believe Noah at the time, were full of lust and all other sins(same as today).
If that is correct, 9bn people died, 5000 years ago. It was because of wars, strife, sins and greed. On a long enough timeline, the individuals have to be free of all the sins in order for society to evolve, without throwing their own destruction to other societies. What would happen if you’d have current lustful and sinful media, or ridiculous sharia law on few galaxies away, with advanced technology? The answer is simple, wars, discord that could make galactic wars. No one wants galactic wars. Star systems and planets of life destroyed because of some group of sinful individuals? A high probability that is not going to happen. So that means, there is a chance, current society can be in danger, if it doesn’t actually change it’s path from a sinful nature to a virtuous nature.
No wonder Jesus wanted to save the people. Look what that gotten him. Crucified, and put on a cross, dead, to be worshiped like that for 2 millennia. And people are still sinful, but now we can have a higher impact of sharing information through the media(that currently, is stubborn with a wrong way of doing things). There is a high chance that 9bn people got flooded 5k years ago. And that was, because of their sins. Question is, will history repeat itself, or not?

Here’s a good article showing the 9bn population living at the time of Noah:

A Just Education and sharing of information

As a reply to this article:

Very very good article.
Information secrecy is where all the so called ‘separatism’, which is at the core of the so called ‘racism’ is.
There needs to be a massive shutdown of all private groups and private informations that are being circulated/withheld.
Meaning, no information secrecy.
Also, torrent trackers which don’t have open sign-up all the time should be shut down.
They are the most of information hoarders and are the most dangerous of them all, because when a group hoards information doesn’t share it, or promotes elitism(which can be considered a form of racism), is when all the bad things happen, when a mentality of ‘us vs them’ happens.
At the core of all social tensions stands separation, and current ‘globalists’ are all in for more separation.
Their integration is separatist, and at the core of it, are exactly the vices, or the deadly sins.
Partiality is a deadly sin, and the so called ‘globalists’ are heavily guilty of it.
One person said, the most important thing of it all is God’s grace or view, not the material view that is out here.

In order to fix all this.
1. Eliminate all private torrent trackers and make them public(open sign-up).There is a certain ‘torrent tracker’ community that has gone pure elitist and has hoarded a lot of information and, despite their opinion, the information needs to be made public.
Also, all moderators and admins of the private trackers are to be arrested and held for treason and crimes against humanity, for withholding information and denying access to it.
No private groups with withholding information are to be ever allowed on this planet Earth.
Anyone who fails to do so, have a reminder, that they are to be wiped out of existence, permanently, because they are the root cause of all the conflicts and ‘separatist’ attitudes.(which is a form of racism). They are committing the sin of partiality, and thus, through their attitudes, lack of empathy towards other members of society and pride, have put themselves into a corner and through their actions, on a long enough timeline, no evolved being will accept them and they either have to change their attitudes and share information, in a virtuous way(see 4 cardinal virtues), or to be wiped out of existence permanently. The reason for all the bad things on the world are the expression of the deadly sins to other members of society, and because the receiving end sometimes doesn’t have enough cardinality(4 cardinal virtues, with prudence being the most), the people become corrupted and thus, slow but sure erosion of society can occur.
2. All the newspapers, magazines are to be forbidden to charge a price for their information.
All the money that should they ever receive, is to be in donations.
Charging a price for magazines or newspapers should be forbidden.
An electronic format should be released FREE.
And one can do the printing cost of that Free material separately, thus no pay for the author.
All the pay an author should get is donations.
That means all the magazines/newspapers should have, by LAW, to release a free electronic format, at the same time of their written published information.
No written published information should be allowed, without releasing a free electronic format of the exact same content first.
3. All the TV anchors/post/channels, are to be forbidden to express their opinion on TV, regarding persons, individuals, organisations. That means, real reporting is to be done, only by stating what a certain person/official has said in a report. No TV post should have the right to express their opinion. If one wants to express their opinion, they should do it on the internet, but with no kind of connection to the called TV post/anchor/channel . TV anchors will need to be very similar to Reuters way of reporting, stating only factual information, like earnings, statistical data, expressing the statistic and the source of the statistic. TV channels are to be allowed only to express factual information and specific words said by individuals, with no bias at all regarding individuals.

4.As for the system of education, there can be seen some form of separatism between ‘engineers’, ‘economists’, ‘law makers vs law enforcers’.
First of all, all the education exams(be it sat’s or university exams) should be done with only one single final on semester, no midterms, with an exam lasting 8 hours total(could be with 10-20 minute break between the 2 hours), because an individual can work 8 hours per day too.
Second, all the education exams need to be recorded, with each individual being recorded as the individual is taking the test. As to ensure no cheating is allowed. Also an electronic security check like at the airports would be great. Also, all the evidence regarding records and written exam is to be made public, without revealing the individual’s face, identity and written text.
Also, since we are talking about separation, a generalist degree with physics, electronics, programming, medicine, pharmacy, agriculture, economics, finance, psychology, philosophy and maybe architecture(that is not specialized, meaning general tools for building houses, buildings, ships(naval) and aircraft), endurance, strength, qigong, combat(close, very close), ranged combat(weapons) to be put in a degree lasting 3-4 years.
And at the end of the degree, the individual is to be qualified in all of the above, at the end of the degree.
Or course, a masters degree in medicine after the generalist degree to be a doctor.
And maybe, in certain cases, a masters degree for other jobs.
This way, a fast switch from one job to another could be done, and no ‘information separatism’ would be done.
Also, all the exams costs should be paid by the state using tax money, thus being free.
The top 10 teachers(chosen by academic records) are to be teaching in their respective field and have open courses, classes, recorded and the material to be publicly available in real time.
Those teachers only are to be financed by the state.
The rest of the teachers, with the students, are to be financed privately, thus the student only pays for the exam education, not the exam itself. So that means a student can study all by himself only with the public information put on the internet. The use of a teacher, doing seminars is optional.
The exam needs to be free and stay free.
This is how an unbiased educational system would be.
That also, would change these bubble universities that are too elitist in their way of being.

Lack of quality material should never be monetized. Same with the university degrees.
If one thinks the material is worthwhile, one should only donate, not pay for the material.

This way, a just system of education and sharing of information is done.
This is how Justice, done at the core, with Prudence, is done.

Also to add, if one wants to do Charity, here’s a good(though small) example:

What truly saves the world

Questions nor answers, Tao does not follow.

price, mantles, matters, respect, nothingness, virtue, victory, origin;

Are words that are seen as manifestations of the Tao.

Tao Te Ching can show the way, if one follows it.

From the first article on this site:


The tao that can be told
is not the eternal Tao
The name that can be named
is not the eternal Name.

The unnamable is the eternally real.
Naming is the origin
of all particular things.

Free from desire, you realize the mystery.
Caught in desire, you see only the manifestations.

Yet mystery and manifestations
arise from the same source.
This source is called darkness.

Darkness within darkness.
The gateway to all understanding.


When people see some things as beautiful,
other things become ugly.
When people see some things as good,
other things become bad.

Being and non-being create each other.
Difficult and easy support each other.
Long and short define each other.
High and low depend on each other.
Before and after follow each other.

Therefore the Master
acts without doing anything
and teaches without saying anything.
Things arise and she lets them come;
things disappear and she lets them go.
She has but doesn’t possess,
acts but doesn’t expect.
When her work is done, she forgets it.
That is why it lasts forever.


If you overesteem great men,
people become powerless.
If you overvalue possessions,
people begin to steal.

The Master leads
by emptying people’s minds
and filling their cores,
by weakening their ambition
and toughening their resolve.
He helps people lose everything
they know, everything they desire,
and creates confusion
in those who think that they know.

Practice not-doing,
and everything will fall into place.


The Tao is like a well:
used but never used up.
It is like the eternal void:
filled with infinite possibilities.

It is hidden but always present.
I don’t know who gave birth to it.
It is older than God.


The Tao doesn’t take sides;
it gives birth to both good and evil.
The Master doesn’t take sides;
she welcomes both saints and sinners.

The Tao is like a bellows:
it is empty yet infinitely capable.
The more you use it, the more it produces;
the more you talk of it, the less you understand.

Hold on to the center.


The Tao is called the Great Mother:
empty yet inexhaustible,
it gives birth to infinite worlds.

It is always present within you.
You can use it any way you want.


The Tao is infinite, eternal.
Why is it eternal?
It was never born;
thus it can never die.
Why is it infinite?
It has no desires for itself;
thus it is present for all beings.

The Master stays behind;
that is why she is ahead.
She is detached from all things;
that is why she is one with them.
Because she has let go of herself,
she is perfectly fulfilled.


The supreme good is like water,
which nourishes all things without trying to.
It is content with the low places that people disdain.
Thus it is like the Tao.

In dwelling, live close to the ground.
In thinking, keep to the simple.
In conflict, be fair and generous.
In governing, don’t try to control.
In work, do what you enjoy.
In family life, be completely present.

When you are content to be simply yourself
and don’t compare or compete,
everybody will respect you.


Fill your bowl to the brim
and it will spill.
Keep sharpening your knife
and it will blunt.
Chase after money and security
and your heart will never unclench.
Care about people’s approval
and you will be their prisoner.

Do your work, then step back.
The only path to serenity.


Can you coax your mind from its wandering
and keep to the original oneness?
Can you let your body become
supple as a newborn child’s?
Can you cleanse your inner vision
until you see nothing but the light?
Can you love people and lead them
without imposing your will?
Can you deal with the most vital matters
by letting events take their course?
Can you step back from you own mind
and thus understand all things?

Giving birth and nourishing,
having without possessing,
acting with no expectations,
leading and not trying to control:
this is the supreme virtue.


We join spokes together in a wheel,
but it is the center hole
that makes the wagon move.

We shape clay into a pot,
but it is the emptiness inside
that holds whatever we want.

We hammer wood for a house,
but it is the inner space
that makes it livable.

We work with being,
but non-being is what we use.


Colors blind the eye.
Sounds deafen the ear.
Flavors numb the taste.
Thoughts weaken the mind.
Desires wither the heart.

The Master observes the world
but trusts his inner vision.
He allows things to come and go.
His heart is open as the sky.


Success is as dangerous as failure.
Hope is as hollow as fear.

What does it mean that success is a dangerous as failure?
Whether you go up the ladder or down it,
you position is shaky.
When you stand with your two feet on the ground,
you will always keep your balance.

What does it mean that hope is as hollow as fear?
Hope and fear are both phantoms
that arise from thinking of the self.
When we don’t see the self as self,
what do we have to fear?

See the world as your self.
Have faith in the way things are.
Love the world as your self;
then you can care for all things.


Look, and it can’t be seen.
Listen, and it can’t be heard.
Reach, and it can’t be grasped.

Above, it isn’t bright.
Below, it isn’t dark.
Seamless, unnamable,
it returns to the realm of nothing.
Form that includes all forms,
image without an image,
subtle, beyond all conception.

Approach it and there is no beginning;
follow it and there is no end.
You can’t know it, but you can be it,
at ease in your own life.
Just realize where you come from:
this is the essence of wisdom.


The ancient Masters were profound and subtle.
Their wisdom was unfathomable.
There is no way to describe it;
all we can describe is their appearance.

They were careful
as someone crossing an iced-over stream.
Alert as a warrior in enemy territory.
Courteous as a guest.
Fluid as melting ice.
Shapable as a block of wood.
Receptive as a valley.
Clear as a glass of water.

Do you have the patience to wait
till your mud settles and the water is clear?
Can you remain unmoving
till the right action arises by itself?

The Master doesn’t seek fulfillment.
Not seeking, not expecting,
she is present, and can welcome all things.


Empty your mind of all thoughts.
Let your heart be at peace.
Watch the turmoil of beings,
but contemplate their return.

Each separate being in the universe
returns to the common source.
Returning to the source is serenity.

If you don’t realize the source,
you stumble in confusion and sorrow.
When you realize where you come from,
you naturally become tolerant,
disinterested, amused,
kindhearted as a grandmother,
dignified as a king.
Immersed in the wonder of the Tao,
you can deal with whatever life brings you,
and when death comes, you are ready.


When the Master governs, the people
are hardly aware that he exists.
Next best is a leader who is loved.
Next, one who is feared.
The worst is one who is despised.

If you don’t trust the people,
you make them untrustworthy.

The Master doesn’t talk, he acts.
When his work is done,
the people say, “Amazing:
we did it, all by ourselves!”


When the great Tao is forgotten,
goodness and piety appear.
When the body’s intelligence declines,
cleverness and knowledge step forth.
When there is no peace in the family,
filial piety begins.
When the country falls into chaos,
patriotism is born.


Throw away holiness and wisdom,
and people will be a hundred times happier.
Throw away morality and justice,
and people will do the right thing.
Throw away industry and profit,
and there won’t be any thieves.

If these three aren’t enough,
just stay at the center of the circle
and let all things take their course.


Stop thinking, and end your problems.
What difference between yes and no?
What difference between success and failure?
Must you value what others value,
avoid what others avoid?
How ridiculous!

Other people are excited,
as though they were at a parade.
I alone don’t care,
I alone am expressionless,
like an infant before it can smile.

Other people have what they need;
I alone possess nothing.
I alone drift about,
like someone without a home.
I am like an idiot, my mind is so empty.

Other people are bright;
I alone am dark.
Other people are sharper;
I alone am dull.
Other people have a purpose;
I alone don’t know.
I drift like a wave on the ocean,
I blow as aimless as the wind.

I am different from ordinary people.
I drink from the Great Mother’s breasts.


The Master keeps her mind
always at one with the Tao;
that is what gives her her radiance.

The Tao is ungraspable.
How can her mind be at one with it?
Because she doesn’t cling to ideas.

The Tao is dark and unfathomable.
How can it make her radiant?
Because she lets it.

Since before time and space were,
the Tao is.
It is beyond is and is not.
How do I know this is true?
I look inside myself and see.


If you want to become whole,
let yourself be partial.
If you want to become straight,
let yourself be crooked.
If you want to become full,
let yourself be empty.
If you want to be reborn,
let yourself die.
If you want to be given everything,
give everything up.

The Master, by residing in the Tao,
sets an example for all beings.
Because he doesn’t display himself,
people can see his light.
Because he has nothing to prove,
people can trust his words.
Because he doesn’t know who he is,
people recognize themselves in him.
Because he has no goad in mind,
everything he does succeeds.

When the ancient Masters said,
“If you want to be given everything,
give everything up,”
they weren’t using empty phrases.
Only in being lived by the Tao can you be truly yourself.


Express yourself completely,
then keep quiet.
Be like the forces of nature:
when it blows, there is only wind;
when it rains, there is only rain;
when the clouds pass, the sun shines through.

If you open yourself to the Tao,
you are at one with the Tao
and you can embody it completely.
If you open yourself to insight,
you are at one with insight
and you can use it completely.
If you open yourself to loss,
you are at one with loss
and you can accept it completely.

Open yourself to the Tao,
then trust your natural responses;
and everything will fall into place.


He who stands on tiptoe
doesn’t stand form.
He who rushes ahead
doesn’t go far.
He who tries to shine
dims his own light.
He who defines himself
can’t know who he really is.
He who has power over others
can’t empower himself.
He who clings to his work
will create nothing that endures.

If you want to accord with the Tao,
just do your job, then let go.


There was something formless and perfect
before the universe was born.
It is serene. Empty.
Solitary. Unchanging.
Infinite. Eternally present.
It is the mother of the universe.
For lack of a better name,
I call it the Tao.

It flows through all things,
inside and outside, and returns
to the origin of all things.

The Tao is great.
The universe is great.
Earth is great.
Man is great.
These are the four great powers.

Man follows the earth.
Earth follows the universe.
The universe follows the Tao.
The Tao follows only itself.


The heavy is the root of the light.
The unmoved is the source of all movement.

Thus the Master travels all day
without leaving home.
However splendid the views,
she stays serenely in herself.

Why should the lord of the country
flit about like a fool?
If you let yourself be blown to and fro,
you lose touch with your root.
If you let restlessness move you,
you lose touch with who you are.


A good traveler has no fixed plans
and is not intent upon arriving.
A good artist lets his intuition
lead him wherever it wants.
A good scientist has freed himself of concepts
and keeps his mind open to what is.

Thus the Master is available to all people
and doesn’t reject anyone.
He is ready to use all situations
and doesn’t waste anything.
This is called embodying the light.

What is a good man but a bad man’s teacher?
What is a bad man but a good man’s job?
If you don’t understand this, you will get lost,
however intelligent you are.
It is the great secret.


Know the male,
yet keep to the female:
receive the world in your arms.
If you receive the world,
the Tao will never leave you
and you will be like a little child.

Know the white,
yet keep to the black:
be a pattern for the world.
If you are a pattern for the world,
the Tao will be strong inside you
and there will be nothing you can’t do.

Know the personal,
yet keep to the impersonal:
accept the world as it is.
If you accept the world,
the Tao will be luminous inside you
and you will return to your primal self.

The world is formed from the void,
like utensils from a block of wood.
The Master knows the utensils,
yet keeps to the the block:
thus she can use all things.


Do you want to improve the world?
I don’t think it can be done.

The world is sacred.
It can’t be improved.
If you tamper with it, you’ll ruin it.
If you treat it like an object, you’ll lose it.

There is a time for being ahead,
a time for being behind;
a time for being in motion,
a time for being at rest;
a time for being vigorous,
a time for being exhausted;
a time for being safe,
a time for being in danger.

The Master sees things as they are,
without trying to control them.
She lets them go their own way,
and resides at the center of the circle.


Whoever relies on the Tao in governing men
doesn’t try to force issues
or defeat enemies by force of arms.
For every force there is a counterforce.
Violence, even well intentioned,
always rebounds upon oneself.

The Master does his job
and then stops.
He understands that the universe
is forever out of control,
and that trying to dominate events
goes against the current of the Tao.
Because he believes in himself,
he doesn’t try to convince others.
Because he is content with himself,
he doesn’t need others’ approval.
Because he accepts himself,
the whole world accepts him.


Weapons are the tools of violence;
all decent men detest them.

Weapons are the tools of fear;
a decent man will avoid them
except in the direst necessity
and, if compelled, will use them
only with the utmost restraint.
Peace is his highest value.
If the peace has been shattered,
how can he be content?
His enemies are not demons,
but human beings like himself.
He doesn’t wish them personal harm.
Nor does he rejoice in victory.
How could he rejoice in victory
and delight in the slaughter of men?

He enters a battle gravely,
with sorrow and with great compassion,
as if he were attending a funeral.


The Tao can’t be perceived.
Smaller than an electron,
it contains uncountable galaxies.

If powerful men and women
could remain centered in the Tao,
all things would be in harmony.
The world would become a paradise.
All people would be at peace,
and the law would be written in their hearts.

When you have names and forms,
know that they are provisional.
When you have institutions,
know where their functions should end.
Knowing when to stop,
you can avoid any danger.

All things end in the Tao
as rivers flow into the sea.


Knowing others is intelligence;
knowing yourself is true wisdom.
Mastering others is strength;
mastering yourself is true power.

If you realize that you have enough,
you are truly rich.
If you stay in the center
and embrace death with your whole heart,
you will endure forever.


The great Tao flows everywhere.
All things are born from it,
yet it doesn’t create them.
It pours itself into its work,
yet it makes no claim.
It nourishes infinite worlds,
yet it doesn’t hold on to them.
Since it is merged with all things
and hidden in their hearts,
it can be called humble.
Since all things vanish into it
and it alone endures,
it can be called great.
It isn’t aware of its greatness;
thus it is truly great.


She who is centered in the Tao
can go where she wishes, without danger.
She perceives the universal harmony,
even amid great pain,
because she has found peace in her heart.

Music or the smell of good cooking
may make people stop and enjoy.
But words that point to the Tao
seem monotonous and without flavor.
When you look for it, there is nothing to see.
When you listen for it, there is nothing to hear.
When you use it, it is inexhaustible.


If you want to shrink something,
you must first allow it to expand.
If you want to get rid of something,
you must first allow it to flourish.
If you want to take something,
you must first allow it to be given.
This is called the subtle perception
of the way things are.

The soft overcomes the hard.
The slow overcomes the fast.
Let your workings remain a mystery.
Just show people the results.


The Tao never does anything,
yet through it all things are done.

If powerful men and women
could venter themselves in it,
the whole world would be transformed
by itself, in its natural rhythms.
People would be content
with their simple, everyday lives,
in harmony, and free of desire.

When there is no desire,
all things are at peace.


The Master doesn’t try to be powerful;
thus he is truly powerful.
The ordinary man keeps reaching for power;
thus he never has enough.

The Master does nothing,
yet he leaves nothing undone.
The ordinary man is always doing things,
yet many more are left to be done.

The kind man does something,
yet something remains undone.
The just man does something,
and leaves many things to be done.
The moral man does something,
and when no one responds
he rolls up his sleeves and uses force.

When the Tao is lost, there is goodness.
When goodness is lost, there is morality.
When morality is lost, there is ritual.
Ritual is the husk of true faith,
the beginning of chaos.

Therefore the Master concerns himself
with the depths and not the surface,
with the fruit and not the flower.
He has no will of his own.
He dwells in reality,
and lets all illusions go.


In harmony with the Tao,
the sky is clear and spacious,
the earth is solid and full,
all creature flourish together,
content with the way they are,
endlessly repeating themselves,
endlessly renewed.

When man interferes with the Tao,
the sky becomes filthy,
the earth becomes depleted,
the equilibrium crumbles,
creatures become extinct.

The Master views the parts with compassion,
because he understands the whole.
His constant practice is humility.
He doesn’t glitter like a jewel
but lets himself be shaped by the Tao,
as rugged and common as stone.


Return is the movement of the Tao.
Yielding is the way of the Tao.

All things are born of being.
Being is born of non-being.


When a superior man hears of the Tao,
he immediately begins to embody it.
When an average man hears of the Tao,
he half believes it, half doubts it.
When a foolish man hears of the Tao,
he laughs out loud.
If he didn’t laugh,
it wouldn’t be the Tao.

Thus it is said:
The path into the light seems dark,
the path forward seems to go back,
the direct path seems long,
true power seems weak,
true purity seems tarnished,
true steadfastness seems changeable,
true clarity seems obscure,
the greatest are seems unsophisticated,
the greatest love seems indifferent,
the greatest wisdom seems childish.

The Tao is nowhere to be found.
Yet it nourishes and completes all things.


The Tao gives birth to One.
One gives birth to Two.
Two gives birth to Three.
Three gives birth to all things.

All things have their backs to the female
and stand facing the male.
When male and female combine,
all things achieve harmony.

Ordinary men hate solitude.
But the Master makes use of it,
embracing his aloneness, realizing
he is one with the whole universe.


The gentlest thing in the world
overcomes the hardest thing in the world.
That which has no substance
enters where there is no space.
This shows the value of non-action.

Teaching without words,
performing without actions:
that is the Master’s way.


Fame or integrity: which is more important?
Money or happiness: which is more valuable?
Success of failure: which is more destructive?

If you look to others for fulfillment,
you will never truly be fulfilled.
If your happiness depends on money,
you will never be happy with yourself.

Be content with what you have;
rejoice in the way things are.
When you realize there is nothing lacking,
the whole world belongs to you.


True perfection seems imperfect,
yet it is perfectly itself.
True fullness seems empty,
yet it is fully present.

True straightness seems crooked.
True wisdom seems foolish.
True art seems artless.

The Master allows things to happen.
She shapes events as they come.
She steps out of the way
and lets the Tao speak for itself.


When a country is in harmony with the Tao,
the factories make trucks and tractors.
When a country goes counter to the Tao,
warheads are stockpiled outside the cities.

There is no greater illusion than fear,
no greater wrong than preparing to defend yourself,
no greater misfortune than having an enemy.

Whoever can see through all fear
will always be safe.


Without opening your door,
you can open your heart to the world.
Without looking out your window,
you can see the essence of the Tao.

The more you know,
the less you understand.

The Master arrives without leaving,
sees the light without looking,
achieves without doing a thing.


In pursuit of knowledge,
every day something is added.
In the practice of the Tao,
every day something is dropped.
Less and less do you need to force things,
until finally you arrive at non-action.
When nothing is done,
nothing is left undone.

True mastery can be gained
by letting things go their own way.
It can’t be gained by interfering.


The Master has no mind of her own.
She works with the mind of the people.

She is good to people who are good.
She is also good to people who aren’t good.
This is true goodness.

She trusts people who are trustworthy.
She also trusts people who aren’t trustworthy.
This is true trust.

The Master’s mind is like space.
People don’t understand her.
They look to her and wait.
She treats them like her own children.


The Master gives himself up
to whatever the moment brings.
He knows that he is going to die,
and her has nothing left to hold on to:
no illusions in his mind,
no resistances in his body.
He doesn’t think about his actions;
they flow from the core of his being.
He holds nothing back from life;
therefore he is ready for death,
as a man is ready for sleep
after a good day’s work.


Every being in the universe
is an expression of the Tao.
It springs into existence,
unconscious, perfect, free,
takes on a physical body,
lets circumstances complete it.
That is why every being
spontaneously honors the Tao.

The Tao gives birth to all beings,
nourishes them, maintains them,
cares for them, comforts them, protects them,
takes them back to itself,
creating without possessing,
acting without expecting,
guiding without interfering.
That is why love of the Tao
is in the very nature of things.


In the beginning was the Tao.
All things issue from it;
all things return to it.

To find the origin,
trace back the manifestations.
When you recognize the children
and find the mother,
you will be free of sorrow.

If you close your mind in judgements
and traffic with desires,
your heart will be troubled.
If you keep your mind from judging
and aren’t led by the senses,
your heart will find peace.

Seeing into darkness is clarity.
Knowing how to yield is strength.
Use your own light
and return to the source of light.
This is called practicing eternity.


The great Way is easy,
yet people prefer the side paths.
Be aware when things are out of balance.
Stay centered within the Tao.

When rich speculators prosper
While farmers lose their land;
when government officials spend money
on weapons instead of cures;
when the upper class is extravagant and irresponsible
while the poor have nowhere to turn-
all this is robbery and chaos.
It is not in keeping with the Tao.


Whoever is planted in the Tao
will not be rooted up.
Whoever embraces the Tao
will not slip away.
Her name will be held in honor
from generation to generation.

Let the Tao be present in your life
and you will become genuine.
Let it be present in your family
and your family will flourish.
Let it be present in your country
and your country will be an example
to all countries in the world.
Let it be present in the universe
and the universe will sing.

How do I know this is true?
By looking inside myself.


He who is in harmony with the Tao
is like a newborn child.
Its bones are soft, its muscles are weak,
but its grip is powerful.
It doesn’t know about the union
of male and female,
yet its penis can stand erect,
so intense is its vital power.
It can scream its head off all day,
yet it never becomes hoarse,
so complete is its harmony.

The Master’s power is like this.
He lets all things come and go
effortlessly, without desire.
He never expects results;
thus he is never disappointed.
He is never disappointed;
thus his spirit never grows old.


Those who know don’t talk.
Those who talk don’t know.

Close your mouth,
block off your senses,
blunt your sharpness,
untie your knots,
soften your glare,
settle your dust.
This is the primal identity.

Be like the Tao.
It can’t be approached or withdrawn from,
benefited or harmed,
honored or brought into disgrace.
It gives itself up continually.
That is why it endures.


If you want to be a great leader,
you must learn to follow the Tao.
Stop trying to control.
Let go of fixed plans and concepts,
and the world will govern itself.

The more prohibitions you have,
the less virtuous people will be.
The more weapons you have,
the less secure people will be.
The more subsidies you have,
the less self-reliant people will be.

Therefore the Master says:
I let go of the law,
and people become honest.
I let go of economics,
and people become prosperous.
I let go of religion,
and people become serene.
I let go of all desire for the common good,
and the good becomes common as grass.


If a country is governed with tolerance,
the people are comfortable and honest.
If a country is governed with repression,
the people are depressed and crafty.

When the will to power is in charge,
the higher the ideals, the lower the results.
Try to make people happy,
and you lay the groundwork for misery.
Try to make people moral,
and you lay the groundwork for vice.

Thus the Master is content
to serve as an example
and not to impose her will.
She is pointed, but doesn’t pierce.
Straightforward, but supple.
Radiant, but easy on the eyes.


For governing a country well
there is nothing better than moderation.

The mark of a moderate man
is freedom from his own ideas.
Tolerant like the sky,
all-pervading like sunlight,
firm like a mountain,
supple like a tree in the wind,
he has no destination in view
and makes use of anything
life happens to bring his way.

Nothing is impossible for him.
Because he has let go,
he can care for the people’s welfare
as a mother cares for her child.


Governing a large country
is like frying a small fish.
You spoil it with too much poking.

Center your country in the Tao
and evil will have no power.
Not that it isn’t there,
but you’ll be able to step out of its way.

Give evil nothing to oppose
and it will disappear by itself.


When a country obtains great power,
it becomes like the sea:
all streams run downward into it.
The more powerful it grows,
the greater the need for humility.
Humility means trusting the Tao,
thus never needing to be defensive.

A great nation is like a great man:
When he makes a mistake, he realizes it.
Having realized it, he admits it.
Having admitted it, he corrects it.
He considers those who point out his faults
as his most benevolent teachers.
He thinks of his enemy
as the shadow that he himself casts.

If a nation is centered in the Tao,
if it nourishes its own people
and doesn’t meddle in the affairs of others,
it will be a light to all nations in the world.


The Tao is the center of the universe,
the good man’s treasure,
the bad man’s refuge.

Honors can be bought with fine words,
respect can be won with good deeds;
but the Tao is beyond all value,
and no one can achieve it.

Thus, when a new leader is chosen,
don’t offer to help him
with your wealth or your expertise.
Offer instead
to teach him about the Tao.

Why did the ancient Masters esteem the Tao?
Because, being one with the Tao,
when you seek, you find;
and when you make a mistake, you are forgiven.
That is why everybody loves it.


Act without doing;
work without effort.
Think of the small as large
and the few as many.
Confront the difficult
while it is still easy;
accomplish the great task
by a series of small acts.

The Master never reaches for the great;
thus she achieves greatness.
When she runs into a difficulty,
she stops and gives herself to it.
She doesn’t cling to her own comfort;
thus problems are no problem for her.


What is rooted is easy to nourish.
What is recent is easy to correct.
What is brittle is easy to break.
What is small is easy to scatter.

Prevent trouble before it arises.
Put things in order before they exist.
The giant pine tree
grows from a tiny sprout.
The journey of a thousand miles
starts from beneath your feet.

Rushing into action, you fail.
Trying to grasp things, you lose them.
Forcing a project to completion,
you ruin what was almost ripe.

Therefore the Master takes action
by letting things take their course.
He remains as calm
at the end as at the beginning.
He has nothing,
thus has nothing to lose.
What he desires is non-desire;
what he learns is to unlearn.
He simply reminds people
of who they have always been.
He cares about nothing but the Tao.
Thus he can care for all things.


The ancient Masters
didn’t try to educate the people,
but kindly taught them to not-know.

When they think that they know the answers,
people are difficult to guide.
When they know that they don’t know,
people can find their own way.

If you want to learn how to govern,
avoid being clever or rich.
The simplest pattern is the clearest.
Content with an ordinary life,
you can show all people the way
back to their own true nature.


All streams flow to the sea
because it is lower than they are.
Humility gives it its power.

If you want to govern the people,
you must place yourself below them.
If you want to lead the people,
you must learn how to follow them.

The Master is above the people,
and no one feels oppressed.
She goes ahead of the people,
and no one feels manipulated.
The whole world is grateful to her.
Because she competes with no one,
no one can compete with her.


Some say that my teaching is nonsense.
Others call it lofty but impractical.
But to those who have looked inside themselves,
this nonsense makes perfect sense.
And to those who put it into practice,
this loftiness has roots that go deep.

I have just three things to teach:
simplicity, patience, compassion.
These three are your greatest treasures.
Simple in actions and in thoughts,
you return to the source of being.
Patient with both friends and enemies,
you accord with the way things are.
Compassionate toward yourself,
you reconcile all beings in the world.


The best athlete
wants his opponent at his best.
The best general
enters the mind of his enemy.
The best businessman
serves the communal good.
The best leader
follows the will of the people.

All of the embody
the virtue of non-competition.
Not that they don’t love to compete,
but they do it in the spirit of play.
In this they are like children
and in harmony with the Tao.


The generals have a saying:
“Rather than make the first move
it is better to wait and see.
Rather than advance an inch
it is better to retreat a yard.”

This is called
going forward without advancing,
pushing back without using weapons.

There is no greater misfortune
than underestimating your enemy.
Underestimating your enemy
means thinking that he is evil.
Thus you destroy your three treasures
and become an enemy yourself.

When two great forces oppose each other,
the victory will go
to the one that knows how to yield.


My teachings are easy to understand
and easy to put into practice.
Yet your intellect will never grasp them,
and if you try to practice them, you’ll fail.

My teachings are older than the world.
How can you grasp their meaning?

If you want to know me,
look inside your heart.


Not-knowing is true knowledge.
Presuming to know is a disease.
First realize that you are sick;
then you can move toward health.

The Master is her own physician.
She has healed herself of all knowing.
Thus she is truly whole.


When they lose their sense of awe,
people turn to religion.
When they no longer trust themselves,
they begin to depend upon authority.

Therefore the Master steps back
so that people won’t be confused.
He teaches without a teaching,
so that people will have nothing to learn.


The Tao is always at ease.
It overcomes without competing,
answers without speaking a word,
arrives without being summoned,
accomplishes without a plan.

Its net covers the whole universe.
And though its meshes are wide,
it doesn’t let a thing slip through.


If you realize that all things change,
there is nothing you will try to hold on to.
If you aren’t afraid of dying,
there is nothing you can’t achieve.

Trying to control the future
is like trying to take the master carpenter’s place.
When you handle the master carpenter’s tools,
chances are that you’ll cut your hand.


When taxes are too high,
people go hungry.
When the government is too intrusive,
people lose their spirit.

Act for the people’s benefit.
Trust them; leave them alone.


Men are born soft and supple;
dead, they are stiff and hard.
Plats are born tender and pliant;
dead, they are brittle and dry.

Thus whoever is stiff and inflexible
is a disciple of death.
Whoever is soft and yielding
is a disciple of life.

The hard and stiff will be broken.
The soft and supple will prevail.


As it acts in the world, the Tao
is like the bending of a bow.
The top is bent downward;
the bottom is bent up.
It adjusts excess and deficiency
so that there is perfect balance.
It takes from what is too much
and give to what isn’t enough.

Those who try to control,
who use force to protect their power,
go against the direction of the Tao.
They take from those who don’t have enough
and give to those who have far too much.

The Master can keep giving
because there is no end to her wealth.
She acts without expectation,
succeeds without taking credit,
and doesn’t think that she is better
than anyone else.


Nothing in the world
is as soft and yielding as water.
Yet for dissolving the hard and inflexible,
nothing can surpass it.

The soft overcomes the hard;
the gentle overcomes the rigid.
Everyone knows this is true,
but few can put it into practice.

Therefore the Master remains
serene in the midst of sorrow.
Evil cannot enter his heart.
Because he has given up helping,
he is people’s greatest help.

True words seem paradoxical.


Failure is an opportunity.
If you blame someone else,
there is no end to the blame.

Therefore the Master
fulfills her own obligations
and corrects her own mistakes.
She does what she needs to do
and demands nothing of others.


If a country is governed wisely,
its inhabitants will be content.
They enjoy the labor of their hands
and don’t waste time inventing
labor-saving machines.
Since they dearly love their homes,
they aren’t interested in travel.
There may be a few wagons and boats,
but these don’t go anywhere.
There may be an arsenal of weapons,
but nobody ever uses them.
People enjoy their food,
take pleasure in being with their families,
spend weekends working in their gardens,
delight in the doings of the neighborhood.
And even though the next country is so close
that people can hear its roosters crowing and its dogs barking,
they are content to die of old age
without ever having gone to see it.


True words aren’t eloquent;
eloquent words aren’t true.
Wise men don’t need to prove their point;
men who need to prove their point aren’t wise.

The Master has no possessions.
The more he does for others,
the happier he is.
The more he gives to others,
the wealthier he is.

The Tao nourishes by not forcing.
By not dominating, the Master leads.

[nc]The use of debt instruments and more

From now on, any notable comment that becomes an article in this blog will have the brackets [c] or [nc], standing for ‘comment’ or ‘notable comment’.

Link to article and comment:

This article is great, thank you very much for this article.
I also am saying thanks to the Eternal God for this article.

What about Jesus?
Did he die for our sins, in the fashion pointed out in this article?
This was one of my first thoughts…
On one hand you’d have to choose faith that Jesus did right and on the other hand, it’s fear that maybe some bad guys escaped in the fashion mentioned in the article and Jesus took the pain.
Maybe both directions were great, to teach a lesson in history?
Either way, in the future, things like this shouldn’t go on forever.
Bad guys should be stopped. And the best way to stop a bad guy is teach him that what he is doing is bad and, having a mechanism that stops them from doing bad, like knowing that doing bad will lead to it to their extinction. Individuals are bad because of bad habits or mechanisms that they have. So only what is bad in the individual needs to be corrected.

Now, the ‘Jesus died for our sins’ points out to a possible theory that sounds like this. What if, there are actually really bad guys out there, like it is pointed out in this article, that, would try to pin all the worst bad guys sins on the best good guys, so that, the bad guys will keep existing and living in their own version of paradise?(or parasite?). And, the good (likely naive) guys become like milking machines. Before writing the previous sentence, was thinking if that would happen to the best good guys, but, actually, the best good guys would have a desire for justice and just action and likely would be able to see unjust behavior. Thus, the really good guys don’t give the bad guys either profit or effort to sustain their pleasures(thus the good guys, give the bad guys only rules, limits and restrictions as to what they can and cannot do). And thus, the really good guys serve the best laws as to limit the bad guys damage.
(So that means the so called ‘good guys’ who do nothing against bad guys, are actually food for the bad guys. So that means, reluctance to serve any bad guy could be called a virtue(a virtue associated with prudence)).

Regards to the article itself, what if the so called ‘bad guys’ use the inference created from their TV Shows and Anime, to make all potential good guys believe their TV show scenarios(which has the content of 90% good looking and 10% really bad), and with that bad stuff, makes people reach bad conclusions and have unfunded fears.
The so called ‘individuals’ use this form of mass manipulation to put people in their own personal bubbles, which attempts in the long run to destroy and mold people’s minds to accept their own scenarios which are nothing more than personal slavery.
Or even worse, use Anime and TV show productions to make people consenting to scenarios in tv shows and anime, and even consent to a fictive character troubles/debts.
Thus, one can say, storytelling, if it isn’t entirely true, should not be said, or be narrated, by law, in the future.

And one last thing.
About currency. It is either Bitcoin or precious metals that can be considered classical forms of money(which are not debt inherent by themselves).

Now, for precious metals, things are clear.
For Bitcoin however, things are uncertain. In actuality, that currency, as long as there is internet, or any other protocol of communication that lets the bitcoin system to exist, it can extend much easier and can circulate and be used anywhere there is internet or any other form of communication that allows a bitcoin transaction to be made. If you can have internet on other planets, you can have bitcoin on other planets. This is the biggest advantage such currency system has.
Bitcoin as a system is a ledger that records all transactions, and thus it looks to be a fair system.

I’d like the author of the article that I’m commenting to share an opinion regarding bitcoin and precious metals.
Also I’d be glad to see comments regarding anything else posted in this article.

Again, thank you very much for this article!


Another wild speculation, is it possible that someone could use music or tv shows(through coded language) to make people consent to the language of the actors/artists?

Say anyone who goes to a concert, would be potentially, by agreeing or singing some songs, or even listening, consenting to actions or scenarios by singers of people behind the singers?
Very dangerous line of thinking, but it seems possible at this point.

Not sure if possible, but is it likely that there is some sort of wavelength(think radio wavelength) that would allow certain people to be obedient to? Say souls incarnated on this planet would have agreed in a previous life, to consent or accept debt in terms of agreeing to consent to anything a radio wavelength emit to(think HAARP or anything similar), being done on all past-life consenting souls.
Or even worse, a Quantum? that becomes literally undetected and somehow connects to people’s actions, being possibly done from light years away?

While the first paragraph is likely possible(the use of music, media and tv shows, etc.). The second and third is scary to think of and may be just a small possibility. There is the possibility that there are cosmic laws in place that doesn’t allow the second or third scenario to happen.

One last edit.

There are a lot of tv shows and anime that are sub par.
There are a lot of movies that are sub par.
There is no movie that is interesting or watchable anymore, in the past 2 years.

While there may be some tv shows, they are sub par.
As for anime, the same. There are only a few of them, some simply are bad taste(the ones with too much pride, killing drama 😉

Virtue Signaling – Cheap Self Affirmation

As an addition or reply to one previous article:

A good article here:

Virtue Signaling – Cheap Self Affirmation


Cognitive Dissonance

We all do it. And we have all seen it done by others. The only question is too what degree we do it. I am, of course, speaking of the latest ‘meme’ to be virally repeated, the accusation that someone else (naturally not me) is virtue signaling.

A popular definition, though most certainly not the last word, is the following pulled from the Interwebby thingy.

“…the action or practice of publicly expressing opinions or sentiments intended to demonstrate one’s good character or the moral correctness of one’s position on a particular issue.”

Here’s another…

“Virtue signaling is the conspicuous expression of moral values by an individual done primarily to enhance their standing within a social group.”

There are other significant and nuanced variations used to define virtue signaling (including the spelling of ‘signalling’) but in my mind the take away of them all is the intellectual, emotional and psychological dishonesty of the virtue signaler. And of those who accept the virtue signaler attestations at face value. Or worse, those who enable, applaud and support the virtue signaler.

For a multitude of reasons, most of us simply don’t recognize many of our own actions as forms of virtue signaling, often because our signaling is expressed in forms other than just verbal. Ever put a bumper sticker or emblem on your vehicle proclaiming your support for ‘The Troops’ or some other political or charitable cause? Wear a designer product because the label is prominently displayed? One upped someone else by signaling your own escalated display?

I think you get the idea. In fact I’m fairly certain if given some thought, several dozen examples would leap to your mind. They have into mine.

But most of our virtue signaling is expressed in the negative, as in “I hate those Nazi’s”, a group everyone loves to hate, thus proving how virtuous we all are. I mean if you love, or even just like, the Nazis, clearly you must be some vile human vermin. Obviously this is sarcasm, just in case it’s not readily evident. Does that make me vile human vermin?

Naturally this behavior isn’t limited to humans, vile or not. Companies and corporations, public and private institutions, charities, governments, even the boy and girl scouts project virtuous signals large and small. I remember helping a little old lady pick up some groceries she dropped in the parking lot and then told my entire class I saved the lady from certain death by an errant vehicle because I’m a boy scout.

I may have exaggerated just a little bit.

The wonderful thing about virtue signaling is it requires all talk and little to no walk, effortless posturing intended to maintain or improve social positioning within a group or even among groups. For ‘We the Obese’, it just doesn’t get any better than that. 50 years ago, it was the inspiration gained from picking up a few stray oranges for that lady that led to lying through my teeth to my classmates in order to pump myself up in their eyes.

And in mine!


The irony is true virtue never needs to be signaled, for it is self evident and obvious to all but the deaf, dumb and blind.

Ultimately this is what virtue signaling is all about; our at times desperate need to be externally affirmed, particularly when our self esteem and confidence has been (recently) disturbed. If along the way we can improve our standing in whatever affinity group or social/political group we belong to, that’s great.

And we might even believe that is the ‘real’ reason we are acting so dishonestly, assuming we have given any thought at all to our behavior. But it’s all about how we feel about ourselves, and how we fear others feel/think about us, that drives much of our signaling.

This isn’t as outlandish as one might think. We live in a consumer culture; one that constantly strives to inflate our feelings of anxiety and insecurity solely so they can sell us their product, which they helpfully claim will magically restore precisely what they just destroyed. The slicker advertisements play off general cultural fears and inadequacies to push their product. Just watch a few ‘manly’ pickup truck commercials if you don’t believe me.

The sole purpose of all advertisement campaigns is to create a ‘consumer’ demand where one doesn’t naturally exist or wouldn’t exist in a quantity sufficient for the product to be produced profitably. Using a wide range of emotional approaches, including leveraging social memes already deeply implanted within the culture, the skilled advertising practitioner uses every psychological trick in the book to lure you in before the trap is sprung.

For the average person who is deeply immersed within the world of ‘media consumption’, which pretty much describes the overwhelming majority of the western population (and increasingly the entire world as everyone is transitioned into a consuming ‘culture’) their cultural persona has been formed and forged by emotionally exploitative manipulators and propagandists.

Let that thought settle in for a bit.

If we are what we eat, then we think what we consume. And based upon my lifelong observations of society and the people who live within our society, what we ‘think’ is an amalgamation of force fed junk memes designed to confuse, conflate, conceal and control. And most of all, to fear……everything and everyone just about all the time.

Rather frightening when you ‘think’ about it.

The very fact most people would think the previous statement is at best an exaggeration, and at worst simply not true, attests to the incredible normalization of these practices and our adaptation to this self degrading social dysfunction.

And it’s not just the consumer product advertisers who are guilty of crass public manipulation. If anything, they learned their basic techniques from politicians who shamelessly play upon the public’s gullibility and naivety when it comes to fully comprehending the depths to which a sociopath will fall to maintain control, or keep control out of the hands of others.

Sherman’s march to the sea pales in comparison to the death and destruction left in the wake of many a politician’s passing.

While all of us old farts pushing past fifty or sixty years of age have witnessed the blooming of the age of disinformation and social manipulation, we are somewhat shielded by fundamental values of personal integrity ingrained within us from an early age.

Notice I said ‘somewhat’, because no one is fully immune from the insidious creep of consumerism and the intellectual and emotional rot that comes with it. The more we are exposed to something, the more we normalize and adapt to it.

Which might just help explain what is presently going on with our kids these days, defined as those presently in college all the way up to those in their 30’s. They appear to be particularly susceptible to the Pied Piper’s magic flute when played to flatter their egos and inflame their need for self affirmation.

We never taught our children to think critically because we have lost much of our ability to do so. We never taught our children to recognize manipulation and distortion because we have succumbed to it ourselves. We never taught our children to be true to themselves and find affirmation within because we have strayed from our teachings to appease our own consumer craving.

We never taught our children how to be mature adults because we wanted to raise friends who would affirm us rather than young adults who would grow strong and leave us to take their place in the world. We failed to say no because all we wanted to hear was yes. We failed them, and they are now in the process of failing us.

As they say, what goes around comes around.


Cognitive Dissonance

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The Way(Tao) and the Virtue(s)

From previous article, it was posted that, True Virtue comes from Cardinal Virtues.

The seven virtues from the wikipedia article are:
The cardinal virtues:
The theological virtues:

In reality, Prudence is the mother of all virtues and Prudence at it’s best follows the Tao.

Prudence was considered by the ancient Greeks and later on by Christian philosophers, most notably Thomas Aquinas, as the cause, measure and form of all virtues. It is considered to be the auriga virtutum or the charioteer of the virtues.

Prudence at it’s best follows the Way(Tao). The Way is best explained in Tao Te Ching.

Fortitude comes as a result of one individual’s Prudence. At it’s core, it is Diligence to act in a prudent way. As a manifestation, some times, it is seen as Courage, however, sometimes, courage can be confused with rage, anger and wrath, and, rage, anger and wrath come from lack of both Prudence, Temperance and Justice. As a result, the second cardinal virtue is Diligence to act in a Prudent way.

Temperance is the manifestation of one individual’s Prudence on the individual. Temperance in this description also covers Chastity.

Justice is the manifestation of one individual’s Prudence in terms of how the individual reacts with others. So this means that Temperance is Prudence applied on Self as a whole, while Justice is Prudence applied on others(between the individual and the society or the world itself).

So essentially there is only one cardinal virtue and that is Prudence.
Fortitude is just Prudence in action, also seen as Diligence.
Temperance is just Prudence manifested on the individual/person.
Justice is just Prudence applied by the individual on the world.

The theological virtues are just extensions, be it emotions that can be both good and bad, depending on one’s Prudence. They are called Faith, Hope and Charity and can be seen as neutral virtues because, without Prudence, any one of them can do evil.

The theological virtues can only be seen as manifestation of one’s sense of Justice. Theological virtues, without Prudence, have a high chance of creating and sustaining deadly sins.

If theological virtues are proposed as ignorance of Prudence, can result in them not becoming virtues at all, quite the opposite, the recipe for creating and sustaining deadly sins.

Now, let’s compare it to the Seven Deadly Sins:

Lust is lack of Temperance on oneself that gives fruit to lack of Justice in the world.

Gluttony is lack of Temperance on oneself that gives fruit to lack of Justice in the world.

Greed is lack of Prudence that manifests itself as lack of Justice and then lack of Temperance in the world.

Sloth is lack of Fortitude and Prudence, that gives fruit to lack of both Temperance and Justice in the world.

Wrath is lack of Temperance and Prudence, as a result of the individual’s sense of Justice being questioned and can do more lack of Justice in the world.

Envy is lack of both Justice and Temperance as a result of one’s lack of Prudence that can give fruit to Justice or lack of it, depending on one’s Prudence.

Pride is lack of both Prudence and Temperance, that gives fruit to lack of Justice.

Additional sins:
One said, that Hope is as hollow as Fear, sometimes despair. Despair sometimes is seen as a deadly sin, or, a manifestation of it. Hope and Despair are two faces of the same coin.
Despair is lack of Justice in the world that manifests itself as lack of Temperance on the individual.It can change the individual’s sense of Prudence, Temperance and Justice in the world.
Partiality can be seen as a synonym to Greed.
Sorrow is very similar to Despair.

All sins can be healed only with applying Prudence on one’s self by studying and improving one’s thinking, and, as a result, improving one’s own Temperance and sense of Justice.

Thus, Prudence is the main virtue and the only one. The rest are just extensions of Prudence itself. And the deadly sins are just lack of prudence, that leads to death.

The best document that exemplifies Prudence and applies it well, is Tao Te Ching.

Tao Te Ching is translated as Way of Virtue. It doesn’t say virtues, because there is only one real virtue, and that is Prudence. It is a book that cultivates  and shows The Way, Life and Time. It is one of the best descriptions of Prudence.

Thus, Prudence is Virtue.

Virtue signaling and one ZH article

From this article:

JK Rowling – “Serial Loser” Who’s Gone Into Hiding Since Cernovich, Watson, And Piers Morgan Put Her On Blast

Children’s author, Billionaire, and internet tough girl J.K. Rowling is in over her head. After a fierce twitter spat with Piers Morgan – started after Aussie comedian Jim Jeffries told Morgan to F**k Off on Bill Maher’s show over Trump’s Executive Order on immigration, Rowling has been taken to task by political commentators Mike Cernovich and Paul Joseph Watson over her virtue signaling bullshit – after Cernovich’s offer to send hundreds of refugees to live in the Harry Potter author’s several mansions for a year.

Rowling’s response?

You’re one of the richest people on earth & you’re demanding we take in more migrants. How many have you housed? 

Photo published for JK Rowling joins prominent figures urging UK to take in desperate refugees

JK Rowling joins prominent figures urging UK to take in desperate refugees

JK Rowling has joined a number of prominent voices urging the Government to welcome its share of refugees risking their lives to flee war ravaged countries.

Hi @jk_rowling, I will personally buy plane tickets for up to 100 refugees to live in your mansions for a year. How do we make this happen?

Should @jk_rowling accept my generous offer to fly up to 100 refugees to live in her several mansions?

@Cernovich@jk_rowling JK this is not a troll tweet. I would also like to help this great humanitarian cause! I’ll pledge $10K for 1 way…

You flattened a house next door worth £1 million. To house refugees? No, to have a bigger garden. @jk_rowling 

Photo published for JK Rowling hedge trimming causes traffic chaos for neighbours

JK Rowling hedge trimming causes traffic chaos for neighbours

JK Rowling has riled her neighbours who have complained that she is causing traffic ‘chaos’ by having her garden hedges trimmed

Others joined the fun – including a petition to “Have JK Rowling stay at a refugee camp for 7 days, no bodyguards, to show they’re peaceful”

Meanwhile, Piers Morgan appeared on Tucker Carlson Tonight to discuss the Harry Potter author, calling her a “Serial Loser.”

“If you’re J.K. Rowling, you’re three for three. You are the worst celebrity political pundit on the entire planet.”


Then of course there’s this guy.

Original link to the article:

So now, let’s begin.

The so called ‘virtue-signaling’ it’s more like ‘pride-signaling’.

More about it, here’s one past article about True Virtue.

The sins, in the ‘virtue signaling’ stuff, is actually anger, as opposed to patience (or prudence, temperance, justice; remains to be seen).

Also, in the so called ‘virtue signaling’ section, it is sloth, as opposed to diligence (or fortitude, justice; also remains to be seen).

As more information was added, see this article:
The way and the virtues

Someone who would use the words ‘virtue signaling’ are individuals who are not practicing prudence and, as a result don’t practice virtue either. And, as a result, they are discordians, because all they seek is discord and chaos(without them being fully aware, as a result of their lack of prudence).

The so called ‘virtue signaling‘ seen from that article would give a bad name to the word ‘virtue‘ itself, which stands for Prudence, and Prudence or Virtue is best described in Tao Te Ching.

More Notable comments

This is a reply to this article:

At our best we should develop our society to be self-sustainable and less prone to marketing schemes. It would be best if we’d learn how all society works(financial, see
Also, not sure, but likely, meditations at their best could make people do psi-balls(as a practice to qigong)They actually made a movie, starring Keanu Reeves(from the Matrix), called Man of Tai chi. Here’s the video about psi balls:

Now another comments, as replies to this article:

Great article. I posted the same perspective on Galaxy is so big article.
Now, first of all, how do you stop it, if this is real? It is a sick joke played on us humans.
And the worst part, that this kind of information makes you confused whether it’s real or not, and, what is there to do. It makes you so terrified, that, subconsciously, you’d look for reasons to be happy and somewhat ignore it altogether. And to simply make the mind question the information even more, look into what anime has done over the past 20 years. In Japan, they are making all kinds of anime, about all kinds of scenarios, monsters, and programming the vast majority of mindset, of the contriving behavior and master-slave relationship. And people out there, despite the great buildings and civilization, and clean places, it looks to me that the vast majority of them are obedient workers and the minority, at least part of it, is very likely corrupt. Please see the producers Lantis and Bones for starters.In some animes, they actually portrayed humans adopting aliens, be it serpent like or anything else. Is this a thing to come?
The anime is called Monster Musume.
All animes you can download them for free using a torrent client, from

Here is a link about that anime:

Also see the producers Lantis and Bones:

Also all the animes you can download them from