This article is more about revisiting facts and has a relevance to contemplate past history.

Here, it is mostly about the timelines of religions, such as Judaism, Hinduism, Christianity and Islam. Also the timelines of specific countries like China.

The first purpose, is to review and check how the Timelines compare with the Biblical timeline, whether the Flood of Noah occurred and to attempt to determine a more complete timeline.

For starters, the timeline from the Bible, narrated by the representatives of the religion of Judaism:

Source: https://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/timeline-for-the-history-of-judaism

Dawn of History
(3800-2001 BCE)

October 7, 3761
The beginning date of the Hebrew calendar, according to scholar Rabbi Yossi ben Halafta, a 2nd century Rabbi. Adam & Eve created (Year 1 of Jewish calendar).
Seth born
Enosh born
ca. 3500
Chalcolithic Period, first settlement
Kenan born
Mehalalel born
Yered born
First confirmed settlement of Gaza at Tell as-Sakan
Enoch born
Methusaleh born
Lemech born
Adam dies
ca. 2800
Early Dynastic period (Akkad)
Noah born
ca. 2700-2400
Old Kingdom period (Egypt)
ca. 2500-2200
Ebla flourishes
ca. 2500
First houses built in Jerusalem
ca. 2300-2200
Priestess Enheduanna, first known author in the world
Shem born
The Flood
Middle Kingdom period (Egypt)

Ancient Israelite Religion
(2000-587 BCE)

2000-1750 Old Babylonian period
2000-1700 Israel’s Patriarchal period
ca. 1900-1400 Old Assyrian period
1882 Terach born
1813 Abraham born
ca. 1850/1750/1700 Abraham & SarahIsaac & Ishmael, famine forces Israelites to migrate to Egypt
1800 First Jerusalem city wall built
ca. 1792-1750 Hammurabi
ca. 1750-1200 Hittite empire
1765 The Tower of Babel
1743 Origin of traditions of the “Abrahamic covenant”
1713 Isaac born; Abraham circumcises himself; Sodom & Gomorrah destroyed
ca. 1700-1550 Hyksos in Egypt
1677 Isaac prepared as sacrifice; Sarah dies
1653 Jacob born
1638 Abraham dies
ca. 1600-1150 Kassite period (Babylonia)
1590 Isaac blesses Jacob instead of Esau.
ca. 1570-1085 New Kingdom period (Egypt)
1569 Jacob marries Leah
1565 Levi born
1562 Joseph born
1546 Joseph sold into slavery
1533 Isaac dies
1532 Joseph becomes viceroy of Egypt
1523 Jacob and his family join Joseph in Egypt
ca. 1500-1200 Ugaritic texts
1452 Joseph dies
1429 Egyptian enslavement of the Hebrews begins
ca. 1400-900 Middle Assyrian period
ca. 1400-1300 Amarna period (Egypt)
1393 Moses born.
1355 Joshua born.
1314 Moses sees the burning bush.
ca. 1300-1200 Mosaic period (Israel)
1280 Exodus from Egypt, Sinai Torah, Canaan Entry
1240 After setting up the Ark at Shiloh near Shechem (Nablus), Joshua launches foray into Jerusalem (Joshua 10:2315:63)
ca. 1200 Sea Peoples invade Egypt and Syro-Palestine
ca. 1200-1050/1000 Period of the Judges (Israel)
ca. 1200-1000 Jerusalem is a Canaanite city
ca. 1150-900 Middle Babylonian period:
ca. 1106 Deborah judges Israel.
ca. 1100 The Philistines take over Gaza. They called it Philistia (from which the modern name Palestine is derived), and made it one of their civilization’s most important cities.
ca. 1050-450 Hebrew prophets (Samuel-Malachi)
ca. 1000-587 Monarchical period in Israel
ca. 1030-1010 Saul (transitional king)
ca. 1010-970 David conquers the Jebusites and makes Jerusalem his capital
ca. 970-931 Solomon builds the First Temple on Mount Moriah
ca. 931 Secession of Northern Kingdom (Israel) from Southern Kingdom (Judah)
931-913 Rehoboam rules Judah
931-910 Jeroboam I rules Israel, choses Shechem as his first capital, later moves it to Tirzah
913-911 Abijah rules Judah
911-870 Asa rules Juda
910-909 Nadab (son of Jeroboam) rules Israel
909-886 Baasha kills Nadab and rules Israel
900-612 Neo-Assyrian period
886-885 Elah, son of Baasha, rules Israel
885 Zimri kills Elah, but reigns just seven days before committing suicide, Omri chosen as King of Israel
885-880(?) War between Omri and Tibni
885-874 Omri kills Tibni, rules Israel
879 Omri moves capital of Israel from Tirzah to Samaria
874-853 Ahab, Omri’s son, is killed in battle, Jezebel reigns as Queen. Athaliah, Ahab and Jezebel’s daughter, marries Jehoram, crown prince of Judah
870-848 Jehoshapha rules Judah
853-851 Ahaziah, son of Ahab, rules Israel, dies in accident
750-725 Israelite Prophets Amos, Hosea, Isaiah
722/721 Northern Kingdom (Israel) destroyed by Assyrians10 tribes exiled (10 lost tribes)
720 Ahaz, King of Judah dismantles Solomon’s bronze vessels and places a private Syrian altar in the Temple
716 Hezekiah, King of Jerusalem, with help of God and the prophet Isaiah resists Assyrian attempt to capture Jerusalem (2 Chronicles 32). Wells and springs leading to the city are stopped
701 Assyrian ruler Sennacherib beseiges Jerusalem
612-538 Neo-Babylonian (“Chaldean”) period
620 Josiah (Judean King) and “Deuteronomic Reforms”
ca. 600-580 Judean Prophets Jeremiah and Ezekiel
587/586 Southern Kingdom (Judah) and First Temple destroyed-Babylonian exile
ca. 550 Judean Prophet “Second Isaiah”
541 First Jews return from Babylon in small numbers to rebuild the city and its walls. Seventy years of exile terminated. (Daniel 9Haggai 2:18-19)
539 Persian ruler Cyrus the Great conquers Babylonian Empire

After the Babylonian Exile
(538 BCE-70 CE)

538-333 B.C.E. Persian Period.
538 B.C.E. Edict of Cyrus (first return from Exile).
520-515 B.C.E. Jerusalem (“Second”) Temple rebuilt.
520 B.C.E. Judean Prophet Haggai.
500 B.C.E. The notion of a Messiah, a political/military-religious/moral leader, develops.
450-400 B.C.E. Reformation led by Ezra and Nehemiah.
ca. 450 B.C.E. Torah (Pentateuch = first division of Jewish Scriptures) begins to gain recognition as Scripture.
438 B.C.E. Achashverosh becomes king of Persia.
426 B.C.E. First decrees by Haman; fast ordered by Esther, Haman’s downfall and execution.
425 B.C.E. Haman’s ten sons executed; Purim celebration.
424 B.C.E. Megillah recorded.
411 B.C.E. Bagoas, a Persian, is made governor of Jerusalem.
333-63 B.C.E. Hellenistic (Greek) period.
333/331 B.C.E. Alexander the Great conquers the Land of Israel.
ca. 320-168 B.C.E. Judaism under Greek Ptolemies & Seleucids.
ca. 250 B.C.E. “Septuagint” translation of Torah into Greek.
ca. 230-146 B.C.E. Coming of Rome to the east Mediterranean.
ca. 201 B.C.E. Prophets (second division of Jewish Scriptures) recognized by some as Scripture
ca. 200 B.C.E.-135 C.E. Jewish Qumran community.
175 B.C.E. Selicid, king of Syria, plunders Jerusalem, murdering many.
166-160 B.C.E. Jewish Maccabean revolt against restrictions on practice of Judaism and desecration of the Temple.
142-129 B.C.E. Jewish autonomy under Hasmoneans.
63 B.C.E. Rome (Pompey) annexes the land of Israel.
66-73 C.E. First Jewish Revolt against Rome.
69 C.E. Vespasian gives Yochanan ben Zakkai permission to establish a Jewish center for study at Yavneh that will become the hub for rabbinic Judaism.
70 C.E. Destruction of Jerusalem and the second Temple.

Rule of Rome
(230 BCE-400 CE)

ca. 230-146 B.C.E. Coming of Rome to the east Mediterranean.
142-129 B.C.E. Jewish autonomy under Hasmoneans.
63 B.C.E. Rome (Pompey) annexes the land of Israel.
37-4 B.C.E. Herod the Great (Jewish Roman ruler of the land of Israel).
34 B.C.E. Mark Antony deeds the city of Gaza to his lover, Queen Cleopatra.
37 B.C.E. Herod captures Jerusalem, has Antigonus II executed, and marries the Hasmonean princess Mariamne I.
20 B.C.E. Herod creates Temple Mount and begins to rebuild the Temple in Jerusalem. Project continues until 72 C.E..
ca. 4 B.C.E.-ca. 30 C.E. Joshua/Jesus “the Christ.”


Hillel & Shammai (Jewish sages).
6 C.E. Rome establishes direct rule of prefects in Judea.
ca. 13 B.C.E.- 41 C.E. Philo Judaeus of Alexandria.
ca. 30 C.E. Jesus is crucified.
36-64 C.E. Paul “the apostle” (Jewish “Christian”).
ca. 37-100 C.E. Josephus (Jewish leader, historian).
ca. 40 C.E. Gamliel/Gamaliel I (Jewish leader-scholar).
ca. 50-125 C.E. Christian Testament (NT) writings.
66-73 C.E. First Jewish Revolt against Rome.
69 C.E. Vespasian gives Yochanan ben Zakkai permission to establish a Jewish center for study at Yavneh that will become the hub for rabbinic Judaism.
70 Destruction of Jerusalem and the second Temple.
December 21, 72 Thomas the Apostle is murdered by Hindu priests of Kali.
73 Last stand of Jews at Masada.
ca. 90-100 Gamaliel II excludes sectarians (including Christians) from the synagogues.
ca. 90-150 Writings (third and last division of Jewish Scriptures) discussed and accepted as sacred scripture.
114-117 Jewish Revolts against Rome in Cyprus, Egypt and Cyrene. The Great Synagogue and the Great Library in Alexandria are destroyed as well as the entire Jeiwsh community of Cyprus. Afterwards, Jews were forbidden on Cyprus.
120-135 Rabbi Akiva active in consolidating Rabbinic Judaism.
132-135 Bar Kokhba rebellion (Second Jewish Revolt). Roman forces kill an estimated half a million Jews and destroy 985 villages and 50 fortresses.
136 Hadrian renames Jerusalem Aelia Capatolina and builds a Pagan temple over the the site of the Second Temple. He also forbids Jews to dwell there. Judea (the southern portion of what is now called the West Bank) was renamed Palaestina in an attempt to minimize Jewish identification with the land of Israel.
138-161 Antoninus Pius, Hadrian’s sucessor, repeals many of the previously instituted harsh policies towards Jews.
193-211 Roman emperor Lucious Septimus Severus treats Jews relatively well, allowing them to participate in public offices and be exempt from formalities contrary to Judaism. However, he did not allow the Jews to convert anyone
ca. 200 Mishnah (Jewish oral law) compiled/edited under Judah the Prince.
200-254 Origen (Christian scholar, biblical interpreter).
203 Because of his health, Judah HaNasi relocates the center of Jewish learning from Beth Shearim to Sepphoris.
212 Roman Emperor Caracalla allows free Jews within the empire to become full Roman citizens.
220 Babylonian Jewish Academy founded at Sura by Rab.

Amoraim, or Mishna scholars, flourish. The Amoraim’s commentary, along with the Mishna, comprises the Talmud.

222-235 Emperor Alexander Severus allowed for a revival of Jewish rights, including permission to visit Jerusalem.
240-276 Rise of Mani/Manichaean World Religion synthesis.
ca. 250 Babylonian Jews flourish (as does Manichaeism) under Persian King Shapur I
250-330 Early development of Christian monasticism in Egypt.
263-339 Eusebius (Christian author, historian)
303 Violent persecution of Christians by Emperor Diocletian.
To 311 Sporadic persecution of Christianity by Rome.
306 One of the first Christian councils, the Council of Elvira, forbids intermarriage and social interaction with Jews
312/313 Emperor Constantine embraces Christianity, announces Edict of Toleration
315 Code of Constantine limits rights of non-Christians, is Constantine’s first anti-Jewish act.
368 Jerusalem Talmud compiled.

Rabbinic Period of Talmud Development
(70 BCE-500 CE)

66-73 First Jewish Revolt against Rome.
69 Vespasian gives Yochanan ben Zakkai permission to establish a Jewish center for study at Yavneh that will become the hub for rabbinic Judaism.
70 Destruction of Jerusalem and the second Temple,
73 Last stand of Jews at Masada.
ca. 90-100 Gamaliel II excludes sectarians (including Christians) from the synagogues.
ca. 90-150 Writings (third and last division of Jewish Scriptures) discussed and accepted as sacred scripture.
114-117 Jewish Revolts against Rome in Cyprus, Egypt and Cyrene. The Great Synagogue and the Great Library in Alexandria are destroyed as well as the entire Jeiwsh community of Cyprus. Afterwards, Jews were forbidden on Cyprus.
120-135 Rabbi Akiva active in consolidating Rabbinic Judaism.
132-135 Bar Kokhba rebellion (Second Jewish Revolt). Roman forces kill an estimated half a million Jews and destroy 985 villages and 50 fortresses.
136 Hadrian renames Jerusalem Aelia Capatolina and builds a Pagan temple over the the site of the Second Temple. He also forbids Jews to dwell there. Judea (the southern portion of what is now called the West Bank) was renamed Palaestina in an attempt to minimize Jewish identification with the land of Israel.
138-161 Antoninus Pius, Hadrian’s sucessor, repeals many of the previously instituted harsh policies towards Jews.
193-211 Roman emperor Lucious Septimus Severus treats Jews relatively well, allowing them to participate in public offices and be exempt from formalities contrary to Judaism. However, he did not allow the Jews to convert anyone
ca. 200 Mishnah (Jewish oral law) compiled/edited under Judah the Prince.
203 Because of his health, Judah HaNasi relocates the center of Jewish learning from Beth Shearim to Sepphoris.
212 Roman Emperor Caracalla allows free Jews within the empire to become full Roman citizens.
220 Babylonian Jewish Academy founded at Sura by Rab.
220-470 Amoraim, or Mishna scholars, flourish. The Amoraim’s commentary, along with the Mishna, comprises the Talmud.
222-235 Emperor Alexander Severus allowed for a revival of Jewish rights, including permission to visit Jerusalem.
ca. 250 Babylonian Jews flourish (as does Manichaeism) under Persian King Shapur I.
306 One of the first Christian councils, the Council of Elvira, forbids intermarriage and social interaction with Jews.
315 Code of Constantine limits rights of non-Christians, is Constantine’s first anti-Jewish act.
359 Hillel creates a new calendar based on the lunar year to replace the dispersed Sanhedrin, which previously announced the festivals.
368 Jerusalem Talmud compiled.
370-425 Hillel founds Beit Hillel, a school emphasizing tolerance and patience. Hillel, a descendant of King David, is one of the first scholars to devise rules to interpret the Torah.
410 Rome sacked by Visigoths.
425 Jewish office of Nasi/Prince abolished by Rome.
426 Babylonian Talmud compiled.
439 Theodosis enacts a code prohibiting Jews from holding important positions involving money. He also reenacts a law forbidding the building of new synagogues.
500 Babylonian Talmud recorded. After conquering Italy in 493, Ostrogoth king Theodoric issues an edict safeguarding the Jews and ensuring their right to determine civil disputes and freedom of worship.

Consolidation & Dominance of Christianity
(325-590 CE)

325 Christian First Ecumenical Council, at Nicea (Asia Minor), changes the date of Easter from Passover and forbids Jews from owning Christian slaves or converting pagans to Judaism.
330 Jerusalem becomes part of Constantine’s Byzantine Empire.
ca. 325-420 Jerome (Christian author, translator).
339 Constantine forbids intermarriage with Jews and the circumcision of heathen or Christian slaves, declaring death as the punishment.
354-430 Augustine (Christian author in North Africa).
359 Hillel creates a new calendar based on the lunar year to replace the dispersed Sanhedrin, which previously announced the festivals.
368 Jerusalem Talmud compiled.
370-425 Hillel founds Beit Hillel, a school emphasizing tolerance and patience. Hillel, a descendant of King David, is one of the first scholars to devise rules to interpret the Torah.
380/391 Christianity becomes THE religion of Roman Empire.
401 Christianity takes root in Gaza thanks to Bishop Porphyry.
410 Rome sacked by Visigoths.
415 St. Cyril, the Bishop of Alexandria, champions violence against the city’s Jews and incites the Greeks to kill or expel them. Some Jews return within a few years, but many return only after the Muslims conquer Egypt.
425 Jewish office of Nasi/Prince abolished by Rome.
426 Babylonian Talmud compiled.
439 Theodosis enacts a code prohibiting Jews from holding important positions involving money. He also reenacts a law forbidding the building of new synagogues.
451 Christian Ecumenical Council of Chalcedon.
500 After conquering Italy in 493, Ostrogoth king Theodoric issues an edict safeguarding the Jews and ensuring their right to determine civil disputes and freedom of worship.
501 An earthquake hits Israel, partially destroying Acre and incuring damage as far east as Jersusalem.
511 Rebellion leader Mar Zutra usurps power from Kobad the Zenduk, establishing an independant Jewish state in Babylon that would last for seven years, until Zutra’s forces defeated Zutra’s army, killing him and instituted a harsh policy toward the remaining Jews.
516 Southern Arabian king Ohu Nuwas adopts Judaism, possibly as a rampart against the spread of Christianity. King Eleboas of Abyssinia, with the help of Justin I, later defeated Nuwas.
519 After Ravenna residents burnt down local synagogues, Ostrogoth ruler Theodoric orders the Italian town to rebuild the synagogues at their own expense.
587 Recared of Spain adopts Catholicism, banning Jews from slave ownership, intermarriage and holding positions of authority. Recared also declares that children of mixed marriages be raised Christian.
570 Birth of Prophet Muhammad, Makkah.
590 Pope Gregory the Great formulates the official Papal policy towards Jews, objecting to forced baptism and tolerating them according to the previous council’s regulations.

Development of Muhammad’s Islamic Message
(570-1258 CE)

ca. 570-632 Muhammad (“the Prophet” of Islam).
ca. 610 Prophetic call and start of Quranic revelations.
614 Persian invasion, Jews allowed to controll Jerusalem.
617 Persians change policy toward Jews, forbid them from living within three miles of Jerusalem.
622 The hijra (emigration) from Mecca to Medina.
624-627 Muhammad attacks Jewish Arabian tribes for refusing to convert to Islam. Eventually the Southern Arabian tribes are destroyed.
626 While proselytizing Arabia, Muhammad captures the Banu Kurara tribe and forces the group of about 600 to chose between conversion and death. After spending all night praying, all but three or four Banu Kurarans are beheaded.
627-629 Emperor Heraclius breaks his promise of protection to Jews, massacring any he found and forbidding them from entering Jerusalem. Hundreds of Jews were killed and thousands exhiled to Egypt, ending the Jewish towns in the Galilee and Judea. Heraclius’ decree remained in effect until the Muslim conquest of Jerusalem.
630 Capitulation of Mecca, rededication of Kaba.
632 The Jewish tribe Kaibar defends itself against Muslim forces, negotiating a settlement in which half of their crops would go to Mohammed in exchange for peace. Other Jewish tribes, including Fadattr, Tedma and Magna reached similar deals.
590-604 Pope Gregory the Great.
ca. 600-1300 Period of the Jewish Rabbinic Geonim.
632-661 Muhammad dies, creating the four “rightly guided caliphs” of Islam.
634 Gaza becomes the first city in Palestine to be captured by Muslims. Many Christians and Jews remained despite the Muslim takeover.
637 Muslim forces capture Caesarea, forcing the city’s estimated 100,000 Jews to follow the Pact of Omar, which meant they had to pray quietly, not build new synagogues and not prevent Jews from converting to Islam. The Jews were also forbidden from riding horses and holding judicial or civil posts, and were forced to wear a yellow patch for identification.
638 Caliph Umar conquers Jerusalem and Jews are permitted to return to the city under Islam.
661 Assassination of Ali (last of the four).
661-750 Umayyad Dynasty of Islam in Damascus (Syria).
669, 674 Muslim Attacks on Christian Constantinople.
680 Massacre of Ali’s son Husayn and Shiites (Iraq).
685 Muslims extend Jerusalem and rebuild walls and roads.
692 Dome of the Rock built on site of First and Second Temples by Caliph Abd el-Malik.
November 9, 694 The 17th Council of Toledo convenes, passing a wide-ranging array of restrictions on the local Jewish community.
711 Muslim Forces Attack Spain Successfully.
715 Al-Aqsa Mosque built, Jerusalem.
732 Islam repulsed at Tours (France), gateway to Europe.
750 Abbasid caliphate founded.
ca. 760 Karaism founded (Jewish reaction to Rabbinic Judaism).
762 Baghdad founded by Abbasids.
767 Anan Ben David, organizer of the Karaite sect that only believed in the literal Biblical writings and not the Oral law.
742-814 Charlemagne, French Holy Roman Emperor, protected and helped develop Jewish culture in his kingdom, seeing Jews as an asset.
740-1259 Jewish Kingdom of Khazar lasts over 500 years, defending itself from the Muslims, Byzantines and Russians, finally subdued by Mongols under Genghis Khan.
750-1258 Abbasid Dynasty of Islam in Baghdad (Iraq)—the “golden age” of Islamic culture.
?-767 Abu Hanifa (Muslim theologian and jurist in Iraq).
710-795 Malik ibn Anas (jurist, collector of hadiths, Medina).
800 Caliph Harun al-Rashid rules in “1001 Nights” style.
ca. 800-950 Mutazilite rationalism developed and debated.
807 Harun Al Rashid, Caliph of the Abbasids forces Baghdad Jews to wear a yellow badge and Christians to wear a blue badge.
825 Caliph Mamun sponsors translations of Greek learning into Arabic (Arabic science flourishes).
814-840 Charlemagne’s son, Louis the Pius, who succeeded his father as king, expanded his father’s positive policies towards the Jews, like changing “market day” from Saturday (Shabbat) to Sunday.
855 Ibn Hanbal (jurist, collector of hadiths, Baghdad).
868 Palestine annexed to Egypt.
870, 875 Bukhari and Muslim (collectors of hadiths).
874 Shiite “twelvers” arise.
?-935 Al-Ashari (ex-Mutazilite Muslim scholar).
882-942 Saadia Gaon (Rabbinic Jewish sage).
942 Office of the Exilarch was abolished after seven centuries, primarily because of dissention with the Muslims. David ben-Zaccai held the postion.
922 Execution of Hallaj, radical Persian Muslim mystic/sufi.
ca. 950-1150 “Golden Age” in Spain (Islamic Umayyad dynasty).
969 Founding of Cairo (and soon thereafter Azhar University) by the Islamic Shiite Fatimid dynasty in Egypt.
969 Caliph al-Aziz defeated the Turkish princes at Ramleh, marking the beginning of Fatamid rule over Eretz-Israel.
972 Al-Azhar University Founded, Cairo.
ca. 1000 Rabbi Gershon of Mainz, Germany, publishes a ban on bigamy. This marks the beginning of Ashkenazi (Franco-German) halachic creativity.
1001 Ibn al-Bawwab produces earliest exist Qur’an copy on paper, Baghdad.
990-1055 Diplomat and poet, as well as vizier to King Habus of Granada and author of a Biblical Hebrew dictionary, Samuel Ibn Nagrela.
1008 Egyptian Caliph Hakkim, who claimed to be divine, pressured all non-Muslims to convert and forced all Jews to wear a “golden calf” around their necks.
1009 Oldest existing text of full Hebrew Bible is written.
1016 Earthquake causes structrual damage on Temple Mount.
1021-1069 Messianic poet and philosopher, Solomon Ibn Gabirol.
1027 Samuel Hanagid becomes vizier of Granada. He is the first of the poets of the Golden Age of Spain, and symbolic of both the political power and literary creativity of Jews in Spain at the time.
1032 Rebel Abul Kamal Tumin conquered Fez and decimated the Jewish community, killing 6,000 Jews.
1066 Final split (“schism”) between Latin (Roman) and Greek (Byzantine) Classical Christian Churches: 1053/54 William the Conqueror (Norman) takes England.
1056 Abraham Ibn Daud: On Saumuel Ha-Nagid, Vizier of Granada.
1040-1105 Rashi (Rabbi Solomon ben Isaac; Jewish sage): .
1058-1111 Ghazali (Persian Muslim scholar and mystic): .
1065-1173 Benjamin of Tudela, Jewish traveller and historian, who wrote a famous journal called Sefer Hamassa’ot (Book of Travels).
1070 Rashi, a French-Jewish thinker, completes his commentaries on most parts of the Bible.
1070-1139 Poet and philiospher Moses Ibn Ezra.
1071 Seljuk occupation of Jerusalem.
1099 First Crusade Begins rule in Jerusalem.
1100 The Crusaders seize Gaza from the Fatimid Caliphs, returning it to Christian rule.
1181 Philip expels Jews from France.
1187 Salah al-Din returns Jerusalem to Muslim rule.
1192 Philip expands his kingdom and allows Jews to return, for a fee and under strict conditions.

Medieval Period in the West
(600-1500 CE)

610 Visigothic ruler Sesbut prohibits Judaism after several anti-Jewish edicts are ignored. Exiled Jews return to Byzantine Spain under Sesbut’s successor, Swintilla.
614 Persian General Romizanes captures Jerusalem and allows Jews to run the city. At this time, aproximately 150,000 Jews are living in 43 settlements in Eretz-Israel.
617 The Persians renege on their promises and forbid Jews to settle within a three mile radius of Jerusalem.
638 Although Chintilla decrees that only Catholics are permitted to live in Visogoth Spain, many Jews continue to live there.
638 Islamic conquest of Jerusalem.
682 Visigoth King Erwig continues oppression of Jews, making it illegal to practice any Jewish rites and pressing for the conversion or emigration of the remaining Jews.
691 First account of Jews in England.
712 Jews help Muslim invaders capture Spain, ending Visogoth rule and beginning a 150 year period of relative peace, in which Jews were free to study and practice religion as they wished.
722 In the wake of a narrow military defeat over Muslim forces, Leo III of Constantinople decided his nation’s weakness lay in its heterogenious population, and began the forcible conversion of the Jews, as well as the “New Christians.” Most converted under Leo III clandestinely continued their Jewish practices.
1040 Birth of Rashi.
1066 In the wake of the Norman conquest of England, Jews left Normandy and settled in London and later in York, Norwich, Oxford, Bristol and Lincoln.
1078 Pope Gregory VII prohibited Jews from holding offices in Christendom.
1086-1145 The greatest Hebrew poet of his time, Judah Halevi.
1090 Iban Iashufin, King of the Almoravides, captured Granada and destroyed the Jewish community, the survivors fled to Toledo.
1095 Henry IV of Germany, who granted Jews favorable conditions whenever possible, issued a charter to the Jews and a decree against forced baptism.
1131 Birth of Rambam.
1171 In the town of Blois, southwest of Paris, Jews are falsely accused of committing ritual murder ((killing of a Christian child) and blood libel. The adult Jews of the city are arrested and most are executed after refusing to convert. Thirty-one or 32 of the Jews are killed. The Jewish children are forcibly baptized.
1210 Group of 300 French and English rabbis make aliyah and settle in Israel.
1215 The Church’s Fourth Lateran Council decrees that Jews be differentiated from others by their type of clothing to avoid intercourse between Jews and Christians. Jews are sometimes required to wear a badge; sometimes a pointed hat.
1227-1274 Christian theologian, who called for the slavery of all Jews, Saint Thomas Aquinas.
1229 King Henry III of England forced Jews to pay half the value of thier property in taxes.
1242 Burning of the Talmud in Paris.
1244 Tartars capture Jerusalem.
1253 King Henry III of England ordered Jewish worship in synagogue to be held quietly so that Christians passing by do not have to hear it. e also ordered that Jews may not employ Christian nurses or maids, nor may any Jew prevent another from converting to Christianity.
1254 French King Louis IX expelled the Jews from France, ending the Tosaphists period. Most Jews went to Germany and further east.
1255 Seeing himself as the “master of the Jews,” King Henry II of England transferred his rights to the Jews to his brother, Richard, for 5,000 marks.
1267 In a special session, the Vienna city council forced Jews to wear the Pileum cornutum, a cone-shaped headress prevelent in many medieval woodcuts illustrating Jews. This form of distinctive dress was an additon to badge Jews were forced to wear.
1267 Ramban (Nachmanides) arrives in Israel.
1275 King Edward of England banned usury and unsuccessfully encouraged Jews in agriculture, crafts and local trades. He also forced Jews over the age of seven to wear an indentifying badge.
1282 The Archbishop of Canterbury, John Pectin, ordered all London synagogues to closed and prohibited Jewish physicians from practicing on Christians.
1285 Blood libel in Munich, Germany results in the death of 68 Jews. An additional 180 Jews are burned alive at the synagogue.
1287 A mob in Oberwesel, Germany kills 40 Jewish men, women and children after a ritual murder accusation.
1290 Bowing political pressure, English King Edward I expels the Jews from England. They were only allowed to take what they could carry and most went to France, paying for thier passage only to be robbed and cast overboard by the ship captains.
1306 Philip IV orders all Jews expelled from France, with their property to be sold at public auction. Some 125,000 Jews are forced to leave.
1321 Similar to accusations made during the Black Plague, Jews were accused of encouraging lepers to poison Christian wells in France. An estimated five thousand Jews were killed before the king, Philip the Tall, admitted the Jews were innocent.
1321 Henry II of Castile forces Jews to wear yellow badges.
1322 Charles IV of France expels all French Jews without the one year period he had promised them.
1348-1349 Much of Europe blames the Black Plague on the Jews and tortured to confess that they poisoned the wells. Despite the pleas of innocence of Pope Clement VI, the accusations resulted in the destruction of over 60 large and 150 small Jewish communities.
1348 Basle burns 600 Jews at the stake and forcibly baptizes 140 children, expelling the city’s other Jews. The city’s Christian residents convert the synagogue into a church and destroy the Jewish cemetery.
1348 Pope Clement VI issues an edict repudiating the libel against Jews, saying that they too were suffering from the Plague.
1360 Samuel ben Meir Abulafia is arrested and tortured to death by King Pedro without any explination. The king also confiscated his great wealth.
1385-1386 German Emperor Wenceslaus arrests Jews living in the Swabian League, a group of free cities in S. Germany, and confiscates their books. Later, he expelled the Jews of Strassburg after a community debate.
1386 Emperor Wenceslaus expelles the Jews from Strassbourg and confiscate their property.
1389 After a priest was hit with some sand from a few small Jewish boys playing in the street, he insisted that the Jewish community was plotting against him and began a virulent campaign against the city’s Jews, resulting in the massacre of thousands and the destruction of the city’s synagogue and Jewish cemetery. King Wenceslaus refused to condemn the act, insisting that the responsibility lay with the Jews for going outside during the Holy Week.
1389 Pope Boniface continues the policy of Clement VI, forbidding the Christians to harm Jews, destroy their cemeteries or forcibly baptize them.
1391 Ferrand Martinez, archdeacon of Ecija, begins a campaign against Spanish Jewry, killing over 10,000 and destroying the Jewish quarter in Barcelona. The campaign quickly spreads throughout Spain, except for Granada, and destroys Jewish communities in Valencia and Palma De Majorca.
1391 King Pedro I orders Spain not to harm the remaining Jews and decrees that synagogues not be converted into churches.
1392 King Pedro I announces his compliance with the Bull of Pope Boniface IX, protecting Jews from baptism. He extends this edict to Spanish Jewish refugees.
1415 Benedict XIII bans the study of the Talmud in any form, institutes forced Christian sermons and tries to restrict Jewish life completely.
1420 Pope Martin V favorably reinstates old privleges of the Jews and orders that no child under the age of 12 can be forcibly baptized without parental consent.
1420 All Jews are expelled from Lyons, including the refugees from Paris who were expelled 20 years earliers. Jews now only remain in Provence (until 1500) and in the possessions of the Holy See.
1422 Pope Martin V issues a bull reminding Christians that Christianity was derived from Judaism and warns the Friars not to incite against the Jews. The Bull was withdrawn the following year, alleging that the Jews of Rome attained the Bull by fraud.
1480 Inquisition established in Spain.

The Crusades
(1095-1258 CE)

1096 Participants in the First Crusade massacre Jews in several Central European cities, beginning centuries of pogroms linked to the Crusades.
1096 More than 5,000 Jews were murdered in Germany in several different attacks.
May 3, 1096 Count Emico of Leiningen, on his way to join a Crusade, attacked the synagogue at Speyers and killed all the defenders.
May 27, 1096 1,200 Jews commit suicide in Mayence to escape Count Emico, who tried to forcibly convert them.
1085-1140 Judah Halevi (Jewish author).
1099 Crusaders (European Christians) capture Jerusalem and massacre tens of thousands of the city’s Jews.
1100 Germans, including German Jews, migrate to Poland. It is seen as “the land of opportunity.”
1107 Moroccan Almoravid ruler Yoseph Ibn Tashfin orders all Moroccan Jews to convert or leave.
1109 Tiberias falls to the Crusaders.
1115 After reconquering Toledo, Spain from the Muslims, Alphonso I invited all Jews to return.
1120 Jews from Muslim countries begin to settle in Byzantium.
1124 Records of a Jewish gate in Kiev attest to the presence of a Jewish community there.
1135-1204 Maimonides (Rabbi Moses ben Maimon; Jewish scholar).
1139 Judah Halevi completes his influential philosophy of Judaism known as The Kuzari. He is a friend of commentator Abraham Ibn Ezra, who also left Spain for the life of a wandering Jewish scholar.
1143 150 Jews killed in Ham, France.
1144 Jews in Norwich, England, are accused of murdering a Christian child in what is believed to be the first ritual murder charge. The blood libel, as well as others in England that follow in the 12th century, incites anti-Jewish violence.
1160-1173 Benjamin of Toledo, The Itinerary of Benjamin of Toledo.
1163 Benjamin of Toledo writes of 40,000 Jews living in Baghdad, complete with 28 synagogues and 10 Torah academies.
1171 Saladin (1138-1193) overthrows Fatimid dynasty in Egypt.
1187 Saladin recaptures Jerusalem from Crusaders grants Jews permission to re-enter.
March 16, 1190 Jews attacked, over 150 die after a six day standoff in York, England.
1190 Approximately 2,500 Jews live in England, enjoing more rights than Jews on the continent.
1191 French King Phillip starts the Third Crusade, cancels debts to Jews, drives many Jews out of France, confiscates their property.
1194-1270 Scholar and Jewish leader Moses Ben Nachman (Nachmanides).
1195 Moses Maimonides completes The Guide to the Perplexed, considered the most important work of medieval Jewish thought.
1211 A group of 300 rabbis from France and England settle in Palestine (Eretz Yisrael), beginning what might be interpreted as Zionist aliyah.
1198-1216 Pope Innocent III (Christian).
1204 First synagogue built in Vienna, a city where Jews enjoyed more freedom than in other areas of Austria.
1215 Fourth Lateran Council expands anti-Jewish decrees in Europe, forces Jews to wear the Yellow Patch, the “Badge of Shame.
1222 Deacon Robert of Reading, England, was burned for converting to Judaism, setting a precedent for the burning of “heretics”.
1222 Stephen Langton, Archbishop of Canterbury and a prime mover of the Lateran Council, forbids Jews from building new synagogues, owning slaves or mixing with Christians.
ca. 13th cen. The Zohar (a Jewish kabbalistic book): .
1227 Death of Genghis Khan (roving Mongol conqueror).
ca. 1230 Inquisition by Christians in Spain.
1232 The Jewish community of Marrakech, Morocco, is reestablished, leading to massacres of Jews caused by Islamic political revolt and grassroots hatred.
1239 Pope Gregory IX orders the kings of France, England, Spain and Portugal to confiscate Hebrew books, Following this edict, the Talmud is condemned and burned in France and Rome.
1225-1274 Thomas Aquinas (Christian scholar).
1240-1292 Spanish Kabbalist Abraham Abulafia.
1243 First accusation of desecration of the Host (the wafers used is Christian Mass) – the blood libel – in Berlitz, Germany.
1244-1517 Rule by Tartars, Mongols, Ayybids, and Mamelukes.
1247 Pope Innocent IV issued a Bull refuting blood libels and sent it throughout Germany and France.
1254-1517 Mamluk Islamic rule (new dynasty) in Egypt.
1258 Fall of Islamic Abbasid dynasty to Hulagu (Mongol).

Transition & Rebuilding of Political Islam
(1258-1500 CE)

1258 Mongols sack Baghdad.
1260 Mongols led by Hulagu Khan overrun Gaza, they are beaten back by Egyptian Mamluk General Baibars. Gaza becomes the capital of a Mamluk Province.
1278 The Edict of Pope Nicholas III requires compulsory attendance of Jews at conversion sermons.
1286 Moses de Leon of Spain completes a commentary of the Torah. The Zohar remains a central text of Jewish mysticism.
1290/1291 Expulsion of Jews from England.
1291 Expulsion of Christian Crusaders from Syria.
1348 Black Death reaches Europe.
July 6, 1348 Pope Clement VI clarifies that the Jews are not behind the Black Death, tells Christians not to blame Jews for the disease sweeping Europe.
1445 Gutenberg prints Europe’s first book with movable type.
1453 Ottomans begin rule from Constantinople.
1492 The Alhambra Decree ordered the expulsion of the Jews from Castile and Aragon, Spain. The edict was not formally revoked until December 16, 1968.
1492 End of Muslim states in Spain.
1492 Columbus sets sail.

Mamluk Rule
(1291-1516 CE)

1300-1517 Italian Renaissance.
1306-1394 Expulsions of Jews from France.
1328-1384 John Wycliffe (Christian dissident leader).
14th century Rise of the Ottoman Muslim dynasty in Turkey.
1333 Casimir the Great takes power in Poland and brings with him a sympathetic attitude toward the Jews, who benfit as a result.
September 30, 1338 The Deggendorf Massacre. Residents of Deggendorf, Germany, burned the homes of and massacred the town’s approximately 50 Jews.
1348 Black Death reaches Europe and Jews are accused of poisoning Christian wells.
1336-1405 Timurlane/Tamurlane, Turkic ruler in central Asia.
1360 King Pedro of Portugal arrests and tortures to death Samuel Ben Meir Abulafia. No charges were ever given and the King confiscated Abulafia’s lands and great wealth.
1400 Damascus sacked by Timurlane.
1424 Jewish physician, Y’en Ch’eng is given the surname “Chao” as an honor by the Emperor. This family, which probably originated in India and Babylon, became on of the leading Chinese Jewish families.
1437-1509 Philosopher, financier and scholar, Don Isaac Abarbanel intercedes many times on behalf of his fellow Jews, including trying to stop Ferdinand from expelling them. This time he was foiled by Torquemada and he followed them into exile. His commentaries cover the major and minor Prophets. Consistent with his belief that the Messiah would come in his lifetime, he also wrote three messianic texts called Migdal Yeshu’ot (Tower of Salvation).
1452-1454/55 Gutenberg prints Europe’s first book with movable type.
1447 Following a fire in Posen where the original charter (written by Casimir the Great) granted the Jews “privileges,” Casimir IV renews all their rights and makes his charter one of the most liberal in Europe. This charter lasted less than a decade before it was revoked.
1452-1515 Astronomer and historian, Abraham Zacuto creates tables used by Columbus. After the explusion of 1492, Zacuto went to Portugal where he developed the metal Astrolab used by Vasco Da Gama. In 1498 he was forced to flee or convert. He left and reached Tunis where he wrote a history of the Jews from creation until the sixteenth century.
1453 Fall of Constantinople (Istanbul) to Ottoman Muslims.
1454 Casimir IV of Poland revokes the Jewish charter, at the insistence of Bishop Zbignev. The Bishop had correctly predicted Casimir’s defeat by the Teutonic Knights backed by the Pope, and succeeded in convincing the King that it was due to the Jews.
1463 Pope Nicholas V authorized the establishment of the Inquisition to investigate heresy among the Marranos.
1479-15 Isabella’s severe anti-Jewish learnings influence Ferdinand and lead to the final expulsion of the Jews from Spain.
1486 First prayer book published in SoncinoItaly.
1488 The first complete edition of the Hebrew Bible is printed in SoncinoItaly.
1492 Christian expulsion of Muslim Moors from Spain.
1492 Columbus sets sail.
1492 Christian expulsion of Jews from Spain, sending over 200,000 Jews fleeing: 137,000 Jews forced to leave Sicily.
1494 Polish King Jan Olbracht’s orders Jews to leave to leave Crakow for Kazimierz after they are blamed for a large fire that destroyed part of the city.
1496 Manuel of Portugal expels Jews from Portugal.
1516 The closed Jewish Quarter in VeniceItaly, is dubbed the Geto Nuovo (New Foundry). “Geto” will later become the basis for the word “ghetto”.
1516 The Ottoman’s fight the Mamluks out of Gaza, Gaza is ruled for the next 100 years by the Ridwan family.
1505-1584 Kabbalist and author of “Lecha Dodi” (Come My Beloved), Solomon ben Moses Alkabetz.

Christian Reformation Period
(1517-1569 CE)

1510 38 Jews were burned at the stake in Berlin.
1516 Jews in Venice are relegated to a ghetto, the most extreme segregation to which Jews had been submitted. Over time, Jews in many lands are similarly segregated.
1483-1546 Martin Luther.
1517 Luther posts “95 theses” in Wittenburg, Germany
1520-1579 Cracow Rosh Yeshiva whose major work was an adaptation of Caro’s Shulchan Aruch to Europoean Jewry, Moses Isserles.
1525-1609 Brilliant Talmudist, mathematician and astronomer, popular with Emperor Randolh II. Judah Loew Ben Bezalel, the Maharal of Prague also created the Golem, a man from clay who protected the Jewish community.
1534 First Yiddish book published in CracowPoland.
1534-1572 Talmud and Kabbalah scholar, Isaac Ben Solomon Luria, given the name “The Ari” (The Lion).
1543 Luther writes “About the Jews and Their Lies,” considered the first modern anti-Semitic tract.
ca. 1500-1650 Protestant Christian Reformation.
1509-1564 John Calvin.
1516 Jewish ghetto instituted in Venice.
1526 The Prague Haggadah, which contains the oldest known printed Yiddush poem, is published.
November 22, 1547 Jews in the small community of Asolo, Italy were victims of a massacre, leaving 10 of the 37 Jewish residents dead.
1547 Ivan the Terrible becomes ruler of Russia and refuses to allow Jews to live in his kingdon.
1555 Jewish ghetto instituted in Rome.
1559 Pope Paul IV allows the first printing of the Zohar, a Jewish mystical text.
1567/1571 Shulhan Arukh (code of Jewish law by Joseph Caro).published.
1569 Isaac Luria writes the Kabbalist in Safed. Luria’s ideas give rise to a new form of Jewish mysticism.

Dominance of Ottoman Muslim Empire
(1500-1920 CE)

1517 Victory of (Muslim Ottoman Turk) Selim I over Egypt.
Ottoman Muslim rulers (later) claim the title “caliph”.
1520-1566 Sulayman I, “the Magnificent,” rules.
ca. 1500-1800 Dominance of Safavid Shiite Muslim dynasty in Iran.
ca. 1500-1800 Dominance of Mughal Muslim dynasty in India.
1550-1619 Rabbi, preacher and biblical commentator known for his brilliant sermons calling for self improvement, Ephraim Solomon of Lunshits.
1550 Dr. Jospeh Hacohen was chased out of Genoa for practicing medicine, and soon after, all the Jews were expelled.
1553 Under the direction of Cardinal Caraffa, later Pope Paul IV, the Talmud was confiscated and publicaly burned in Rome on Rosh Hashanah, starting a wave of Talmud burning throughout Italy.
1554 Cornelio da Montalcino, a Franciscan Friar who converted to Judaism, is burned alive in Rome.
1555 In his Bull Cum Nimis Absurdum, Pope Paul IV renewed all anti-Jewish legislation and installed a ghetto in Rome. The Bull also forced Jews to wear a special cap, forbade them from owning real estate or practicing medicine on Christians. It also limited Jewish communities to only one synagogue.
1555-1631 Talmudic commentator, author of Chidushei Halachot, Samuel Eliezer Aidles, also known as “Maharsha.” .
1558 In Recanti, Italy, under the protection of Pope Paul IV, Joseph Paul More, a baptized Jew, entered a synagogue on Yom Kippur, the Day of Atonement, and tried to preach a conversion sermon. The congregation evicted him and a near massacre occured. Soon after, the Jews were expelled from Recanti.
1585 First known Jew to step on American soil, Joachim Gaunse (Ganz), lands on Roanoke Island.
1596-1650 Rene Descartes (scholar-philosopher): .
1564 In Brest Litovsk, the son of a wealthy Jewish tax collector, is accused of killing the family’s Christian servant for ritual purposes. He is tortured and killed.
1566 Three months into his reign, Pope Pius V rejects Pope Pius IV leniency towards Jews and reinstates the restrictions of Pope Paul IV which forced Jews to wear a special cap, forbade them from owning real estate or practicing medicine on Christians. It also limited Jewish communities to only one synagogue.
1569 Brest Litovsk welcomes Jewish settlement. In 80 years the Jewish population surges from 4,000 to more than 50,000.
1586 Pope Sixtus V rejects Pope Gregory XIII policies and forbids Jews from living in the Papal states and to print the Talmud.
1587-1643 The leading Jewish composer of the late Italian Renaissance and the musical director of court of Mantua, Salamone de Rossi.
1588 England defeats the Spanish Armada, weakening Spain and decreasing the reach of the Inquisition, espcially in the Netherlands.
1590 Built of wood, the entire Jewish quarter of Posen burned while then gentile population watched and pillaged. 15 people died and 80 Torah scrolls were burned.
1591 Rabbi, encyclopedist, physician and pupil of Galileo, Jose Solomon Delmedigo wrote over 30 works in math, geometry, chemistry, mechanics, philosophy and medicine.
1592 Esther Chiera, who held considerable influence in Sultan Murad III’s court, was executed because of jealousy and the Sultan’s desire for her assets.
1593 Pope Clement VIII expelled Jews from all Papal states except Rome and Ancona.
1596 Official Yom Kippur services are held for the first time in Amsterdam, though not without controversy.
1603 Frei Diogo Da Assumpacao, a partly Jewish friar who embraced Judaism, was burned alive in Lisbon. His arguments against Christianity were published and gained wide popularity.
1605 A Jesuit missionary in China meets with Al T’Ien, a Chinese Jewish teacher. Thier correspondence is the basis for most known information regarding the Kaifeng Jewish community.
1605-1657 Menasseh ben Israel (Jewish scholar-mystic).
1612 The Hamburg Senate decides to officially allow Jews to live in the city on the condition there is no public worship.
1614 Vincent Fettmilch, who called himself the “new Haman of the Jews,” led a raid on a Frankfurt synagogue that turned into an attack which destroyed the whole community.
1615 King Louis XIII of France decreed that all Jews must leave the country within one month on pain of death.
1615 The Guild, led by Dr. Chemnitz, “non-violently” forced the Jews from Worms.
1616 The Bishop of Speyer, with the backing of Frederick’s troops, readmitted the Jews to Worms.
February 28, 1616 Vincenz Fettmilch, the leader of a popular uprising targetting Jews in Frankfurt, Germany, is executed along with six of his companions.
1616 Holland’s Prince Maurice of Orange allowed each each city to decide for itself whether to admit Jews. In the towns where Jews were admitted, they would not be required to wear a badge of any sort identifying them as Jews.
1616 Jesuits arrives in Grodno, Poland and accused the Jews of blood orgies and host desecrations.
1618-1638 Thity Years War between Catholics and Protestants centers around GermanyAustriaFrance and the Netherlands.
1619 Shah Abbasi of the Persian Sufi Dynasty increased persecution against the Jews forcing many to outwardly practice Islam. (Many secretly practiced Judaism.).
1620 Christian Puritans begin emigrations to America.
1621 Sir Henry Finch, legal advisor to King James I, makes the first English call to restore the Jews to their homeland in his treatise The World’s Great Restoration or Calling of the Jews.
1621-1663 Well-known commentator of the Shulchan Aruch and author of several other works, Shabbetai Ben Meir Hacohen.
1622-1629 Persian Jews are forced to convert to Islam.
1623-1662 Blaise Pascal (scholar).
1625 The Jews of Vienna were forced to move into a ghetto called Leopoldstadt.
1625 Pope Urban VIII forbids Roman Jews to erect gravestones.
1626-1676 Shabbatai Zvi (Jewish “messianic” leader).
1630-1703 Financier and founder of the Viennese Jewish community, Samuel Oppenheimer.
1632 Miguel and Isabel Rodreguese and five others were burned alive in front of the King and Queen of Spain after being discovered holding Jewish rites.
1632-1677 Baruch/Benedict Spinoza (scholar, converted Jew).
1636 Rhode Island grants religious liberty to Jews.
1639 More than 80 New Christians (Jews who converted to Christianity) were burned at the stake after the Inquisition caught them holding regular Jewish services in Lima, Peru.
1641-1718 Shabbtai Ben Joseph the Bass, Author of Seftai Yesharim, the first bibliography of Hebrew books and biblical commentator. He also built a printing house in 1689, despite being jailed several times, accused of printing anti-Christian material. The printing house lasted more than 150 years.
1642 The first Jewish colony in the New World is established in Recife, Brazil.
1642 Chao Ying-Cheng helped rebuild the synagogue in Kai Fen after the Yellow River flooded the area. He also served in the goverrnment and helped build schools and squashed marauding bandits.
1648 Bogdan Chmelnitzki massacres 100,000 Jews in Poland.
1648 The Treaty of Westphalia brings victory to the Protestants.
1649 In the largest Auto de Fe ever held in the New World, 109 crypto-Jews were accused of Judaizing, several were burned alive.
1649 John Casimir, upon ascending the Polish throne, negotiates a truce with Cosack leader and murderer of thousands of Jews, Bogdan Chmelnitzki.
1654 Arrival of 23 Jews from Brazil in New Amsterdam (New York, America).
1655 Dutch West India Company allows Jewish settlers to reside permanently in New Amsterdam.
1655 Jews readmitted to England by Oliver Cromwell.
1657 The first Jews gain the rights of citizens in America.
1670 Jews expelled from Vienna.

Jewish Contemporary Period
(1700-1917 CE)

1700-1760 Israel Baal Shem Tov (founder of Jewish Hasidism).
1700 Jewish population in America numbers approximately 250.
1703-1758 Jonathan Edwards (American Christian preacher).
1703-1791 and 1707-1788 John and Charles Wesley (Christian).
1712 First public Jewish synagogue in Berlin.
1724 Death of Samson Wertheimer
1730 Jews build first North American synagogue in Lower Manhattan, Shearith Israel.
1740 England grants naturalization rights to Jews in the colonies.
ca. 1750 Wahhabi “fundamentalist” movement arises in Islam.
1753 Parliament extends naturalization rights to Jews resident in England.
1761 First English prayer book for High Holidays is published in New York.
1763 The Jews of Newport, Rhode Island, dedicate a Sephardic synagogue, designed by leading Rhode Islandarchitect Peter Harrison.
July 17, 1764 Poland’s Parliament centralizes power and aboloshes the Council of the Four Lands, a semi-autonomous Jewish governing body.
1768-1828 “Father of Reform [Judaism],” Israel Jacobson.
1775 Pius VI issues Editto sopra gli ebrei, “Edict over the Hebrew,” suppressing the Jewish religion.
1775 Frances Salomon elected to South Carolina Provisional Congress; the first Jew to hold elected office in America.
1776 United States Declaration of Independence.
1775-1854 America merchant and philanthropist Judah Touro, funded first New Orleans synagogue.
1729-1786 Moses Mendelssohn (Jewish “enlightenment” scholar).
1762 Although usually considered more liberal than other states, Rhode Island refuses to grant Jews Aaron Lopez and Isaac Eliezer citizenship stating “no person who is not of the Christian religion can be admitted free to this colony.”
1765 Portugal holds the last public Auto de Fe “Act of Faith,” a ceremony where the Inquisition announces its punishments, usually a death sentence of burning at the stake.
1769-1821 Napoleon (France).
1775-1781 American Revolution; religious freedom guaranteed.
1781 Joseph II of Austria recinds the 513-year old law requiring Jews to wear distinctive badges.
1781 Haym Solomon, a Polish Jew who arrived in New York in 1772, helps raise funds to finance the American cause in the Revolutionary War.
1781-1869 American philanthropist Rebecca Gratz.
1782 Austrian Emperor Joseph II issued his edict of tolerance, allowing Jews to practice their religion freely.
1783 The Sultan of Morocco expells the Jews for the third time in recent years after they failed to pay an exorbitant ransom.
1785-1851 Zionist author, journalist and and diplomat, Mordechai Manuel Noah.
1788 Ratification of the U.S. Constitution means Jews may hold any federal office.
1789 French Revolution.
1784-1885 Leading Jewish philanthropist, Sir Moses Montefiore, createed numerous agricultural settlements in Eretz Israel.
1789 Gershom Mendes Seixas, minister of New York’s Jewish congregation, is invited to Washington’s inaugural.
1790 Jews of Newport, Rhode Island welcome President George Washington. George Washington writes letter to Jewish community proclaiming religious liberty.
September 27, 1791 French Jews granted full citizenship for the first time since the Roman Empire.
1791 Tsarist Russia confines Jews to Pale of Settlement, between the Black and Baltic Seas.
1795 First American Ashkenazi synagogue, Rodeph Shalom, is established in Philadelphia.
1796 The Netherlands grants citizenship to Jews.
1798 Napoleon, battle of the Pyramids in Islamic Egypt.
1799 Napoleon’s army moves from Egypt, capturing Gaza and Haifa and gets as far north as Akko which is successfully defended by the British.
1801-1804 Muslim Wahhabis capture Mecca & Medina, raid Karbala.
1801 The first American Jewish orphan care society established in Charleston, South Carolina.
1804-1881 English Statesman Benjamin Disraeli.
1808 Polonies Talmud Torah, the first Jewish school on record in the United States established in New York.
1811-1884 “Brains of the Confederacy,” Judah P. Benjamin.
March 11, 1812 Prussia’s Edict of Emancipation grants citizenship to Jews.
1812-1875 Moses Hess, author, socialist and Zionist.
1813 President Madison appoints Mordechai Noah as consul to Tunis and then rescinds the appointment when the Tunisians object to dealing with a Jew.
1814 King Ferdinand VII of Portugal reestablishes the Inquisition six years after it was abolished by Joseph Boneparte
March 29, 1814 Denmark grants citizenship to Jews.
1818-1883 Although born a Jew, he converted to Protestantism and later became the father of Communism, Karl Marx.
mid-19th century Rise of the Jewish Reform movement in Europe (Abraham Geiger.)
1819 Rebecca Gratz establishes the first independent Jewish women’s charitable society in Philadelphia.
1819-1900 Head of the American Reform movement and founder of Hebrew Union College and the Union of American Hebrew Congregations, Isaac Mayer Wise.
1820 (ended in 1834) A royal decree officially abolished the Spanish Inquisition.
1821-1891 Well-known physician and early Zionist, Leon Pinsker.
1823 The Monroe Doctrine closes the American continent to foreign colonization.
1823 The first American Jewish periodical, The Jew, published in New York.
1824 Society of Reformed Israelites is established in Charleston.
1825 Mordechai Emmanual Lassalle led a failed movement to colonize New York’s Grand Island for Jewish refugees.
1826 In the last known Auto Da Fe, in Valencia, Spain, a poor school master was executed for adhering to Judaism.
1827 Reinterpretation of Russia’s Conscription Law mandates 31 years of military service for Jews, beginning at age 12.
1830 French occupation of Muslim Algiers.
1830 German Jews begin to immigrate to America in substantial numbers.
November 30, 1830 Greece grants citizenship to Jews.
1830-1903 Jewish Impressionist painter, whose works focused on the streets of Paris and landscapes, Camille Pissarro.
1831 Louis Philippe of France grants state support to synagogues.
1831 Belgium grants citizenship to Jews.
1831 Although Jews had been living in Jamaica since 1655, they are finally given the right to vote.
1831-1896 Banker and philanthropist, who donated millions of dollars to Jewish organizations and attempted to resettle Eastern European and Russian Jews by estabishing the Jewish Colonial Association (JCA), Baron De Hirsch.
1832 Canada grants Jews political rights.
1833 The first book by an American Jewish woman, Penina Moise’s Fancy’s Sketch Book, published in South Carolina.
1837 An earthquake in Tzfat and Tiberias kills four thousand people and damages monuments and archeological sites.
1837 First Passover Haggadah printed in America.
1838 Rebecca Gratz establishes Hebrew Sunday School in Philadelphia.
1840 Jews are accused of murdering a Franciscan friar in the Damascus blood libel.
1840 First organized movement by American Jewry to protest false accusations of blood libel in Damascus, Syria.
1840 The first Hebrew printing press in India is established.
1840s The use of the word “Jew” as a verb comes into popular parlance in North America. “To Jew” means to strike a bargain or employ questionable business practices, according to this prejudicial usage.
1841 David Levy Yulee of Florida elected to the United States Senate, the first Jew in Congress.
1843 B’nai B’rith is organized, the first secular Jewish organization in the United States.
1844 Lewis Charles Levin was the first Jew elected to the U.S. House of Representatives.
1845 Isaac Leeser publishes his translation of the Pentateuch from the Hebrew into English.
1845-1934 Zionist leader Baron Edmond James de Rothschild.
1847 London elects its first Jewish member of Parliament, Baron Lionel Nathan Rothschild. However, he cannot be seated as a member of Parliament because he will not swear the oath of office, which affirms Christianity as the true faith.
1847-1915 Author, scholar and leader of the American Conservative movement, Solomon Schechter.
1848 In every part of Germany, excluding Bavaria, Jews had been granted granted civil rights, allowing Gabriel Riesser, a Jewish advocate, to be elected vice-president of the Frankfurt Vor Parliament and to become a member of the National Assembly. The civil rights, however, existed on paper only and were not enforced.
1849-1887 American poet whose “New Colossus” was inscribed on the Statue of Liberty: Emma Lazerus.
1852 Mount Sinai, the first Jewish Hospital in the United States is founded by a group of mostly German Jewish immigrants.
September 1, 1852 An anti-Jewish riot erupts in Stockholm, Sweden.
1852 The Ghetto of Prague is officially abolished.
1852-1870 Reign of Napoleon III of France.
1853 Isaac Leeser publishes his translation of the Bible into English, the first complete Anglo-Jewish translation of the Pentateuch.
1855 First acknowledged non-Muslim visitor permitted to enter Temple Mount since 1187 CE.
1856 Sabato Morais, rabbi of Congregation Mikveh Israel in Philadelphia, denounces the evils of American slavery from his pulpit.
1858 Edgar Mortara, an Italian Jewish child, is abducted by Papal Guards and placed in a monastery.
1859-1916 “Yiddish Mark Twain,” famed novelist, Shalom Alechem Rabinowitz.
1859-1941 (Reign 1888-1918) Kaiser William II of Germany.
1860 First neighborhood, Mishkenot Sha’ananim, built outside Jerusalem’s walls.
1860 Frenchman Adolohe Cremieux launches the Alliance Israelite Universelle to defend Jewish rights and establish worldwide Jewish educational facilities.
1860-1904 Father of Zionism, Theodore Herzl.
1860-1911 Major modern Jewish composer of nine symphonies, Gustav Mahler.
1860-1945 Henrietta Szold, founder of Hadassah, the Amerian Woman’s Zionist Organization.
1860 Morris Raphall is the first rabbi to offer prayers at the opening session of Congress.
1861 Norway allows Jews to enter the country.
1861 Judah Benjamin becomes attorney general of the Confederacy, the first Jew to hold a cabinet-level office in any American government.
1861-1865 1,200 Jews fought for the Confederacy and 6,000 for the Union, including nine generals and 21 colonels in the American Civil War.
1861-1936 Essayist and publicist who headed the Jewish and Zionist Organization during the 1930s, was editor of He-Tsefriah and published a history of Zionism, Nahum Sokolow.
1862 Moses Hess writes Rome and Jerusalem.
1862 General Ulysses S. Grant expels Jewish civilians issues General Order No. 11 expelling the Jews “as a class” from the area under the jurisdiction of the Union army in his military department.
1862 Jacob Frankel is appointed first Jewish chaplain in the United States Army.
1864 Leon Pinsker writes Autoemancipation and argues for creation of a Jewish state.
1866 Jews become a majority in Jerusalem.
1866 Switzerland, a hotbed of anti-Jewish edicts grants Jews equal rights only after threats by the United States, France and Britain.
1867 First rabbinical school in America, Maimonides College, is founded in Philadelphia.
1867 The original Ku Klux Klan is organized to maintain “white supremacy”.
1867 Hungary passes legislation emancipating the Jews.
1867 German journalist Wilhelm Marr publishes a popular book, The Victory of Judaism over Germanism. He coins the word “antisemitism” so that Judenhass, or Jew-hatred, can be discussed in polite society.
1868 Benjamin Disraeli becomes prime minister of Great Britain — and the first prime minister of Jewish descent in Europe.
1869 Suez Canal opens.
1869 Italy grants emancipation to Jews.
1870 Sweden grants citizenship to Jews.
1870 Ghettos abolished in Italy.
1870 The Edict of Pope Nicholas III which required compulsory attendance of Jews at conversion sermons since 1278 is abolished.
1871 First Yiddish and Hebrew newspaper in America is published.
1871 The the first American kosher cookbook, Jewish Cookery Book, by Esther Jacobs Levy is published.
1871 Great Britain grants full emancipation to Jews.
January 12, 1871 A new German constitution gives German Jews full legal equality.
1873 Reform Judaism in U.S. establishes Union of American Hebrew Congregations.
1873-1934 Poet laureate of the Jewish national movement, authored “In City of Slaughter,” “El Ha Tsippor-To the Bird” and “Metai Midbar-Dead of the Desert, Hayim Nahman Bialik.
1873-1956 Leading theologian of the Reform movement, refused to escape Nazi Germany and spent five years in Terezin (Theresienstadt) concentration campLeo Baeck.
1874 Jews in Switzerland receive full rights of citizenship under the new constitution.
1874-1926 Eric Weiss, better known as Harry Houdini, the master escape artist, was born into an orthodox home.
19th-20th centuries Young Men’s Hebrew Associations in New York and Philadelphia become prototypes for the more than 120 YMHAs established throughout the US in the next 15 years. In the 20th century, many of these evolve into Jewish Community Centers.
1874-1952 Statesman and scientist Chaim Weizmann.
1875 Isaac Mayer Wise founds Hebrew Union College, the rabbinical seminary of the Reform movement, in Cincinnati.
1877 New Hampshire becomes the last state to offer Jews political equality.
1878 Petah Tikvah (Gate of Hope) founded as agricultural colony by orthodox Jews. Although it was abandoned in 1881 after Arab attacks, it was reestablished in 1883 after the First Aliyah.
1878 The antisemitic German Christian Social Party is founded by Adolf Stoecker, a court chaplain. The party demands that Jews convert to Christianity.
December 22, 1878 Birthdate of Myer Prinstein, a world-record setting, Olympic gold medal winning Jew from Poland.
1879-1955 Zionist, physicist, Nobel Prize winner and discoverer of the special and general theory of relativity Albert Einstein.
March 28, 1880 Birthdate of Jewish actor Louis Wolheim.
May 1, 1880 Albert Lasker, the “father of modern advertising,” is born in Freiburg, Prussia.
1880-1920 Zionist leader Joseph Trumpeldor.
1880-1939 Zionist leader, founder of the New Zionist Organization, HaganahJewish LegionIrgunBetarRevisionist PartyVladimir Jabotinsky.
1881 Ottoman government announces permission for foreign (non-Ottoman) Jews to settle throughout Ottoman Empire.
1881 Start of mass migrations of eastern European Jews.
1881 French occupation of Muslim Tunisia.
1881 Samuel Gompers founds the Federation of Unions, the forerunner of the American Federation of Labor.
1881 May Laws restricting the movements and conduct of Jews are enacted in Russia.
1881 The word “pogrom” enters the English language, as Russian mobs begin a series of violent attacks against Jews and their property.
1882 British occupation of Muslim Egypt.
1882 First halutz (pioneering) movement, Bilu, founded in Kharkov Russia.
1882 Ottoman government adopts policy to allow Jewish pilgrims and business-people to visit Palestine, but not settle.
1882 Hibbat Tzion societies founded.
November 15, 1882 Associate Supreme Court Justice Felix Frankfurter is born.
1884 First Conference of Hovevei Zion Movement.
1884 Ottoman government closes Palestine to foreign (non-Ottoman) Jewish business, but not to Jewish pilgrims.
1885 Reform Jewish Pittsburgh Platform.
1885-1962 Scientist who developed the theory on the nature of the atom, rescued from Nazi GermanyNeils Bohr.
1885 Sir Nathaniel Meyer Rothschild becomes the first Jew in England’s in the House of Lords. The Christian oath was amended so that non-Christians could also serve in the House of Lords.
1886-1929 Philosopher, author, helped create the Free Jewish House of Study in Frankfurt, Franz Rosenweig.
1886 Etz Chaim, the first yeshiva for Talmudic studies in the United States, established in New York.
1886-1973 Statesman David Ben-Gurion.
March 24, 1887 Oscar Straus is named the U.S. Minister to the Ottoman Empire, the second Jew in U.S. history to reach a position of that caliber.
1887 Jewish Theological Seminary opens in New York and, later, becomes the intellectual center of the Conservativemovement.
1887-1990 Famous artist Marc Chagall.
1888 Jewish Publication Society of America is founded to publish English books of Jewish interest.
1888 European powers press Ottoman government to allow foreign (non-Ottoman) Jews to settle in Palestine provided they do not do so en masse.
1888-1970 Hebrew novelist and Nobel prize winner, Samuel Joseph Agnon.
1889 The Educational Alliance founded on the Lower East Side to assist Eastern European immigrants.
April 20, 1889 Adolf Hitler is born in Braunau am Inn, Austria.
October 2, 1890 Jewish comedian Groucho Marx is born. Along with his brothers he formed the group “the Marx Brothers”, and performed in vaudeville stage acts. The brothers were also pioneers of modern cinema and television.
February 10, 1890 Boris Pasternak, the man who would win the Nobel Prize in literature for his novel Dr. Zhivago, is born. .
1891 Grand Duke Segai orders the expulsion of 14,00 Jewish families living in Moscow. Those who refuse to convert or become prostitutes are sent to the Pale of Settlement.
1891 Christian Zionist William E. Blackstone and 413 prominent Americans petition President Benjamin Harrison to support resettlement of Russian Jews in Palestine.
1891 Baron de Hirsh donates 2 million pounds and establishes the Jewish Colonial Association in order to resettle 3 million Russian Jews in agricultural areas in other countries.
1892 Workmen’s Circle established to promote Yiddishist and socialist ideas among the masses of Jewish laborers.
1892 American Jewish Historical Society established.
1892 Ottoman government forbids sale of state land to foreign (non-Ottoman) Jews in Palestine.
1893 National Council of Jewish Women founded in Chicago.
1893 Kosher ritual slaughter banned in Switzerland.
1894 French general staff officer Alfred Dreyfus is sentenced to life on Devil’s Island in the Dreyfus Affair.
1894 Sholem Aleichem begins writing the first episode of the life of Tevye the Dairyman.
1894-1917 Last Russian Czar, commissioned what became the anti-Semitic “Protocols of the Elders of Zion,” Nicholas II.
1894-1943 Artist known for his passionate and often disturbing use of color and form, Chaim Soutine (Smiliouchi).
1895 Lillian Wald founds Henry Street Settlement.
1896 Theodor Herzl publishes Der JudenstaatThe Jewish State (Zionism): .
August 29, 1897 First Jewish Zionist congress convened by Theodor Herzl in Basle, Switzerland, Zionist Organization Founded.
1897 Yiddish Socialist Labor party (the Bund) is founded in Russia.
1897 Abraham Cahan founds leading Yiddish newspaper, Jewish Daily Forward in New York.
1897 The Rabbi Isaac Elchanan Theological Seminary (RIETS), later part of Yeshiva University, begins training Orthodox rabbis.
February 23, 1898 Emile Zola is convicted of libel for defending Dreyfus.
1898 Eastern European immigrants organize a Union of Orthodox Congregations, whose viewpoint clashes with that of the Reform movement’s Union of American Hebrew Congregations (UAHC).
1898-1936 Perhaps the greatest composer of the 20th century, whose works include “Rhapsody in Blue,” George Gershwin.
1898-1978 Fourth Prime Minister of Israel, Golda Meir.
1898 Acting on behalf of Col. Dreyfus, Emile Zola publishes J’Accuse.
1898 A section of the Old City Wall is removed to facilitate the entrance of Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany and his entourage on his visit to Jerusalem.
1899-1902 The term “concentration camp” is coined by the British during the Boer War to denote holding areas for potentially threatening Afrikaners (descendents of Dutch who immigrated to South Africa in the mid-1800s).
1899 Emile Zola wins a new trial for Alfred Dreyfus, and despite new charges, Dreyfus is aquitted and promoted to Major.
1899 Theodor Herzl establishes the Jewish Colonial Trust, the financial arm of the Zionist movement.
1900-1990 American composer and conductor best known for “Appalachian Spring,” “Billy the Kid” and “Rodeo,” Aaron Copland.
early 20th century Founding of the Modern Jewish Orthodox movement.
1901 The Industrial Removal Office, organized by several Jewish organizations, relocate Jewish immigrants from the Lower East Side to communities across the United States.
1901 The Fifth Zionist Congress decides to establish Keren Kayemet LeIsrael (KKL) – The Jewish National Fund.
1902 Theodor Herzl publishes a romantic utopian novel, AltneulandOld-New Land, a vision of the Jewish State.
1902 Russian Jews organize U.S.-based Hebrew Immigrant Aid Society to serve as counselors, interpreters, attorneys, etc.
1902-1979 Composer and partner of Oscar Hammerstein II (1895-1960), known for “Oklahoma!” and” South Pacific,” Richard Rogers.
1902 Solomon Schechter comes from England to America to head the Jewish Theological Seminary of America, Conservative Judaism’s rabbinical seminary.
1903 British Government proposes “Uganda Scheme,” rejected by the Sixth Zionist Congress.
1903 Kishinev massacre increases Jewish exodus from Russia.
1903 Oscar Straus is appointed Secretary of Commerce and Labor by President Roosevelt, the first Jew to serve in the U.S. Cabinet.
August 26, 1903 Herzl proposes Kenya as a safe haven for Jews.
1903-1907 500,000 Jews flee Russia, 90% go to the United States.
1904-1914 Second Aliyah, mainly from Russia and Poland.
1905 Gimnazia Herzilia, the first Hebrew high school, opens in Tel Aviv.
1905 Zionist Labor Party (Poale Zion) formed in Minsk in an effort to combine Zionism and Socialism.
1906 American Jewish Committee is founded to safeguard Jewish rights internationally.
early 20th century Sholem Aleichem comes to New York from Russia to write for the American Yiddish theater. The musical Fiddler on the Roof is based on his story Tevye’s Daughters.
1906 First Hebrew high school founded in Jaffa and Bezalel school founded in Jerusalem.
1907 Physicist Albert A. Michelson is first American Jew to win Nobel Prize.
1907 Adolf Hitler is rejected for study at the Vienna Academy of Art.
1908 Discovery of oil in Persia; leads to Anglo-Persian (later British Petroleum).
1908 Revolution by “young Turks” depose Sultan Abdul Hamid the Damned under Ottoman.
1908 Turkey grants Jews political rights.
1908 Hijaz Railway from Damascus to Medina.
1909 Julius Rosenwald, American merchant and philanthropist, converts Sears, Roebuck and Co. into the largest mail-order house in the world.
1908-1914 Second Yemenite Aliyah.
1909 First kibbutz, Degania, founded.
1909 Founding of Tel Aviv as Hebrew speaking Jewish city.
1909 Hashomer, the first Jewish self-defense organization is founded to replace Arab guards protecting Jewish settlements.
1911-1913 Russian neurologist Sikowsy testifies thet Jews use Christian blood for ritual purposes in the Beilis Trial (Russia).
1911-1986 Hall of Fame baseball player Hank Greenberg.
1911 A tragic fire in the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory in New York’s Lower East Side kills 146 women, mostly Jews.
1911 Palestinan journalist Najib Nasser publishes first book in Arabic on Zionism entitled, “Zionism: Its History, Objectives and Importance.” Palestinian newspaper Filastin begins addressing its readers as “Palestinians” and warns them about Zionism.
1913 In Russia, Menahem Mendel Beilis, a Jew, is put on trial for the ritual murder of a Christian boy. After two years followed by a “show trial,” Beilis is acquitted.
1912 United States abrogates treaty of 1832 with Russia because of Russia’s refusal to honor passports of Jewish Americans.
1912 Henrietta Szold founds Hadassah, the Women’s Zionist Organization.
1912 Haifa’s Technion is founded.
1912 Agudah (Agudat Israel) formed as the World Organization of Orthodox Jewry at Katowitz.
1912 12 of the 100 members of the Reichstag (German parliament) are Jewish.
1913 Trial of Leo Frank in Atlanta leads to the founding of the Anti-Defamation League of B’nai B’rith.
1913 Solomon Schechter, president of the Jewish Theological Seminary, founds the United Synagogue of America (later the United Synagogue of Conservative Judaism).
1913 First Arab Nationalist Congress meets in Paris.
1913-1993 Commander of the Etzel, statesman and Israeli prime minister, Menachem Begin.
1914 Joint Distribution Committee of American Funds for the Relief of Jewish War Sufferers is established.
1914-1919 World War I.
1914 Austrian Archduke Francis Ferdinand assassinated in Sarajevo prompting World War One.
1914 During First World War, Russian forces in retreat drive 600,000 Jews from their homes.
1914 American Jewish Relief Committee established to distribute funds to needy Jews; it later combined with other Jewish relief organizations to become the Joint Distribution Committee.
1914 The Ottoman empire enters the war on the side of Germany.
1915 Moses Alexander elected Governor of Idaho – the first Jew to win the governorship of an American state.
1915 MacMahon-Hussein correspondence.
1915 Zion Mule Corps established by Yosef Trumpeldor in British army.
1915 Avshalom Feinburg and Aaron Aaronsohn form NILI (Netzah Israel Lo Yeshaker), recruited to spy on the Turks for the British.
1915 The Anti-Defamation League (ADL) is created in the wake of the Leo Frank Affair.
1915-1981 Moshe Dayan, Haganah fighter, Israeli minister of Defense.
1915 Leo Frank, a southern American Jew falsely convicted of murdering a 14 year-old girl is hung by a lynch mob.
October 30, 1915 Jewish television news pioneer Ferdinand “Fred” Friendly Wachenheimer is born.
1915-2005 Arthur Miller, American playwright whose works include, “Death of a Salesman,” The Crucible” and “A View From the Bridge.” .
January 28, 1916 Louis D. Brandeis is nominated to the Supreme Court by Woodrow Wilson. At the time of his nomination, the Senate had never before held a public hearing on a President’s Supreme Court Nominee; they had all been confirmed on the day of their nomination. However, it took four months of Senate Judiciary Committee hearings until the Senate brought the nomination of Brandeis to a vote. Brandeis was confirmed as the first Jewish Supreme Court Justice in a Senate vote of 47 – 22 on June 1, 1916.
1916 Sykes-Picot Agreement divides Middle East into spheres of British and French influence.
1916 Start of Arab revolt against Ottoman Turkish rule.
1916 Louis Dembitz Brandeis is first Jew appointed to the Supreme Court.
1916 Germany accuses Jews of evading active service in WWI, despite 100,000 Jews serving, 12% higher than their population ratio.
1917 British capture Baghdad.
1917 Jewish Telegraphic Agency is founded.
1917 Four-hundred years of Ottoman rule ended by British conquest.
1917 The Balfour Declaration favors Jewish Palestinian State.
1917 As WWI comes closer to Tel-Aviv and Jaffa, the Turkish Governer of Jaffa orders all Jews to leave Tel-Aviv and Jaffa.
1917 Jews granted full rights in Russia.
1917 Russian Revolution breaks out, heavy fighting in the South and West, where over 3 million Jews live. Over 2000 pogroms took place, claiming the lives of up to 200,000 Jews in the next three years.
1917 The United States declared war on Germany. Appoximately 250,000 Jewish soldiers (20% of whom were volunteers) served in the U.S. Army, roughy 5.7% while Jews only made up 3.25% of the general American population.
1917 The Jewish Welfare Board is created and serves the social and religious requirements of Jewish soldiers; expands after the war.
1917 355,000 people chose representatives for the first American Jewish Congress.
1917 Over 2,700 men volunteer for the new Jewish Legion of the British Army which fought in Transjordan, among other places.
1917 Vladamir Ilyich Lenin and Leon Trotsky ousted Kerensky and took over the Russian government.
1917 Surrender of Ottoman forces in Jerusalem to Allied Forces under General Sir Edmund Allenby.
1917 British forces land on the beaches of Gaza during WW1.

Unrest & Realignment in the Middle East
(1914-1918 CE)

1916 Sykes-Picot Agreement divides Middle East into spheres of British and French influence.
1916 Start of Arab revolt against Ottoman Turkish rule.
1917 British capture Baghdad.
1917 Jewish Telegraphic Agency is founded.
1917 Four-hundred years of Ottoman rule ended by British conquest.
1917 The Balfour Declaration favors Jewish Palestinian State.
1917 As WWI comes closer to Tel-Aviv and Jaffa, the Turkish Governer of Jaffa orders all Jews to leave Tel-Aviv and Jaffa.
1917 Jews granted full rights in Russia.
1917 Russian Revolution breaks out, heavy fighting in the South and West, where over 3 million Jews live. Over 2000 pogroms took place, claiming the lives of up to 200,000 Jews in the next three years.
1917 The United States declared war on Germany. Appoximately 250,000 Jewish soldiers (20% of whom were volunteers) served in the U.S. Army, roughy 5.7% while Jews only made up 3.25% of the general American population.
1917 The Jewish Welfare Board is created and serves the social and religious requirements of Jewish soldiers; expands after the war.
1917 355,000 people chose representatives for the first American Jewish Congress.
1917 Over 2,700 men volunteer for the new Jewish Legion of the British Army which fought in Transjordan, among other places.
1917 Vladamir Ilyich Lenin and Leon Trotsky ousted Kerensky and took over the Russian government.
1917 British General Allenby captured Jerusalem from the Turks, ending Ottoman rule.
1918 Damascus taken by T.E. Lawrence and Arabs.

British Rule in Palestine
(1918-1947 CE)

.. ….. .

Treaty of Versailles formally ends Word War I. Out of an estimated 1.5 million Jewish soldiers in all the armies, approximately 170,000 were killed and over 100,000 cited for valor.
Damascus taken by T.E. Lawrence and Arabs.
American Jewish Congress is founded.
Nov. 1918
Germany’s Kaiser Wilhelm abdicates.
Nahum Zemach founds the Moscow-based Habimah Theater which receives acclaim for “The Dybbuk.”
Jan. 5, 1919
The German Workers’ Party (DAP) is founded in Munich; Adolf Hitler joins the Party nine months later.
April 5, 1919
35 Jews participating in a community meeting to discuss relief distribution from the United States were rounded up and massacred, suspected of being “Bolshevik plotters.” They were executed without question, or trial.
July 31, 1919
Holocaust surviror and author Primo Levi is born in Turin, Italy.
Jewish educational summer camping is launched in the United States with what came to be known as the Cejwin Camps.
Versailles Peace Conference decides that the conquered Arab provinces will not be restored to Ottoman rule.
First Palestinian National Congress meeting in Jerusalem sends two memoranda to Versailles rejecting Balfour Declaration and demanding independence.
Romania grants citizenship to Jews.
Egyptian revolution.
Chaim Weizmann heads Zionist delegation at Versailles Peace Conference.
Third Aliyah, mainly from Russia.
Emir Faisel wrote a letter to Felix Frankfurter supporting Zionism, “We Arabs…wish the Jews a most hearty welcome.”
League of Nations established in an effort to prevent further wars.
Histadrut (Jewish labor federation) and Haganah (Jewish defense organization) founded.
Vaad Leumi (National Council) set up by Jewish community (yishuv)to conduct its affairs.
Keren Hayesod created for education, absorbtion and the development of rural settlements in Eretz-Israel.
Chaim Weizmann elected president of the World Zionist Organization.
Fall of Tel Hai to Arab attackers; Joseph Trumpeldor and five men under his command killed.
Mandate for the Land of Israel given over to Britain on the condition that the Balfour Declaration be implemented, San Remo Conference.
Sir Herbert Samuel, British statesman, appointed High Commissioner of Palestine.
Henry Ford’s newspaper, The Dearborn Independent, begins publishing its anti-Semitic propaganda, including the Protocols of the Elders of Zion.
Feb. 24, 1920
The first mass meeting of the National Socialist Party (NSDAP) takes place at Munich’s Hofbräuhaus.
April 1, 1920
Adolf Hitler is honorably discharged from the German Army.
The San Remo Conference awards administration of the former Turkish territories of Syria and Lebanon to France, and PalestineTransjordan, and Mesopotamia (Iraq) to Britain.
Second and third Palestinan National Congress’ held.
The Times of London pronounces the PProtocols of the Elders of Zion a forgery.
U.S. immigration laws “reformed” to effectively exclude Eastern European Jews and other immigrants. Further restrictions imposed in 1924.
Fourth Palestinian National Congress, convenes in Jerusalem, decides to send delegation to London to explain case against Balfour.
The Allied Reparations Committee assesses German liability for World War I at 132 billion gold marks (about $31 billion).
The NSDAP, also known as the Nazi Party, establishes the Sturmabteilung (SA; Storm Troopers; Brown Shirts).
Arab riots in Jaffa and other cities.
Völkischer Beobachter (People’s Observer), the official National Socialist newspaper, begins publication.
July 29, 1921
Adolf Hitler becomes the Nazi Party’s first chairman with dictatorial powers.
Kingdom of Iraq established.
First moshav, Nahalal, founded in the Jezreel Valley.
Rabbi Abraham Isaac Kook and Rabbi Ya’akov Meir are elected the first two cheif Rabbis of Eretz-Israel.
Famous Hungarian Jewish poet and paratrooper who fought in WWII, Hannah Szenes (Senesh).
Britain granted Mandate for Palestine (Land of Israel) by League of Nations.
Transjordan set up on three-fourths of the British mandate area, forbidding Jewish immigration, leaving one-fourth for the Jewish national home.
Jewish Agency representing Jewish community vis-à-vis Mandate authorities set up.
Mordecai M. Kaplan founds the Society for the Advancement of Judaism, the cradle of the Reconstructionistmovement.
The United States Congress and President Harding approve the Balfour Declaration.
Supreme Muslim Council created under the jurisdiction of the British government to centralize religious affairs and institutions, but is corrupted by the overzealous Husseini family who used it as an anti-Jewish platform.
Benito Mussolini establishes a Fascist government in Italy.
Harvard’s president proposes a quota on the number of Jews admitted. After a contentious debate, he withdrew the recommendation.
League of Nations Council approves Mandate for Palestine.
First British census of Palestine shows total population 757,182 (11% Jewish).
Fifth Palestinian National Congress in Nablus, agrees to economic boycott of Zionists.
Jungsturm Adolf Hitler (Adolf Hitler Boys Storm Troop) and Stosstrupp Adolf Hitler (Shock Troop Adolf Hitler) are established. The latter will form the nucleus of the Schutzstaffel (SS).
June 24, 1922
Walther Rathenau, Jewish foreign minister of Germany, is assassinated by members of Organisation Consul, a clandestine, right-wing political organization led by Captain Hermann Ehrhardt.
September 8, 1922
Jewish entertainer Sid Caeser is born.
France and Belgium occupy the Ruhr after an economically broken Germany is unable to meet the annual installment of its war-reparations payments designed to pay off Germany’s $31 billion war debt.
March 1923
The Schutzstaffel (SS; Protection Squad) is established. It is initially a bodyguard for Hitler but will later become an elite armed guard of the Third Reich.
Palestine constitution suspended by British because of Arab refusal to cooperate.
Overthrow of Ottoman Muslim rule by “young Turks” (Kemal Ataturk) and establishment of secular state.
Sixth Palestinian national Congress held in Jaffa.
The first issue of the pro-Nazi, antisemitic newspaper Der Stürmer (The Attacker) is published in Nuremberg, Germany. Its slogan is “Die Juden sind unser Unglück” (“The Jews are our misfortune”), a phrase picked up from Heinrich von Treitschke.
Nov. 8-11, 1923
Hitler’s so-called “Beer Hall Putsch” takeover attempt at Munich fails, temporarily rattling the National Socialist Party and leading to Hitler’s arrest in Bavaria, Germany.
Technion, first institute of technology, founded in Haifa.
Fourth Aliyah, mainly from Poland.
Benjamin Frankel starts Hillel Foundation. The first Hillel House opens at the University of Illinois, offers religious and social services.
Caliphate officially abolished.
February 29, 1924
Jewish MLB star Al Rosen is born.
March 8, 1924
Jewish sculptor Anthony Caro is born in England.
May 11, 1924
The first conference of the General Zionist movement is held in Jerusalem.
May 14, 1924
Ultra-Orthodox Jews found an agricultural settlement between Ramat Gan and Petah Tikva: Bnei- Brak.
The United States Congress passes the Immigration Restriction Act, which effectively bans immigration to the U.S. from Asia and Eastern Europe.
July 1924
While in prison, Hitler begins work on Mein Kampf.
September 16, 1924
Birthdate of Lauren Bacall.
Pahlevi dynasty in Persia (“Iran”: 1935).
Edna Ferber is the first American Jew to win Pulitzer Prize in fiction.
Palestinian National Congress meets in Jaffa.
March 24, 1925
Publication of the pro-Nazi, anti-Semitic newspaper Der Stürmer resumes after being banned by the Weimar government in November 1923.
April 26, 1925
Paul von Hindenburg is elected president of Germany.
France proclaims Republic of Lebanon.
October 6, 1927
Warner Brothers releases The Jazz Singer, about a cantor’s son who follows his dreams to Broadway against his father’s wishes. This was the first “talking” movie ever made, and it is also famous for it’s accurate portrayal of Jewish home life.
Britain recognizes independence of Transjordan.
Seventh Palestinian National Congress convened in Jerusalem; established a new forty-eight member executive committee.
Yeshiva College is dedicated in New York.
February 11, 1928
Tom Lantos, the only Holocaust survivor to ever serve in either house of the United States Congress, is born in Budapest, Hungary.
October 8, 1928
Jewish actor, producer, and director Larry Semon supposedly dies, but many believe he faked his own death to avoid creditors.
2,000 Arabs attack Jews praying at the Kotel on the 9th of Av. Arabs view British refusal to condemn the attacks as support.
Hebron Jews massacred by Arab militants.
Anne Frank, Holocaust victim whose diary, written during the Nazi Occupation became famous.
Fifth Aliyah, from Germany.
Hope-Simpson report, predecessor to Passfield White Paper, recommends and end to all Jewish immigration to Eretz-Israel.
Lord Passfield issues his White Paper banning further land acquisition by Jews and slowing Jewish immigration.
Salo Wittmayer Baron joins the faculty of Columbia University, his is the first chair in Jewish history at a secular university in the United States.
Etzel (the Irgun), Jewish underground organization, founded.
Second British census of Palestine shows total population of 1,035,154 (16.9% Jewish).
The Nahum Zemach-founded Moscow-based Habimah Theater which received acclaim for “The Dybbuk” moves to Eretz-Israel.
‘Abd al-Aziz Al Saud proclaims the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
British Mandate over Iraq terminated, Iraq gains independence.
Discovery of oil in Bahrain.
1932 Herbert Lehman was elected New York’s first Jewish governor; from that time on, Jews formed a pact with the Democratic Party.
First Maccabia athletic games take place with representatives from 14 countries.
German Chancellor von Papen persuaded President von Hindenburg to offer Hitler the chancellorship.
Formation of Istiqlal Party as first constituted Palestinian-Arab political party; Awni Abdul-Hadi elected president.
April 21, 1933
Nazis outlaw Kosher slaughter of animals.
Concession agreement signed between Saudi government and Standard Oil of California (SOCAL). Prospecting begins. SOCAL assigns concession to California Arabian Standard Oil Co. (CASOC).
The American Jewish Congress declares a boycott on German goods to protest the Nazi persecution of Jews.
Assassination of Chaim Arlozorov.
Adolf Hitler becomes Chancellor of Germany.
Germany begins anti-Jewish boycott.
July 20, 1933
Cardinal Pacelli, who later became Pope Pius XII, signed the Hitler Concordat; whereby the Vatican accepted National Socialism.
Albert Einstein, upon visiting the United States, learns that Hitler had been elected and decided not to return to Germany, takes up position at Princeton.
Riots in Jaffa and Jerusalem to protest British “pro-Zionist” policies.
In Afghanistan, two thousand Jews are expelled from towns and forced to live in the wilderness.
American Jews cheer Detroit Tigers’ Hank Greenberg when he refuses to play ball on Yom Kippur. In 1938, with five games left to the season, Greenberg’s 58 home runs are two shy of Babe Ruth’s record. When several pitchers walk him rather than giving him a shot at the record, many believe major league baseball did not want a Jew to claim that place in America’s national sport.
Jewish rights in Germany rescinded by Nuremberg laws.
Hakibbutz Hadati, the religious kibbutz movement is founded.
Regina Jonas was ordained by Liberal (Reform) Rabbi Max Dienemann in Germany, becoming the first woman rabbi.
Ze’ev Jabotinsky founds the New Zionist Organization.
Official establishment of the Palestine Arab Party in JerusalemJamal al-Husseini elected president.
Anti-Jewish riots instigated by Arab militants.
Supported by the Axis powers, the Arab Higher Committee encourages raids on Jewish communities in Eretz-Israel.
1936 Texaco buys 50% interest in California Arabian Standard Oil Co.’s concession.
Leon Blum becomes the first Jew elected premier of France, enacts many social reforms.
The first of the Tower and Stockade Settlements (Tel Amel) Nir David is erected.
Syria ratifies the Franco-Syrian treaty; France grants Syria and Lebanon independence.
World Jewish Congress convened in Geneva.
Peel Commission investigated Arab riots, concluded Arab claims were “baseless”.
March 9, 1936
The Przytyk Pogrom, in which 3 Jews were killed and 60 wounded.
October 4, 1936
The “Battle of Cable street” takes place in London.
Reform Jewish Columbus Platform.
British declare Arab Higher Committee in Palestine illegal and Mufti of Jerusalem escapes to Syria.
The Peel Commission recommends the partition of Palestine between Jews and Arabs.
Chaim Weizmann and David Ben-Gurion accept partition plan, despite fierce opposition at the 20th Zionist Congress.
John Woodhead declares partition unworkable after Arab riots.
Central conference of American Rabbis reaffirm basic reform philosophies in the Colombus Platform.
1938 Dammam Well No. 7 discovers commercial quantities of oil. Barge exports to Bahrain.
1938 Oil discovered in Kuwait.
Nov. 9, 1938
Kristallnacht — German Jewish synagogues burned down.
Charles E. Coughlin, a Roman Catholic priest, launches media campaign in America against Jews.
The Dominican Republic is the only country out of 32 at the Evian Conference willing to help Jews trying to escape Nazi Germany.
Sept. 29, 1938
Chamberlain declares “peace in our time” after allowing Hitler to annex the Sudetenland in the Munich Agreement.
Catholic churches ring bells and fly Nazi flags to welcom Hitler’s troops in Austria.
Hershel Grynszpan, 17, a German refugee, assassinates Ernst von Rath, the third secretary to the German embassy in Paris.
More than 100,000 Jews march in an anti-Hitler parade in New York’s Madison Square Garden.
1939 First tanker-load of oil is exported aboard D.G. Scofield.
President Roosevelt appoints Zionist and Jewish activist Felix Frankfurter to the Supreme Court.
Jewish immigration severely limited by British White Paper.
S.S. St. Louis, carrying 907 Jewish refugees from Germany, is turned back by Cuba and the United States.
September 1, 1939
BBC News reports Germany has invaded Poland.
September 3, 1939
British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain announces that Britain is at war with Germany.
Jewish songwriter Irving Berlin introduces his song “God Bless America.” He also wrote “White Christmas”.
October 14, 1939
Jewish fashion CEO and icon Ralph Lauren is born.
Nazis establish ghettos in Poland.
British government authorizes the Jewish Agency to recruit 10,000 Jews to form Jewish units in the British army.
British refuse illegal immigrant ship, the Patria, permission to dock in Palestine.
Chabad-Lubavitch purchases their iconic headquarters in New York City
June 14, 1940
The first train of prisoners arrives at Auschwitz-Birkenau. Only 20 people of these initial 700+ were Jewish.
September 24, 1940
The blatantly anti-Semitic Nazi propaganda film “Jud Suss” premieres in Berlin
British and France guarantee Syrian independence.
Lohamei Herut Yisrael (Lehi) or Stern Gang underground movement formed.
February 25, 1941
A 2-day strike begins in Amsterdam, in opposition to the anti-Jewish actions being taken by the Nazi occupiers.
May 15, 1941
Palmach, strike force of Haganah, set up.
May 20, 1941
Jewish commando David Raziel is killed by a German bomber while on a mission for the British in Iraq.
September 29, 1941
March 2, 1942
Jewish rock musician Lou Reed is born.
Rabbi Stephen S. Wise publicizes Riegner report confirming mass murder of European Jews.
Nazi leaders refine the “Final Solution” — genocide of the Jewish people — at Wannsee Conference.
Warsaw Ghetto Uprising.
Palmach parachutes into enemy lines in Europe.
British deport illegal immigrants to Cyprus.
Raphael Lemkin, an international lawyer who escaped from Poland to the U.S. in 1941, coins the term genocide to describe the Nazi extermination of European Jews.
Zionist Biltmore Conference, held at Biltmore Hotel in New York, formulates new policy of creating a “Jewish Commonwealth” in Palestine and organizing a Jewish army.
October 6, 1943
Two days before Yom Kippur 1943, over 400 Orthodox Rabbis marched from Union Station to the Capital Building and White House in Washington D.C., calling for elected officials to increase the quota of Jewish refugees from Europe allowed in the U.S. The Rabbis also demanded the creation of a special federal agency tasked with the rescue of European Jewry.
November 18, 1943 The chief of the BBC orders his employees to downplay the attrocities of the Holocaust, warning them not to broadcast or publish anything that might try to “correct” anti-Semitic sentiments throughout Europe.
January 13, 1944 U.S. Treasury Dept. memo rebukes State Dept. for relative inaction regarding Jewish refugees.
1944 CASOC renamed Arabian American Oil Co.(Aramco).
Jewish Brigade formed as part of British forces.
FDR establishes War Refugee Board. For most victims of Nazism, it comes too late.
Camp for Jewish war refugees is opened at Oswego, New York.
July 26, 1944
Russians arrive in the Lwow Ghetto, ridding the city of it’s German occupiers, only to find the Jewish population liquidated.
November 1, 1944
Jewish singer/songwriter Richard “Kinky” Friedman is born.
International tribunal for war crimes is established at Nuremberg.
Bess Myerson becomes the first Jewish woman to win the Miss America Pageant.
Covenant of League of Arab States, emphasizing Arab character of Palestine, signed in Cairo by Egypt, Iraq, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Transjordan, and Yemen.
United Nations established.
President Truman asks Britain to allow 100,000 Jews into Palestine.
Arab League Council decides to boycott goods produced by Zionist firms in Palestine.
March 22, 1945
Two convicted members of the Stern Gang hanged for Murder of Lord Moyne in Cairo prison.
November 3, 1945
Winningest Jewish MLB player in history, Ken Holtzman, is born.
January 19, 1946
Member of Jewish underground destroyed a power station and a portion of the Central Jerusalem prison by explosives. Two persons were killed by the police..
January 20, 1946
Jewish underground members launched an attack against the British-controlled Givat Olga Coast Guard Station located between Tel Aviv and Haifa. Ten persons were injured and one was killed. Captured papers indicated that the purpose of this raid was to take revenge on the British for their seizure of the refugee ship on January 18. British military authorities in Jerusalem questioned 3,000 Jews and held 148 in custody..
April 25, 1946
Jewish underground attacked a British military installation near Tel Aviv. This group which contained a number of young girls, had as its goal the capture of British weapons. British authorities rounded up 1,200 suspects..
June 24, 1946
The Irgun radio “Fighting Zion” wams that three kidnapped British officers are held as hostages for two Irgunmembers, Josef Simkohn and Issac Ashbel facing execution as well as 31 Irgun members facing trial..
June 27, 1946
Thirty Irgun members are sentenced by a British military court to 15 years in prison. One, Benjamin Kaplan, was sentenced to life for carrying a firearm..
June 29, 1946
British military units and police raided Jewish settlements throughout Palestine searching for the leaders of Haganah. The Jewish Agency for Palestine was occupied and four top official arrested. .
July 1, 1946
British officials announced the discovery of a large arms dump hidden underground at Meshek Yagur. 2659 men and 59 women were detained fo the three day operation in which 27 settlements were searched. Four were killed and 80 were injured..
July 3, 1946
Palestine High Commissioner, Lt. General Sir Alan Cunningham commuted to life imprisonment the death sentences of Josef Simkhon and lssac Ashbel, Irgun members.
July 4, 1946
Tel Aviv. British officers, Captains K Spencer, C. Warburton and A. Taylor who had been kidnapped by Irgun on June 18 and held as hostages for the lives of Simkohn and Ashbel, were released in Tel Aviv unharmed. At this time, Irgun issued a declaration of war against the British claiming that they had no alternative but to fight. .
July 22, 1946
The west wing of the King David Hotel in Jerusalem which housed British Military Headquarters and other governmental offices was destroyed at 12:57 PM by explosives planted in the cellar by members of the Irgunterrorist gang. By the 26 of July, the casualties were 76 persons killed, 46 injured and 29 still missing in the rubble. The dead included many British, Arabs and Jews. .
July 24, 1946
London. The British government released a White Paper that accuses the HaganahIrgun and Stern gangs of “a planned movement of sabotage and violence” under the direction of the Jewish Agency and asserts that the June 29 arrest of Zionist leaders was the cause of the bombing.
July 28, 1946
The British Palestine Commander, Lt. General Sir Evelyn Barker, banned fraternization by British troops with Palestine Jews whom he stated “cannot be absolved of responsibility for terroristic acts.” The order states that this will punish “the race . . . by striking at their pockets and showing our contempt for them.” .
July 29, 1946
Police in Tel Aviv raided a workshop making bombs..
July 30, 1946
Tel Aviv is placed under a 22hour-a-day curfew as 20,000 British troops began a house-to-house sweep for members of the Jewish underground. The city is sealed off and troops are ordered to shoot to kill any curfew violators.
July 31, 1946
A large cache of weapons, extensive counterfeiting equipment and $1,000,000 in counterfeit Government bonds were discovered in Tel Aviv’s largest synagogue. Also, two ships have arrived at Haifa with a total of 3,200 illegal Jewish immigrants. .
August 2, 1946
British military authorities ended the curfew in Tel Aviv after detaining 500 persons for further questioning..
August 12, 1946
The British Government announced that it will allow no more unscheduled immigration into Palestine and that those seeking entry into that country will be sent to Cyprus and other areas under detention. Declaring that such immigration threatens a civil war with the Arab population, it charges a “minority of Zionist extremists” with attempting to force an unacceptable solution of the Palestine problem..
August 12, 1946
Two ships carrying a total of 1,300 Jewish refugees arrived at Haifa. The port area was isolated on August 11 by British military and naval units. The first deportation ship sailed for Cyprus with 500 Jews on board.
August 13, 1946
Three Jews were killed and seven wounded when British troops were compelled to fire on a crowd of about 1,000 persons trying to break into the port area of Haifa. Two Royal Navy ships with 1,300 illegal Jewish immigrants on board sailed for Cyprus. Another ship with 600 illegal immigrants was captured and confined in the Haifa harbor. .
August 26, 1946
British military units searched the coastal villages of Casera and Sadoth Yarn for three Jews who bombed the transport “Empire Rival” last week. Eighty-five persons, including the entire male population of one of the villages were sent to the Rafa detention center..
August 29, 1946
Jerusalem. the British Government announced the commutation to life imprisonment of the death sentences imposed on 18 Jewish youths convicted of bombing the Haifa railroad shops..
August 30, 1946
British military units discovered arms and munitions dumps in the Jewish farming villages of Dorot and Ruhama.
Sept. 8, 1946
Jewish underground members cut the Palestine railroad in 50 places..
Sept. 9, 1946
Tel Aviv. two British officers were killed in an explosion in a public building..
Sept. 10, 1946
British troops imposed a curfew and arrested 101 Jews and wounded two in a search for saboteurs in Tel Aviv and neighboring Ramat Gan. Irgun took the action against the railways on September 8, as a protest..
Sept. 14, 1946
Jewish underground members robbed three banks in Jaffa and Tel Aviv, killing three Arabs. Thirty-six Jews were arrested..
Sept. 15, 1946
Jewish underground attacks a police station on the coast near Tel Aviv but were driven off by gunfire. .
October 2, 1946
British military units and police seized 50 Jews in a Tel Aviv cafe after a Jewish home was blown up. This home belonged to a Jewish woman who had refused to pay extortion money to the Irgun. .
October 6, 1946
Jerusalem. An RAF man was killed by gunfire..
October 8, 1946
Two British soldiers were killed when their truck detonated a kind mine outside Jerusalem. A leading Arab figure was wounded in a similar mine explosion in Jerusalem and more mad mines were found near Government House..
October 15, 1946
Nazi Party leader Herman Goering committs suicide by ingesting a cyanide capsule the night before he is due to be hung following the Nuremberg Trials.
October 16, 1946
Executions of those convicted of war crimes and crimes against humanity at the Nuremberg Trials.
October 23, 1946
October 25, 1946
20 German physicians are charged by the United States with war crimes and crimes against humanity, for their role in human experimentation at Nazi concentration camps.
October 31, 1946
The British Embassy in Rome was damaged by a bomb, believed to have been phased by Jewish underground members. Irgun took responsibility for the bombing on November 4..
November 3, 1946
Two Jews and two Arabs were killed in clashes between Arabs and a group of Jews attempting to establish a settlement at Lake Hula in northern Palestine. .
November 5, 1946
British authorities released the following eight Jewish Agency leaders from the Latrun concentration camp where they had been held since June 29: Moshe Shertok, Dr. Issac Greenbaum, Dr. Bernard Joseph, David Remiz, David Hacohen, David Shingarevsky, Joseph Shoffman and Mordecai Shatter. A total of 2,550 Haganah suspects have also been released as well as 779 Jews arrested in the wake of the King David bombing. .
November 7, 1946
Railroad traffic was suspended hr 24 hours throughout Palestine following a fourth Irgun attack on railway facilities in two days.
November 9-13, 1946
Nineteen persons, eleven British soldiers and policemen and eight Arab constables, were killed in Palestine during this period as Jewish underground members, using land mines and suitcase bombs, increased their attacks on railroad stations, trains and even streetcars. .
Nov. 14, 1946
London. The Board of Deputies of British Jews condemned Jewish underground groups who threatened to export their attacks to England. .
Nov. 18, 1946
Police in Tel Aviv attacked Jews, assaulting many and firing into houses. Twenty Jews were injured in fights with British troops following the death on November 17 of three policemen and an RAF sergeant in a land mine explosion..
Nov. 20, 1946
Five persons were injured when a bomb exploded in the Jerusalem tax office. .
Dec. 2-5, 1946
Ten persons, including six British soldiers, were killed in bomb and land-mine explosions. .
Dec. 3, 1946
A member of the Stern Gang was killed in an aborted hold-up attempt. .
Dec. 26, 1946
Armed Jewish underground members raided two diamond factories in Nathanya and Tel Aviv and escaped with nearly $107,000 in diamonds, cash and bonds. These raids signaled an end to a two-week truce during the World Zionist Congress..
Partition of India and Pakistan.
January 1, 1947
Dov Gruner was sentenced to hang by a British military court for taking part in a raid on the Ramat Gan police headquarters in April of 1946. .
January 2, 1947
Jewish underground staged bombings and machine gun attacks in five cities. Casualties were low. Pamphlets seized warned that the Irgun had again declared war against the British. .
January 4, 1947
Jerusalem. British soldiers have been ordered to wear sidearms at all times and were forbidden to enter any cafe or restaurant. .
January 5, 1947
Eleven British troops were injured in a hand grenade attack on a train carrying troops to Palestine. The attack took place near Benha, 25 miles from Cairo..
January 8, 1947
British police arrested 32 persons suspected of being members of the Irgun’s “Black Squad” in raids on Rishomel Zion and Rehoboth. .
January 12, 1947
One underground member drove a truck filled with high explosives into the central police station and exploded it, killing two British policemen and two Arab constables and injuring 140 others, and escaped. This action ended a 10-day lull in the violence and the Stern Gang took the credit for it. .
January 14, 1947
Yehudi Katz is sentenced to life in prison by a Jerusalem court for robbing a bank in Jaffa in September of 1946 to obtain funds for the underground..
January 22, 1947
Sir Harry Gumey, Chief Secretary, stated that the British administration was taxing Palestine $2,400,000 to pay for sabotage by the Jewish underground groups. .
January 22, 1947
Colonial Secretary Arthur Creech Jones informed the House of Commons 73 British subjects were murdered by underground members in 1946 and “no culprits have been convicted.” .
January 27, 1947
London. Britain’s conference on Palestine, boycotted by the Jews, reconvened. Jamal el Husseini, Palestine Arab leader, declared that the Arab world was unalterably opposed to partition as a solution to the problem. The session then adjourned..
January 29, 1947
London. It was officially announced that the British Cabinet decided to partition Palestine. .
January 29, 1947
Irgun forces released former Maj. H. Collins, a British banker, who they kidnaped on January 26 from his home. He had been badly beaten. On January 28, the Irgun released Judge Ralph Windham, who had been kidnapped in Tel Aviv on January 27 while trying a case. These men had been taken as hostages for Dov Bela Gruner, an Irgunmember under death sentence. The British High Commissioner, Lt. Gen. Sir Alan Cunningham, had threatened martial law unless the two men were returned unharmed. .
January 31, 1947
General Cunningham ordered the wives and children of all British civilians to leave Palestine at once. About 2,000 are involved. This order did not apply to the 5,000 Americans in the country..
February 3, 1947
The Palestine Govemment issued a 7-day ultimatum to the Jewish Agency demanding that it state “categorically and at once” whether it and the supreme Jewish Council in Palestine will call on the Jewish community by February 10 for “cooperation with the police and armed forces in bringing to justice the members of the terrorist groups.” This request was publicly rejected by Mrs. Goldie Meyerson, head of the Jewish Agency’s political department. .
February 4, 1947
British Oistrict Commissioner James Pollock disclosed a plan for military occupation of three sectors of Jerusalem and orders nearly 1,000 Jews to evacuate the Rehavia, Schneler and German quarters by noon, February 6.
February 5, 1947

The Vaad Leumi rejected the British ultimatum while the Irgun passed out leaflets that it was prepared to fight to the death against the British authority.

The first 700 of some 1,500 British women and children ordered to evacuate Palestine leave by plane and train for Egypt. British authorities, preparing for military action, order other families from sections of Tel Aviv and Haifa which will be turned into fortified military areas.

February 9, 1947
British troops removed 650 illegal Jewish immigranS from the schooner “Negev” at Haifa and after a struggle forced them aboard the ferry “Emperor Haywood” for deportation to Cyprus. .
February 14, 1947
The British administration revealed that Lt. Gen. Sir Evelyn Barker, retiring British commander in Palestine, had confirmed the death sentences of three Irgun members on February 12 before leaving for England. The three men, Dov Ben Rosenbaum, Eliezer Ben Kashani and Mordecai Ben Alhachi, had been sentenced on February 10 to be hanged for carrying firearms. A fourth, Haim Gorovetzky, received a life sentence because of his youth. Lt. Gen. G. MacMillian arrived in Jerusalem on February 13 to succeed Gen. Barker. .
February 15, 1947
The Sabbath was the setting for sporadic outbreaks of violence which included the murder of an Arab in Jaffa and of a Jew in B’nai B’rak, the kidnapping of a Jew in Petah Tikvah and the burning of a Jewish club in Haifa.
March 9, 1947
Hadera. A British army camp was attacked..
March 10, 1947
Haifa. A Jew, suspected of being an informer, was murdered by Jewish underground members..
March 12, 1947
The British Army pay corps was dynamited in Jerusalem and one soldier killed. .
March 12, 1947
British military units captured most of the 800 Jews whose motor ship “Susanne” ran the British blockade and was beached north of Gaza on this date. A British naval escort brought the “Ben Hecht,” the Hebrew Committee of National Liberation’s first known immigrant ship, into Haifa, and its 599 passengers were shipped to Cyprus. The British arrested the crew, which included 18 US. seamen..
March 13, 1947
British authorities announced 78 arrests as a result of unofficial Jewish cooperation, but two railroads were attacked, resulting in two deaths, and eight armed men robbed a Tel Aviv bank of $65,000. .
March 14, 1947
Jewish underground members blew up part of an oil pipeline in Haifa and a section of the rail line near Beer Yakou .
March 17, 1947
British authorities ended marshal law which had kept 300,000 Jews under house arrest for 16 days and tied up most economic activity..
March 17, 1947
A military court sentenced Moshe Barazani to be hanged for possessing a hand grenade. .
March 18, 1947
Underground leaflets admitted the murder of Michael Shnell on Mount Carmel as an informer. .
March 22, 1947
British officials announced the arrest of five known underground members, and the discovery near Petah Tikvah of the body of Leon Meshiah, a Jew presumably slain as a suspected informer. .
March 28, 1947
The Irgun blew up the Iraq Petroleum Co. pipeline in Haifa..
March 29, 1947
A British army officer was killed by Jewish underground membesr when they ambushed a party of horsemen near the Ramle camp. A raid on a Tel Aviv bank yielded $109,000. .
March 30, 1947
Units of the British Royal Navy, answering an SOS, took the disabled ” Moledeth” with 1,600 illegal Jewish refugees on board under tow some 50 miles outside Palestinian waters. .
March 31, 1947
Jewish underground members dynamited the British-owned Shell-Mex oil tanks in Haifa, starting a fire that destroyed a quarter-mile of the waterfront. The damage was set at more than $1,000,000, and the British government in Palestine has stated that the Jewish community will have to pay for it. .
April 2, 1947
The “Ocean Vigour” was damaged by a bomb in Famagusta Harbor, Cyprus. The Haganah admitted the bombing. .
April 3, 1947
A court in Jerusalem sentenced Daniel Azulai and Meyer Feinstein, members of the Irgun, to death for the October 30 attack on the Jerusalem railroad station. The Palestine Supreme Court admitted an appeal of Dov Bela Gruner’s death sentence.
April 3, 1947
The transport “Empire Rival” was damaged by a time bomb while en route from Haifa to Port Said in Egypt. .
April 7, 1947
The High Court denied a new appeal against the death sentence of Dov Bela Gruner, and a British patrol killed Moshe Cohen. .
April 8, 1947
Jewish undergroud members killed a British constable in revenge for the Cohen death..
April 10, 1947
London. The British Government requested France and Italy to prevent Jews from embarking for Palestine. .
April 11, 1947
Jerusalem. Asher Eskovitch, a Jew, was beaten to death by Muslims when he entered the forbidden Mosque of Omar. .
April 13, 1947
Guela Cohen, Stern Gang illegal broadcaster, escaped from a British military hospital..
April 14, 1947
A British naval unit boarded the refugee ship “Guardian” and seized it along with 2,700 passengers after a gun battle in which two immigrants were killed and 14 wounded..
April 16, 1947
In spite of threats of reprisal from the Irgun, the British hanged Dov Bela Gruner and three other Irgun members at Acre Prison on Haifa Bay. Jewish communities were kept under strict curfew for several hours. Soon after the deaths were announced, a time bomb was found in the Colonial Office in London but was defused..
April 17, 1947
Lt. Gen. G. Macmillan confirmed death sentences for two more convicted underground members, Meier Ben Feinstein and Moshe Ben Barazani, but reduced Daniel Azulai’s sentence to life imprisonment. .
April 18, 1947
Irgun’s reprisals for the Gruner execution were an attack on a field dressing station near Nethanaya where one sentry was killed, an attack on an armored car in Tel Aviv where one bystander was killed and harmless shots at British troops in Haifa. .
April 20, 1947
A series of bombings by Jewish underground members in retaliation for the hanging of Gruner injured 12 British soldiers..
April 21, 1947
Meir Feinstein and Moshe Barazani killed themselves in prison a few hours before they were scheduled to be hanged. They blew themselves up with bombs smuggled to them in hollowed-out oranges. .
April 22, 1947
A troop train arriving from Cairo was bombed outside Rehovoth with five soldiers and three civilians killed and 39 persons injured.
April 23, 1947
The British First Lord of the Admiralty, Viscount Hall, defended the Labor Government’s policy in Palestine and he acknowledged in the House of Lords that Britain would not “carry out a policy of which it did not approve” despite any UN action. He blamed contributions from American Jews to the Jewish Palestinians as aiding the underground groups there and cited the toll since August 1, 1945: 113 killed, 249 wounded, 168 Jews convicted, 28 sentenced to death, four executed, 33 slain in battles. Viscount Samuel urged increased immigration. .
April 23, 1947
The Irgun proclaimed its own “military courts” to “try” British troops and policemen who resisted them. .
April 25, 1947
Stern Gang squad drove a stolen post office truck loaded with explosives into the Sarona police compound and detonated it, killing five British policemen. .
April 26, 1947
Haifa. The murder of Deputy Police Superintendent A. Conquest climaxed a week of bloodshed. .
May 4, 1947
The walls of Acre prison were blasted open by an Irgun bomb squad and 251 Jewish and Arab prisoners escaped after a gun battle in which 15 Jews and 1 Arab were killed, 32 (including six British guards) were injured and 23 escapists were recaptured. The Palestine Govemment promised no extra punishment if the 189 escapees still at large will surrender. .
May 4, 1947
The Political Action Committee for Palestine ran a series of advertisements in New York newspapers seeking funds to buy parachutes for young European Jews planning to crash the Palestine irnmigration barrier by air. .
May 8, 1947
A Jew was ambushed and shot to death by an Arab group near Tel Aviv, and three Jewish owned Tel Aviv shops whose owners refused to contribute money to Jewish underground groups were burned down. .
May 12, 1947
Jewish underground members killed two British policemen..
May 12, 1947
The British authorities announced that 312 Jewish political prisoners were held in Kenya, East Africa, 20 in Latrun and 34 in Bethlehem..
May 15, 1947
The Stern Gang killed two British lieutenants and injured seven other persons with two derailments and three badge demolitions..
May 16, 1947
Haifa Assistant Police Superintendent, Robert Schindler, a German Jew, was killed by the Stern gang, and a British constable was killed on the Mt Carmel-Haifa road near Jerusalem..
May 17, 1947
The 1,200 ton Haganah freighter “Trade Winds” was seized by the Royal Navy off the Lebanon coast and escorted into Haifa, and over 1,000 illegal immigrants were disembarked pending transfer to Cyprus. .
May 19, 1947
The British government protested to the United States government against American fund-raising drives for Jewish underground groups. The complaint referred to a “Letter to the Terrorists of Palestine” by playwright Ben Hecht, American League for a Free Palestine co chairman, first published in the New York “Post” on May 15. The ad said, “We are out to raise millions for you.”.
May 22, 1947
Arabs attacked a Jewish labor camp in the south, retaliating for a Haganah raid on the Arabs near Tel Aviv May 20. Some 40,000 Arab and Jewish workers united the same day in a one day strike against all establishments operated by the British War Ministry..
May 23, 1947
A British naval party boarded the immigrant ship “Mordei Haghettoath” off South Palestine and took control of its 1,500 passengers. Two British soldiers were convicted in Jerusalem of abandoning a jeep and army mail under attack..
May 28, 1947
Syria. Fawzi el-Kawukji who spent the war years in Germany after leading the 1936-39 Arab revolt in Palestine, told reporters in Damascus that an unfavorable decision by the UN inquiry group would be the signal for war against the Jews in Palestine. “We must prove that in case” of an Anglo-American war with Russia, “we can be more dangerous or useful to them than the Jews,” he added. .
May 28, 1947
Jewish underground members blew up a water main and a shed in the Haifa oil dock areas and made three attacks on railway lines in the Lydda and Haifa areas..
May 31, 1947
The Haganah ship “Yehuda Halevy” arrived under British naval escort with 399 illegal Jewish immigrants; they were immediately transferred to Cyprus..
June 4, 1947
The Stern Gang sent letter bombs to high British governmental officials. Eight letter bombs containing powdered explosives were discovered in London. Recipients included Ernest Bevin, Anthony Eden, Prime Minister Attlee and Winston Churchill..
June 5, 1947
Washington. President Truman asked all persons in the US to refrain from helping Jewish underground groups. The American Jewish Committee and Jewish Labor Committee condemned Ben Hecht’s campaign..
June 6, 1947
New York Secretary General of the UN, Trygve Lie has forwarded a request to all countries a request by the British that they guard their fronties against departure of illegal immigrants bound for Palestine.
June 18, 1947
Haganah disclosed that one of its men was killed by a booby trap which foiled an Irgun plot to blow up British Military Headquartes in Tel Aviv. .
June 28, 1947
The Stern Gang opened fire on British soldiers waiting in line outside a Tel Aviv theater, killing three and wounding two. Another Briton is killed and several wounded in a Haifa hotel. This action was claimed by Jewish underground members to be in retaliation for British brutality and the alleged slaying of a missing 16 year old Jew, Alexander Rubowitz while he was being held in an Army barracks on May 6. .
June 29, 1947
New York. The UN Committee votes 9-0 to condemn the acts as “flagrant disregard” of the UN appeal for an interim truce as Stern Gang wounded four more Bdtish soldiers on a beach at Herzlia. Major Roy Alexander Farran surrendered voluntarily after his escape from custody in Jerusalem on June 19. He had been arrested in connection with the Rubowitz case. .
June 30, 1947
The Palestine goverrunent permitted oil companies to raise paces of benzine nearly 10% to pay for $1 million damage suffered when Jewish underground members blew up oil installations at Haifa on March 31. .
July 2, 1947
lrgun members robbed a Haifa bank of $3,200 while both the Stem gang and the Irgun warned the British that their provocative acts in Palestine must end before a truce can be effected. The Guaternalan and Czech members of the UN Commission visited two Jewish convicts in Acre Prison..
July 12, 1947
Dr. Adem Altman, president of the United Zionist Revisionists, told a party rally in Jerusalem that the Revisionists would settle for nothing less than an unpartitioned free Jewish state in Palestine and Trans-Jordan. Irgun announced in Jerusalem that two British sergeants kidnaped in Nathanaya are being held in Tel Aviv and have been sentenced to death by Irgun courtmartial. .
July 14, 1947
Netanya. The British imposed mastial law and placed the 15,000 inhabitants of Netanya under house arrest. They made 68 arrests and sentenced 21 persons to 6 months each in the Latrun detention camp. .
July 17, 1947
Netanya. The Irgun in five mine operations against military traffic to and from Nathanya killed one Briton and injured 16. .
July 18, 1947
Steamer Exodus repelled by forces from shores of Palestine, (formerly the “President Warfield”) was escorted into Haifa by British naval units after a battle, William Bernstein and two immigrants were killed and more than 30 injured.

The blockade runner itself was badly damaged. The remainder of the 4,554 passengers, the largest group of illegal immigrants to sail for Palestine in a sister ship, were put aboard British prison ships for removal to Cyprus. The American captain, Bernard Marks, and his crew were arrested. The ship sailed from France.

July 19, 1947
Haifa. Rioting, quickly suppressed, broke out among the passengess of the “Exodus 1947” when they learned they were to be resumed to France. .
July 19, 1947
The Palestine Government charges that a Jewish “campaign of lawlessness, murder and sabotage” has cost 70 lives and $6 million in damage since 1940. .
July 21, 1947
Before officially admitting that 4,529 passengers of the “Exodus 1947” who had been transferred to three British ships, were being sent not to Cyprus but back to France, the Palestine Government took the precaution of first placing Jesusalem’s 90,000 Jews under nightly house arrest. .
July 23, 1947
Haganah sank the British tansport “Empire Lifeguard” in Haifa harbor as it was discharging 300 Jewish immigrants who had officiallyy been admitted to Palestine under quota. Sixty-five immigrants were killed and 40 were wounded. The British were able to refloat the ship..
July 26, 1947
Jewish underground members blew up the Iraqi Petroleum Co. pipeline 12 miles east of Haifa and destroyed a Mt. Carmel radar station..
July 27, 1947
An ambush and mines cost the British seven more casualties, all wounded..
July 28, 1947
Two small Haganah ships loaded with 1,174 Jews from North Africa were intercepted by British naval units off Palestine and brought into Haifa. The illegal immigrants were transshipped aboard British transports and taken to Cyprus..
July 29, 1947
The British authorities hanged three Irgunists in Acre prison despite appeals from Jewish leaders. The condemned, Myer Nakar, Absalom Habib and Jacob Weiss, had fought in the Czech underground during the war. They were convicted of blowing up Acre Prison on May 4 and liberating 200 Arabs and Jews. .
July 29, 1947
The 4,429 Exodus 1947 illegal immigrants who sailed from Sete, France, July 11 for Palestine only to be shipped back by the British aboard three transports, refused to debark as the vessels anchored off Port de Douc, France. Only a few who were aboard went ashore. The French government informed the refugees that they do not have to debark but will be welcomed if they do. The transports are the “Runnymede Park,” “Ocean Vigour” and “Empire Valour.”.
July 30, 1947
Irgun members announced that they have handed two British sergeants, Marvyn Paice and Clifford Martin, whom they had held as hostages since duly 12, for “crimes against the Jewish community.” The two were seized when death sentences on the three Irgun members were confirmed by the British authorities. Two more British soldiers were killed by a land mine near Hadera. British troops attacked the Jewish colony of Pardes Hanna in revenge for the murders..
July 31, 1947
The bodies of the two murdered Bdtish sergeants were found hanging from eucalyptus trees one and a half miles from Netanya about 5:30 AM. A booby trap blew Martin’s body to bits when it was cut down. Enraged British troops stormed into Tel Aviv, wrecked shops, attacked pedestrians and sprayed a bus with gunfire killing five Jews: two men, two women and a boy..
August 1, 1947
Thirty-three Jews are injured in an anti-British riot at Tel Aviv during the funeral procession of five civilians killed by British soldiers on July 31. In Jerusalem a Jewish underground attack on the British security zone in Rehavia was repulsed with one attacker killed and two captured..
August 2, 1947
The body of an unidentified Jew was found on a road near Tel Aviv. He was believed to have been kidnapped by men in British uniforms two weeks ago. Total casualties in Palestine since mid-July: 25 persons slain, 144 wounded. The dead include 15 Britons, two Jewish underground membmers, eight civilians. Anti-British slogans, swastikas and dollar signs are painted onto British consulates in New York, Baltimore, Philadelphia, Chicago and Los Angeles.
August 3, 1947
The Bank of Sharon in Ramat Gan was robbed by Jewish underground, $8,000 stolen..
August 4, 1947
An Irgun leader in Paris states that his organization has sentenced high British military and civilian offficials in Palestine to death “in absentia” and will hang them upon capture..
August 5, 1947

Striking at dawn, British security forces arrested 35 leading Zionists and sent them to the Latrun detention camp in an attempt to wipe out the Irgun leadership.In reprisal, Irgunists blew up the Department of Labor in Jerusalem, killing three British constables. Those arrested included Mayor Israel Rokach of Tel Aviv; Mayor Oved Ben Ami of Nathanya; Mayor Abraham Kdnitzki of Ramat Gan; Adeh Altman, president of the radical Revisionist Party; Menahem Arber, leader of the Revisionist youth organization, B’rith Trumpeldor, which is outlawed; Max Kritzman, Dov Bela Gruner’s attomey, and David Stem, brother of the late founder of the Stern Gang. All those arrested except the three mayors were Revisionists. Among many papers confiscated was correspondence from Soviet Russian agents in Italy and Bulgaria and extensive plans to poison the water supply of the non-Jewish parts of Jerusalem with botulism and other bacteria. Bacteria was supplied by Soviet sources through Bulgaria.

August 15, 1947
A mine derailed a Cairo-Haifa troop train north of Lydda, killing the engineer, and Irgunist claimed the incident was part of its campaign to disrupt all the Palestine rail traffic. .
August 16, 1947
Arab-Jewish clashes have brought death to 12 Arabs and 13 Jews and heavy property destruction this week in the regions of Jewish Tel Aviv and Arab Jaffa. Strife was renewed on august 10 when Arabs killed four Jews in a Tel Aviv cafe, in reprisal for the deaths of two Arabs in a Haganah raid in Fega two months ago. Haganahresponded to the Arab actions by bombing a house in an Arab orange grove near Tel Aviv, killing eleven Arabs, including a woman and four children. .
August 18, 1947
The shops of five Jewish merchants in Tel Aviv were destroyed by the Irgun because the owners refused to give money to that organization. .
Sept. 9, 1947
Hamburg, Germany. In a bitter three hour fight aboard the “Runnymede Park,” 350 British troops completed a two-day forced debarkation of 4,300 “Exodus 1947” illegal Jewish refugees from three ships in Hamburg, Germany. First ashore yesterday were the “Ocean Vigour’s” 1,406; a few put up token resistance and five passengers sustained minor injuries. Early today, the “Empire Rival’s” 1,420 passengers debarked peaceably after a home made bomb was found in the ship’s hold. .
Sept. 10, 1947
Washington D.C. Secretary of State George C. Marshall disclosed that the US had urged Britain to reconsider sending the “Exodus” group to Germany, but Britain replied tht there were no facilities for housing them elsewhere because the French did not want them and there were a number of vacant detention camps in Germany. .
Sept. 11, 1947
Paris. The French government has now announced tht it would admit the ‘`Exodus” refugees if they were not forcibly deported from Germany and on the understanding that they will be admitted eventually to Palestine. .
October 13, 1947
A terrorist bomb damaged the US. consulate general in Jerusalem, injuring two employees slightly. Similar bombings occurred at the Polish consulate general last night and at the Swedish consulate on September 27. .
Nov. 14, 1947
Jewish underground members killed two British policemen in Jerusalem and two soldiers in Tel Aviv to raise the total casualties in three days of violence to 10 Britons and five Jews killed, and 33 Britons and five Jews wounded. The outbreaks began after British troops killed three girls and two boys in a raid on a farmhouse arsenal near Raanana on November 12. The underground retaliated yesterday by throwing hand grenades and firing a machine gun into the Ritz Cafe in Jerusalem. .
Nov. 16, 1947
About 185 European Jews landed near Netanya from a small schooner and escaped before the British could intercept them. A larger vessel, the “Kadimah,” was seized and brought to Haifa where 794 Jews were transshipped to a British transport for Cyprus..
Nov. 17, 1947
The British administration disclosed that it will sell state owned real estate along the Haifa waterfront, from which it expects to make $8 million. It will also invest in England about $16 million from bonds that had been sold to Palestinians. Zionists strongly protested this as they said it would denude Palestine of its assets. There was no comment from the administration to these charges. .
Nov. 22, 1947
An Arab was killed in Haifa by the Stern Gang following the killings of four other Arabs near Raanana on November 20..
Dec. 1, 1947
The Arab League announced on December 1 that premiers and foreign ministers of seven Arab states would meet in Cairo next week to plan strategy against partition. In Palestine: Jerusalem and the Jaffa Tel Aviv boundary zone were centers of week-long strife which began when seven Jews were killed throughout Palestine on November 30 and the mayor of Nablus, Arab nationalist center, proclaimed jihad or a holy war. British High Commissioner Sir Alan Cunningham warned the Arab Higher Command on December 1 that Britain was determined to keep order so long as it held its mandate, and police stopped Arab agitators from raising crowds in Jerusalem..
Dec. 2, 1947
Arabs looted and burned a three block Jewish business district in Jerusalem on December 2, the first day of a three day Arab general strike during which 20 Jews and 15 Arabs were killed. When British troops failed to intervene, Haganah came into the open for the first time in eight years to restrain large scale Jewish retaliation and also guard Jewish districts. Some Haganah men were arrested for possessing weapons. The day’s strife caused $1 million worth of damage and resulted in a 21 hour curfew being applied to Arab Jerusalem for the rest of the week. The curfew was extended to outlying roads on December 3 to stop stonings of Jewish traffic and keep rural Arabs out of the capital. Max Pinn, head of the Jewish Agency’s Trade and Transfer Deparunent was killed on December 2 when Arabs stoned his auto near Ramleh On this day dews stoned Arab buses in Jerusalem. On December 2, Haganah claimed to have mobilized 10,000 men in the intercity trouble zone, and the Arab Legion of Trans-Jordan reported on this date that it had reinforced Jaffa. Seven Jews were killed in Jaffa-Tel Aviv on this date. There were lesser attacks in Haifa this week. Also, the Syrian Parliament enacted a draft law and voted $860,000 for the relief of Palestinian Arabs. On the same day Arabs attacked the Jewish part of Aleppo. .
Dec. 3, 1947
On the Jaffa-Tel Aviv boundary, which also is under around-the clock curfew, the week’s heaviest battle was a six-hour clash between Haganah and Arabs on December 3 in which seven Jews and five Arabs were killed and 75 persons injured. .
Dec. 5, 1947
The United States Department of State announced on December 5,1947 that they were placing an embargo on all American arms shipments to the Middle East. On December 5, British military reinforcements were sent to Aden after four days of Arab-Jewish fighting in which 50 Jews and 25 Arabs were killed. .
Dec. 13, 1947
On December 13, bombings by the Irgun killed at least 16 Arabs and injured 67 more in Jerusalem and Jaffa and burned down a hundred Arab houses in Jaffa. In Syria, an anti-Jewish attack in rebaliation for the Irgun actions burned down a 2,750-year old synagogue in Aleppo and destroyed the priceless Ben-Asher Codex, a 10th century Hebrew Bible of original Old Testament manuscripts. .
Dec. 14, 1947
Regular troops of the Arab Legion of the Trans-Jordan Army killed 14 Jews and wounded nine Jews, two British soldiers and one Arab when they atbcked a bus convoy approaching their camp near Lydda. The Arabs said the Jews attacked them first. .
Dec. 17, 1947
British troops came to the aid of police sending off a raid by 100 Arabs on the Jewish settlement of Nevatim, seven miles west of Beersheba..
Dec. 18, 1947
Haganah killed 10 Arabs in a reprisal raid on Khisas in the north of the country..
Dec. 19, 1947
Reliable reports from Damascus state that Arab guerrillas are massing there in preparation to launching an attack into Palestine before the first of the year. .
Dec. 20, 1947
Haganah carried out another said on Arabs by atbcking the village of Qazasa near Rehovoth. One Arab was killed and two were wounded. .
Dec. 25, 1947
Emir Mohammed Zeinati, an Arab landowner, was killed in Haifa for selling land to the Jews. Stern gang members machine-gunned two British soldiers in a Tel Aviv cafe. .
Dec. 26, 1947
Armed Jewish underground members raided two diamond factories in Netanya and Tel Aviv and escaped with $107,000 in diamonds, cash and bonds. The Stern gang distributed leaflets reporting that Israel Levin, a member, was killed in Tel Aviv on December 24 for trying to betray a Stern Gang member. .
Dec. 29, 1947
Irgun members kidnaped and flogged a Briitish major and thzee sergeans in rebliation for the flogging of Benjamin Kimkhim who was also sentenced to 18 years in prison on December 27 for robbing a bank. The major, E. Brett, was seized in Netanya and the sergeants in Tel Aviv and Rishon el Siyon. Each got 18 lashes, the same number Kimkhim seceived. An Irgun bombing at the Damascus Gate in Jesusalem killed 11 Arabs and two Britons. .
Dec. 30, 1947
The Dollis Hill Synagogue in London was set on fire and 12 sacred scrolls wese destroyed by argry British citizens..
Arab Higher Committee for Palestine rejects UN Partition Plan.
Three Jews are hanged for involvement in Acre Prison break and two British sergeants are executed in reprisal.
Scrolls dating from approximately 22 B.C.E. are discovered at Qumran, near the Dead Sea.
1947 Construction begins on Tapline for Saudi oil.
January 4, 1948
A series of bombings inflicted heavy Arab casualties.14 were killed and 100 injured when the Stern gangdestroyed the Arab National Committee headquarters in Jaffa. .
January 5, 1948
Jerusalem. 15 Arabs were killed after Haganah bombed the Semirarnis Hotel..
January 7, 1948
14 Arabs were killed by two Irgun bombs at Jerusalem’s Jaffa gate.
January 12, 1948
Stem gang members looted Barclay’s Bank in Tel Aviv of $37,000.
January 13, 1948
The U.S. War Assets Administration received orders from Army Secretary Kenneth Royal to cancel its sale of 199 tons of M-3 explosive to a purchasing agent of the Jewish Agency, which got 73 tons out of the country before the rest was seized
Jan. 14-15, 1948
The FBI arrested six New York men on charges of trying to ship Haganah 60,000 pounds of TNT, which was seized in Jersey Gty after having been bought from the Letterkenny Arsenal Ordnance Depot in Chambersburg, Pennsylvania.
January 25, 1948
Following the deaths of ten Jews and two Arabs killed in a battle outside Jerusalem, British authorities stated that 721 Arabs, 408 Jews, 19 civilians and 12 British policemen (a total of 1,160) had been killed in an eight-week period that 1,171 Arabs, 749 Jews, 13 civilians and 37 British officers had been wounded.
1948 Standard Oil of New Jersey and Socony-Vacuum (both now ExxonMobil) buy interest in Aramco; company headquarters moved from San Francisco to New York.

Modern Israel & the Diaspora

JEWISH HISTORY TIMELINEFrom Abraham until Modern TimesEvents listed did not necessarily happen at the year listed, rather on or in-between that date and the next.

Jewish Date Jewish Events World Events Common Dates
1-2000 2000 years of tohu vavohu – null and void Creation, Flood, Babel  
1948 Birth of Abraham in Ur Chasdim, or Ur of the ChaldeasCenter of Sumerian culture. Early Bronze AgeNoachide Laws, Chaldean and Sumerian Culture 1812
1951 Abraham begins to doubt idols, and search for truth Ziggurats of Ur  
Jewish Date Jewish Events World Events Common Dates
2000 Beginning of the 2000 years of Torah   1760
2000 Abraham and Sarah start teaching Torah. Beginnings of monotheism as a way of life Code of Hammurabi 1760
20352048 Birth of Ishmael – son of Abraham and HagarBirth of Isaac. Circumcision of Abraham and his family   1712
2085 Akeidat Yitzchak. The Binding and Near Sacrifice of Isaac.Isaac and Rebecca. Jacob and Esau. Blessings and Birthright.    
2108 Jacob, Rachel & Leah, 12 Sons = 12 Tribes. Transition from being a family to being a nation. Jacob fights with the angel and is given the name Israel, Yisrael Hyksos, Shepherd kings, invade Egypt. 1652
2199 Joseph is sold by his brothers and is taken to Egypt.Eventually due to his dream interpretations he becomes the Viceroy of Egypt – Ztaphenat Phaneach Hyksos driven out of Egypt. 1561 1567
2238 Entry into Egypt by the 70 members of the family of Jacob Settlement in the Land of Goshen – Shepherds 18th Dynasty 1522
2331 Enslavement begins with the death of the last of the 12 sons of Jacob, Levi. Birth of Miriam. Amram, Levi’s grandson marries Yocheved, Levi’s daughter. They have 3 children Miriam, Aaron and Moses (Batya, daughter of Pharaoh finds Moses in Nile and brings him up in Pharaoh’s palace) Thutmose IV? Pitom (Tanis) & Ramses 1429
2368 Moses – Moshe – 5 levels of test before he is chosen as a prophet at the Burning Bush 1. Leaving palace to identify with brothers 2. Saving Jew from Egyptian oppression 3. Saving one Jew from another 4. Saving one stranger from another stranger. Justice, mercy and humility. 5. Brings water to sheep.   1392
2448 Exodus, Desert Plagues, Red Sea, Manna, Clouds of Glory, Well of Miriam. Thutmose III? 1312
2448 Revelation at Mt. Sinai. Written & Oral Laws given to the entire Jewish people – 3,000,000 prophets.. Moses’ prophecy and authority confirmed by personal experience of every Jew; therefore no prophets or miracles etc. may challenge laws received at Sinai. – Bava Metzia 59a – “Not in heaven.” Golden calf (replacement of Moses, not G-d!) Yom Kippur – atonement, Teshuvah, 2nd tablets. 12 spies & lack of faith – decree – 9thof Av.   1312
2488 Moses write 13 scrolls of the complete Torah and gives one to each tribe, and puts one in the Holy Ark.Death of Moses outside of Israel – burial place unknown   1273
2489 Joshua – disciple of Moses becomes the leader of the Jewish people. First ordination – semichah – in history.Entry into Israel – 10th of Nissan. Battle of Jericho, Rachav & spies. (Biblical Archaeology Review – pottery, grain intact, no looting, burnt, collapsed walls, Egyptian relics) 7 years of conquest, 7 years of settlement. East bank and West bank of Jordan. 31 Canaanite city states. Altar at Gilgal, Blessings & curses on Mt. Gerizim and Mt. Eival. Condition of entry to Israel was acceptance of the Torah.. Middle Bronze Age Interchange Period –(MBI)

Canaanite and Phoenician culture

dominate Israel

2515 Death of Joshua – Beginning of Period of Judges- Tribes independent – but advised and ruled by Judges. Philistines – Gaza 1245
Othniel, Ehud, Deborah, Gideon, Abimelech, Tola, Yair, Jeftah,Ibzan, Elon, Abdon, Samson, Eli. Pilegesh Begiva – Civil war!    
2885 Samuel – Chose Jerusalem as capital. Anointed Saul as first king of Israel – Saul loses kingdom – Amalek. Early Greek States founded 875
Natan the prophet anoints Solomon. (Samuel dies 28th Iyar – same day Temple Mount recaptured by Israel in 1967).    
Kings – David, Solomon – philosopher kings. Davidic Lineage starts. Psalms. Assyrian Empire  
2892 David becomes King of Israel. Anointed in Hebron and rules from there for 7 years, then moves to Jerusalem. (In 2889 Avner appoints Ish Boshet as king of Israel, who rules for two years)   869
2924 Solomon becomes King of Israel. Author of Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Song of Songs. Peace and prosperity. Concubines- improper conversions, Messianic hope?   837
2928 First Temple started (pomegranate relic, mines, stables) 10 continuous miracles of First Temple, Urim Vetumim – Divine Presence Rise of Assyrian Empire 832
2964 Division of Israel & Judea Rehovoam son of Solomon. Jeroboam. North-10 Tribes. South.- Judah, Benjamin, Priests & Levites. Elijah & prophets of Baal, Achaz & Jezebel   796
Jewish Date Jewish Events World Events Common Dates
3150 Isaiah-prophecies of Messianic times Homer 610
3199 Hezekiah – Chizkiyahu, becomes king of Judea. Potential Messiah – and considered one of the most righteous of kings.Under Hezekiah the kingdom became imbued with Torah learning Shalmanazer – King of Assyria conquers Israel. Settles Samaritans in North. 562
3205 Assyrians Exile the 10 Tribes. The (good?!) Samaritans. Theories of lost tribes- probably assimilated. King of Assyria invades Judea, beseiges Jerusalem. Senacherib – King of Assyria.Beginning of Rome 556
3298 Jeremiah begins his prophecies – predicts the destruction of the Temple. Confucious  
3320 Exile of Judah to Babylon in days of King Yehoyachin. Rise of Babylon  
3338 Babylonians destroy First Temple on the 9th of Av and exile the Jews to Babylon. Some flee to Europe. Walls breached on 7thof Tammuz, sacrifices stopped on 17th of Tammuz.Leave behind a remnant, ruled by Jewish governor, Gedaliah.

On 3rd of Tishrei, Gedaliah is assassinated by Jews.

Nebuchadnezar (According to Greek historians – Temple destroyed in 587) 423
3340 Jeremiah, Ezekiel Prophecies of destruction and exile, prophecies of return. Socrates, Plato 422
3340 Babylonian Exile, Daniel. Aramaic becomes Jewish language. Academies of Torah study. Autonomy of internal affairs.   421
3386 Proclamation of Cyrus, Return to Israel. Minority returns in Nissan – same month as Exodus from Egypt. Persian Empire 372
3390 Second Temple started Medean Empire 368
3393 Cambys, Achashverosh stops construction. Feast celebrating “extinction” of Jews. Scroll of Esther. 164 “missing” years.   365
3400 Purim, Mordechai, Ezra the Scribe Renewal of settlement in Israel in the Golan heights, on the West and East banks of the Jordan river. Peaceful conquest Aristotle 358
3408 Second Temple completed. End of Prophecy. Joy and tears – no Ark, no Urim Vetumim, none of the 10 miracles. 70 years after destruction Alexander the Great 353


Men of the Great Assembly establish the Liturgy. Shimon Hatzadik, the High Priest, meets Alexander of Macedon – transition – Prophets to sages. Transition changes confrontation, free-will requires equal & opposite Jewish prophets vs. pagans with supernatural powers – challenge Sages of the Oral Law vs. Greek philosophy (intellect vs. intellect) .Septuagint – Torah in Greek – Fast of 9thTevet Ptomelaic Empire in Egypt. Seleucids in Syria. 313


3648 Maccabean Revolt (Strong into hands of weak!) Decrees, Stadiums, Hellenism. Chanuka. Jew vs. Jew Ptolemies, Seleucids – Antiochus. Maccabees (Priests) become kings, form alliance with Rome against Greeks. Beginnings of sectarianism.   164 -> 168
Jonathan brother of Judah becomes king. In-fighting, intrigues and hatred among Hasomonean kings and family. Rise of Roman Empire 152
3696 Herod & Pompeii make deal – Israel joins Roman Empire Pompeii 62
3724 Herod – Paranoiac, persecutes sages. Renovates Temple to win popularity, Masada, Herodion (Ref. Josephus)   34 BCE
3700 Romans in the Land of Israel (invited)   10
3710 Philo of Alexandria   20
3770 Essenes – Dead Sea Scrolls Early Christians 10 CE
3728 Hillel and Shammai    
3788 Exile of Sanhedrin, Rabbi Yochanan ben Zachai    
3827 Rabban Gamliel. Yeshu Hanotzri? Roman Occupation Rome initially makes legal exceptions for Judaism, wants Jews as Roman allies not Seleucid allies. Era of Pairs. Roman taxes, decrees. End of great Sanhedrin.   67
The Great Revolt Titus 66 -> 73
3828 Romans destroy 2nd Temple – 9th of Av About 2,000,000 killed. Cruelty, Exile, Slavery. Ramban – Ki Tavo Rabbi Yochanan Ben Zakai – “Yavneh and its Sages” Prophecies in Deuteronomy 28:42 – Nachmanides commentary Vespasian 68
3830 Rabbi Akiva, Rabbi Meir (stam Mishnah R. Meir) 24,000 students. 4 into Pardes, Acher.    
3833 Masada, the Zealots – Talmudic silence Mikveh . 73
Josephus Flavius – Wars of the Jews, Antiquities, Contra-Appion.   38 -> 100
3893 Bar Kochba Revolt, Betar – 9th of Av. Rabbis support Bar Kochbah as Messiah until killed by Romans. Bar Kochba letters. Ten martyrs Hadrian 133
3950 Mishnah, Judah the Prince – Rabenu Hakadosh Scholar, Davidic lineage, righteous, Hebrew, wealth. Universal agreement Antonius 170 –190
3953 Pescennius Niger – “You ask me to relieve your lands of their taxes; would that I could tax the very air you breathe.”   193
Jewish Date Jewish Events World Events Common Dates
4000 2000 years of Messiah   240
4000 Rabbi Shimon Bar Yochai – The Zohar    
4073 Constantine forbids Jews in Jerusalem. Beginnings of theological anti-Semitism.Main focus of learning in the Jewish communities of Israel and Babylon becomes the Mishnah. Yarchei Kallah – communal study seminars convened regularly. Constantine – becomes Christian Rome/Byzantium split. Nicean Council decides on Christian dogma 313
4110 Jerusalem Talmud – R. Muna ben Yonah, R.Yosi ben Bun   350
4140 Hillel II – calendar. Theodosius forbids Sanhedrin to assemble, reaction to Julian’s pro-Jewish stance. Calendar adopted at clandestine, & maybe last meeting. Julian the Apostate 380
4260 Babylonian Talmud – Sof Horaah – End of Instruction   500
4360 Ravina and Rabbi Ashi. Rabanan Sevorai Last time that all Jewish scholars voted and discussed issues, thus equivalent authority of Sanhedrin. Geonic period begins Beginnings of Islam – Mohammed 600
4384 Jews reject Islam, expulsions from Arabia. Rejection by Jews of Islam turns into hatred of Jews by Moslems   624-628
4397 Arabs invade Israel   637
4392 Emperor Heraclius decrees Jews of Byzantium to be forced into Christianity. 613-661 also in Spain, Gaul & Italy.   632
4471 90% of Jews under Moslems. (Yellow badge) Generally better off under Islam than under Christianity – closer philosophically (monotheism) & genetically. Dhimmis, tolerated minority under Islam vs. persecuted minority under Christians. Judaism is only problematic to Islam, but is an absolute contradiction to Christianity. “Fight those who do not practice the religion of truth from among those to whom the Book has been brought, until they pay the tribute by their hands, and they be reduced low.” Koran – Sura 9:2. Khazars convert to Judaism. Moslem Arabs invade Spain 711
4527 Anan Ben David – Karaites – threat of schism. Opposition to Oral Law – Fire on Shabbat, cholentpikuach nefesh   767
4650 Rabbi Saadya Gaon (the Geonate) First systematic work of Jewish philosophy, partially to combat the Karaite challenge to tradition. Letter of Rav Sherira Gaon. Emperor Charlemagne-800 890
4715 Four captives – decentralization of Torah. Growth of European and Nth. African Torah centers. Rabeinu Gershom – Light of the Exile – decrees against forced divorce, polygamy, reading others’ mail. Decline of Babylonian Academies   955

4773 RIF – Rabbi Isaac Alfasi of Morocco creates first condensation and codification of Jewish Law – R. Zerachiah Halevi writes critique of code.   1013
4800 Rabbi Shlomo Yitzchaki – RaSHICommentaries on virtual all classic texts. Concise and deep. Systematic grammar, translations, elucidation of verses based on Midrash.Troyes, Mayence, Worms.   1040
Rabbi Avraham Ibn Ezra – Fight against Karaites using logic & grammar   1092
4856 9th of Av – Start of First Crusade resulting in widespread slaughter of Jewish communities in the Rhineland. Crusades 1096
Godfrey de Boullion – Leader of a Crusade – “Kill the heretics amongst us before going to Holy Land.”Jerusalem captured by the Crusaders   1096
4895 Maimonides – Rambam, R. Moses ben Maimon -student of the Spanish, Middle Eastern & Nth. African schools. Guide, Code, Book of the Commandments, 13 Principles of Faith, Commentary, Letters, Medical writings. Controversy, criticisms. Life in Egypt. Physician of Egyptian court. Saladin – leads Moslems in fight against Crusaders.(Patient of Rambam) 1135
4906 Expulsion from parts of Germany. Desecrating “host”, blood libels. Rabenu Yaakov Tam – Baalei HaTosfot – French and German schools.    
4906 Second Crusade   1146
4909 Almohades bring Islamic intolerance to Spain fostering the spread of Spanish-Jewish culture outside the borders of Spain particularly in Provence, at the crossroads of Sefarad and Ashkenaz. The Orient and Europe   1149
4910 R. Yehudah Hachasid – Chasidei Ashkenaz. Era of the Pietists of Germany Battle of Hastings1066 1150 – 1217
4920 Benjamin of Tudela – Travels of Benjamin   1160
4946 Expulsion from France   1186
4949 Third Crusade – Widespread massacres of Jews in England Richard Lion Heart 1189
4950 R. Yehudah Halevi – Kuzari, poems, Hebrew York massacre   1190
4954 Nachmanides (1194 – 1270) Ramban, Rabbi Moses ben Nachman. Defender of earlier sages (inc. Rambam) against attacks, Alfasi against R. Zerachiah Halevi. Commentaries- Tanach and Talmud, Kabbalah. Saladin in Jerusalem 1194
4992 Burning of Maimonides’ Guide in Provence (possibly causing – later book-burning by anti – Semitic authorities)   1232
5000 Aliyah of authors of Tosafot after disputation of R. Yechiel of Paris   1240
5002 Burning of Talmud in Paris – 24 cartloads. Fast day   1242

Disputation of Ramban with Pablo Christiani in – Barcelona, 20th July, 1263. Rabbi Meir of Rottenburg (imprisonment) – refuses ransom. Rabenu Yona of Gerona – Gates of Repentance. Rabbi Levi ben Gershon – Astronomer, inventor of Jacob’s Staff Expulsion from England – 9th of Av. Bodlean Library – Oxford – stolen and abandoned Jewish books. Edward I 1290
5064 Rashba – Cherem on study of philosophy for those under 25 years of age   1305
5065 Expulsion of Jews from most of France   1306
5116 Poisoning & conspiracy libels against Jews during Black Plague. Pogroms & expulsions. The Rashba of Barcelona, Spain. Rabenu Asher, the Rosh, fled from Germany to Toledo, Spain – nexus of Sephardi and Ashkenazi cultures enables son R. Yaakov combines scholarship of both in the Arbah Turim. Black Plague 1357
5155 Expulsion from Provence – Meiri, Raavad, Radak, Ibn Tibbon   1395
Ibn Tibbons translators- Arabic to Hebrew Expulsion- Austria Continuous insecurity in Europe; discrimination, expulsions e.g. Speyer: Jews out 1405, in 1421, out 1430, in 1434, out 1435, in 1465   1395
5213 Ottoman Turks capture Israel from Moslems creating impetus to Jewish settlement in Israel- although numbers small. Fall of Byzantium 1453
5235 First printing of Jewish books on printing press   1475
5252 Inquisition culminates with the expulsion from Spain on the 9th Av. Expulsions from Italy and Sicily Don Isaac Abarbanel – commentary on Tanach, advisor to Queen Isabella Columbus – refuge 1492
5257 Portuguese expulsion, Auto-de-Fe, Marranos.   1497
5280 First printing of Talmud – Daniel Bomberg, Venice. Censorship. Pagination, commentary selection and layout of Bomberg still used today. “Rashi” script used for first time in printing. Reformation. Luther – “The Jews & Their Lies.” Rejection leading to hatred 1520
5300 Kabbalists of Safed. Ari’Zal (1534-72) Rabbi Chaim VitalR. Shlomo Alkabetz – Lecha Dodi The Alsheich. Aliyah gradually increases.   1540
5325 Code of Jewish Law – Shulchan Aruch – Rabbi Yosef Karo (1488-1575) R. Moses Isserless (1525-1572) Israel – Sephardi Poland – Ashkenazi Universal acceptance, commentaries (Kitzur Shulchan Aruch – Condensed Code – Rabbi Shlomo Ganzfried – late 19th Century) Shakespeare – “Merchant of Venice” – No Jews in England since 1565
5408 Chmielnicki Pogroms – unspeakable cruelty Jews dejected, searching for hope, feeling of immanent Messianic revelation Total Jewish Pop.- 3.5 million Eastern Europe – 1.3 million.100,000 murdered, 300 communities destroyed. Russian – Polish WarBogdan Chmielnicki 1648
5411 Shabtai Zvi – False Messiah – charisma, asceticism mysticism   1651
5416 Spanish-Portuguese Jews, Touro – Rhode Island. First Jews in America. Peter Stuyvesent reluctant to admit Jews to New Amsterdam. Baruch Spinoza – forerunner of modern Bible criticism & perhaps unintentionally of modern anti-Semitism, excommunicated in Amsterdam.   1656
5423 Shabtai Tzvi meets Nathan of Gaza “Prophet” – Israel Misuse of Kabbalah. (Similarly Jacob Frank a century later)   1663
5426 S.T. Abolishes 9th of Av, declares march on Jerusalem to capture from Sultan. Imprisoned by Sultan, converts to Islam. Great Fire -London 1666
5427 R. David Halevi Segal – Taz, dies. 2 sons killed in pogroms, exiled to Moravia. One of the greatest commentaries on Code of Jewish Law together with R. Shabtai Cohen – Shach.    
5460 Rabbi Israel Baal Shem Tov – Chassidism – Galicia, Ukraine, Podolia. The Tzadik, songs, joy, popularization of Kabbalistic teachings, sincerity, fervor, prayer and spontaneity.. Frederick I 1700
5461 Moses Chaim Luzzatto – (RaMCHaL). Systematizing of Kabbalah into logical steps, accessibility to laymen (criticism!). Ethical classics – Path of the Just, The Way of G-d, plays, poetry. Leibnitz 1701
5473 R.Yehezkel Landau- Responsa Noda Biyehudah- Opposition to Chassidism Opposition to Kabbalistic prayers prior to performance of Mitzvot.   1713-1793
5480 The Gaon (Genius), R. Elijah of Vilna -GRA. Supremacy of Torah study through intellectual efforts of man. Opposition to Chassidism – Excesses due to emphasis on joy and spontaneity, charismatic leadership, popularization of Kabbalah (fear of Shabtai Zvi phenomenon), new customs, changes in liturgy. Rabbi Shneur Zalman of Liadi – Tanya – Chabad -LubavitchR. Chaim of Volozhin – Nefesh Hachaim. Volozhin – “Mother of Yeshivot” David Hume 1720
5516 Conflict of R. Yaakov Emden and R. Yonason Eybeshutz over accusations of Shabeteanism   1756
5536 Beginnings of liberalization in Western Europe – Some Jews allowed to live outside Ghettos American Revolution ends. Declaration of Independence 1776
5543 Moses Mendelssohn -“Religion due to Reason” German Biur of Torah. Children assimilate – grandchildren baptized. Pseudo-scientific, racial anti-Semitism. Fully blown in late 19th Century developing ultimately into Nazism in 20th century. Immanuel Kant Voltaire – “Religion of Reason” 1783
5549 The Emancipation – Emperor Franz-Josef grants citizenship to the Jews, entrance to universities and professions permission to leave ghettoes and enter society.Jacob Frank – false messiah in Poland died 1791 French Revolution 1789
5551 Equal rights for French Jews on condition. Napoleon – “For Jews as Jews nothing, for Jews as Frenchmen everything”“Sanhedrin.” Economic, social, intellectual and political pressure to assimilate. Four approaches – 1. Individual assimilation (Baptism, intermarriage) Heinrich Heine- “Baptism is the ticket of entry to European society” 2. Adaptation of Judaism to Zeitgeist (Reform, science of Judaism); S. Holdheim “we say merely this, anything which upon unbiased examination does not conform to the current religious spirit holds for us no authority.” 3. Isolation from emancipation and modernity (Chassidim, Chatam Sofer); 4. Involvement in modern world without compromising of Halachic standards (Rabbi S. R. Hirsch). NapoleonFrench Constitution 1791
5575 Immigration to Israel, Chassidim & students of GRA – Safed, Tiberias, Hebron, Jerusalem. R. Israel of Shklov – Peat Hashulchan – Code of Jewish Law for Israel Battle of Waterloo 1815
5578 Reform MovementHamburg Temple – bells, organ, German prayers and sermon   1818
5600 R. Samson Raphael Hirsch – Torah & Derech Eretz. Horeb, 19 Letters. Separate communities. German Kehillah. Jewish Day School. Damascus Blood Libel   1840
5614 R. Israel Salanter – the Mussar movement. Lithuania – Combating cold intellectualism, emphasis on ethics, self-improvement, general reinforcement of inner aspects of Judaism, Mussar, R. Israel Salanter – R. Isaac Blazer, R. Naftali Amsterdam, Alter of Kelm. Different approaches to self-improvement- Greatness of Man or lowliness of Man, self-criticism. Opposition to Mussar by many Yeshivot. e.g. Volozhin – “bitter medicine” only for the sick. Study of Torah provides ethics. Crimean War 1854
5641 Pogroms in the Ukraine. Benjamin Disraeli (1804-1881) Prime Minister Baptized by father. Alexander II killed – by Jewish anarchist May Laws- Backlash Emigration – USA, England,South Africa 1881
5645 Reform movement has open field in the USA Pittsburgh Platform 1885
5646 Treif Banquet – Reaction – Jewish Theological Seminary –Solomon Morais – Beginnings of Conservative Movement Rise of nationalism in Europe and Balkans. 1886
5654 Dreyfus Trial, Theodore Herzl, Max Nordau The Jewish State, conversion. Panama, Vatican Bank. Pales of settlement. Nicholas II- Russia 1894
5657 1st Zionist Congress, Basle. Agudas Israel founded as political representative of non- or anti-Zionist Orthodox Jews.   1897
5663 Vote on Israel vs. Uganda, Madagascar Sir Moses Montefiore, Rothchilds – Continue tradition of shtadlanim. Mass Immigrations- USA (2 million Jews by 1924) No official anti-Semitism; but no work for Shomrei Shabbos, ignorance, no Jewish education, alternatives to total abandonment exist, difficult to keep kosher – many abandon Orthodoxy for economic reasons. Many came with intent to abandon Judaism. Yiddish newspapers, left-wing e.g. Jewish Daily Forward, socialist and assimilationist. (Judaism unsuitable)Kishinev Pogrom   1903
5664 Conservative Movement – Solomon Schechter   1904
5665 Protocols – Nilus “Kill the Jews & save Russia” Pogroms   1905
5673 Beilis Trial – blood libel. Leo Frank lynched by mob in Georgia, USA, accused of murder. Bernard Malamud- The Fixer 1913
5674 First World War – Britain declares war on the 9th Av. Jews on both sides. 500,000 Jewish soldiers fought in War. 1st World War 1914
5677 The Balfour Declaration and Chaim Weizman. The Chafetz Chaim and the ethics of speech. Rabbi Chaim Soloveitchik of Brisk – Analysis vs. Pilpul. 3,250,000 Jews in the USA Demonstration and riots against Czar Nicholas II 1917
5677 Britain Captures Palestine from Turks – General Allenby with assistance of Nili spy network. Jews organize units in Britisharmy. Jabotinsky and Trumpeldor

Sarah Schnirer starts Jewish school for girls, Beit Yaacov movement begins to grow.

Bolshevik RevolutionLawrence of Arabia 1917
5679 60,000 Jews killed during Russian Revolution. Petlurya in Ukraine establishes independence pogroms begin, thousands of Jews brutally murdered. Ukrainian independence 1919
5680 British Mandate, the Hagganah & the Irgun White Papers 1939, Aliyah Bet, restraint & revolt. Arabs attack Jewish settlements in Israel, Trumpeldor killed in Tel Chai..M. Kaplan – Reconstructionism League of Nations 1920
5681 Arab riots in Jaffa, 47 Jews killed. 4 Jews killed defending Petach Tikvah End of Russian civil war, Communists in power. 1921
5684 Rabbi Meir Shapiro of Lublin begins the Daf Yomi program   1923
5689 120,000 Jews in Israel. 4,000,000 Jews in USAArab riots against Jews in Israel, including pogrom in Hebron in which 67 Jews brutally murdered.

Franz Rosenzweig – Assimilated German-Jewish philosopher returns to Judaism after 15 year search.

5696 18 Jews killed in Arab riots in Tel-Aviv-Jaffa, beginning of “Arab Revolt” that claimed the lives of 500 Jews over the next three years.   1936
5698 Kristallnacht pogrom in Germany, incited by Nazis, Jews attacked and killed,, businesses, homes and synagogues ransacked and burnt down. Tens of thousands sent to concentration camps. United States introduces 5 day work week. 1938
5699 Britain introduces “White Papers” drastically reducing Jewish immigration to Israel. Interns Jewish refugees in Cyprus, and in camps in Israel. Sends many back to Europe. Second World War begins with German invasion of Poland 1939
5699 The Holocaust – enthusiastic help of local population. Indifference of world – (While Six Million Died, Morse) Jewish spiritual heroism. (With G-d in Hell, Berkovitz)Warsaw Ghetto Revolt   1939


5708 The State of Israel, War of Independence UN vote, partition, Jewish refugees – 600,000! Arabs – 400,000. Renewal of Yeshivot Assimilation and secularization of Sephardi Jewry. Berlin Blockade 1948
5716 Sinai Campaign, War of Attrition Russia in Hungary 1956
Fedayeen, hijackings, snipers, Katushyas, bombs PLO Covenant 1964
5727 Six-Day War, Liberation of Jerusalem on 28th of Iyar. The Western Wall, Hebron in Jewish hands!. Russia breaks ties with Israel. Vatican calls for internationalization of Jerusalem Vietnam War 1967
5727 The Baal-Teshuva Movement – Return to JudaismRefuseniks. Founding of Yeshivot for beginners   1967
Identity. Ethnic and national awareness. Pride. Ohr Somayach   1971
5733 The Yom-Kippur War. Two day’s ammunition left before US airlift. 2,500 Israeli soldiers killed. More Israeli baalei teshuvah than ’67. Profound demoralization, increased emigration from Israel, lack of idealism amongst secular Zionists grows. WatergateArab Oil Embargo 1973
5737 Peace treaty with Egypt, Begin and Sadat Ethiopian Jews. Loss of Sinai peninsula. “Cold peace.” Arabs alienate Egypt 1977
5741 Israel bombs Iraqi nuclear reactor-worldwide condemnation UN resolution condemning attack sponsored by Kuwait!   1981
5742 The Lebanon War. Katushyas, hostages, terrorism . PLO’s state within a state. Siege of Beirut. Diaspora Jews criticize Israel..   1982
5749 Start of Intifada – massive unrest and violent protest by Palestinians – Ultimately leading to Oslo Accords   1987
5750 Mass Immigration of Russian Jews to Israel Glasnost-Perestroika 1990
5750 Iraqi missiles land in Israel- Population of Israel receives gas masks, seals rooms etc. Israel lauded for “restraint” 9th of Av- Iraq walks out of talks with Kuwait. Iraq invades Kuwait – US troops in Saudi Arabia – UN ultimatum January 15th – USA attacks Iraq 16th – Massive and continuous air bombardments. February 23 – Coalition forces enter Kuwait and Iraq – ground-war. Purim victory   1990
5751 Russian immigration continues. Albanian Jews make Aliyah. Rescue of Ethiopian Jewry.. Abandonment of Kurds. Syria in
5753 Signing of the Oslo Accords – Rabin and Arafat   1993
5756 Assassination of Prime Minister Rabin – wave of anti-religious sentiment sweeps country. Elections follow in which right-wing government of Likud under Netanyahu is elected   1995
6000 Beginning of 1000 years – Sabbath of the world.   2239


Also another notable article, that compares the calendars used by the babylonians versus those used by the jews: http://jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/3920-calendar-history-of#anchor1

In regards to the ‘Flood’, I posted an article some time ago:


There are some very different estimates from different sources about the number of people living in the times of Noah.


Now let’s see a source about ‘Timeline for the Flood’:

Source: https://answersingenesis.org/bible-timeline/timeline-for-the-flood/

So when exactly was the Flood?

For an accurate chronology on the Bible, including the time of the Flood, I highly recommend The Annals of the World by James Ussher, Adam’s Chart of HistoryNewton’s Revised History of Ancient Kingdoms, and Chronology of the Old Testament by Floyd Nolen Jones.

There are two possible ways of calculating the date. The first is from creation, and the other is from the present. I will focus on the date from creation since the latter would be much more involved. So here we go.

Table 1: Dates of biblical events from Creation

Event/Person Passage Total Time from Creation (years)
God created everything. Genesis 1–2 0
Adam became the father of Seth at 130. Genesis 5:3 0 + 130 = 130
Seth became the father of Enosh at 105. Genesis 5:6 130 + 105 = 235
Enosh became the father of Kenan at 90. Genesis 5:9 235 + 90 = 325
Cainan became the father of Mahalalel at 70. Genesis 5:12 325 + 70 = 395
Mahalalel became the father of Jared at 65. Genesis 5:15 395 + 65 = 460
Jared became the father of Enoch at 162. Genesis 5:18 460 + 162 = 622
Enoch became the father of Methuselah at 65. Genesis 5:21 622 + 65 = 687
Methuselah became the father of Lamech at 187. Genesis 5:25 687 + 187 = 874
Lamech became the father of Noah at 182. Genesis 5:28 874 + 182 = 1056
The Flood started when Noah was 600. Genesis 7:6 1056 + 600 = 1656

As you can see from Table 1, the year in which the Flood came was 1656 AM1 (Anno Mundi – “year of the world”). From the rest of the Old Testament and other well-documented historical events we understand that creation, as calculated by Ussher, was about 4004 BC. So with a little more math we can calculate the second date.

Calculated BC date for creation: 4004
Calculated AM date for the Flood: – 1656
Calculated BC date for the Flood: 2348
Current Year (minus one2): + 2011
Number of years since beginning of Flood: 4359

Using the Bible, well-documented historical events, and some math, we find that the Flood began approximately 4,359 years ago in the year 1656 AM or 2348 BC. Some may look for an exact date (i.e., month and day), but we are not given that sort of precision in Scripture.


  1. Since the Bible does not provide the number of months in the age of each patriarch listed from Adam to Noah, then we could add about five more years to this number. For example, Adam may have been 130 years and 10 months old when Seth was born, and Seth may have been 105 years and four months. On average, there would likely be an additional six months for each generation. The same would be true for the genealogy in Genesis 10.
  2. We need to subtract one year from this calculation since there was not a “year zero.” The calendar we use jumps from 1 BC to AD 1.


Now, here’s one skeptical view about the flood, which is one of the main purposes of this article: 

Source: http://www.deusdiapente.net/science/flood.php

Did The Biblical Flood Happen?

Written by mfaber at iidb.org

The Biblical flood did not happen. This is a falsifiable date.The Bible gives the date of the flood as beginning 2345 BCE and ending in 2344 BCE If this were really the world-wide gig claimed by creationists then the civilizations of the world would all show a disruption in their history or at least take note of such an event, but does the rest of archeology/history corroborate the Biblical account===> NO!

  1. The city of Ur of the Chaldees (ancient Sumer, location of the “plains of Shinar”, hangout of Noah) was the leading city from about 2400 BCE until about 2,285 BCE and its history is not broken by any flood in this period.
  2. Babylon was rising to power from about 2,400 BCE on and reached a great height of civilization under the famous King Hammurabi, who would have been a contempory of Hebrew patriarch Abraham (about 2,250 BCE), and again there is no break in this history due to a flood.
  3. In Egypt, the 5th Dynasty, which began to reign about 2,465 BCE, was followed by the 6th Dynasty (2,323 BCE), which ruled to about 2000 BCE. This time-period is very well-documented and there was no disruption during the 5th Dynasty at the time of Noah’s flood, 2,345 BCE, with the nation remaining strong and powerful throughout these dynasties.
  4. The Harappan Civilization(2300 – 1900 BCE) in India shows no disruptions at the time of the Flood and, ironically, appears to have ended because of a region-wide drought! (some used to think that an invasion was the cause, but the evidence points away from this earlier scenario).
  5. Chinese history begins nearly 3,000 BCE. The Shu-King historic record of China, shows that King Yao came to the throne in 2356 BCE and ruled China for many years after the alleged flood. Incidentally, durring the reign of Yao, the Shu King reports that the Hwang Ho River flooded on a number of times, for three generations, again with NO break in history. Please consult the History of China or THIS timeline. The only place you find these early rulers listed are at Chinese sites (spelled Tangyao, Westerners shorten this to Yao).
  6. Ancient civilizations in India which predate the Bible entirely and shows no evidence that such an event ever happened ( appearance of the oldest book of the Hindu religion, the Rig Veda pre-dates the Bible considerably, according to astronomical dating provided by astronomical events listed in the Rig Veda)

[It has already been mentioned here that] The Biblical Flood story looks a lot like the Epic of Gilgamesh “The Chaldean Flood Tablets from the city of Ur in what is now Southern Iraq, describe how the Bablylonian God Ea had decided to eliminate humans and other land animals with a great flood which was to become ‘the end of all flesh'”.

Some Biblical literalists claim that the Babylonians borrowed their ideas fro the Epic of Gilgamesh from the Genesis, but here are some reasons why that is extremely unlikely:

  1. For the simple reason that the first copies of this legend are in were written down about 2000 BCE in the Sumerian language on clay tablets which still survive.The earliest possible date for the writing of the Hebrew version is given as around 1000 BCE (according to THIS).
  2. The Jews would have been well aware of this legend (as captives of the Babylonians, descendents of the Akkadian / Sumerians). It is quite probable that they (the Jews) simply incorporated elements of this legend into their theology. Who do one think copied whom? It is far more likely that the Jews copied from their conquerors as opposed to a conquering race coping from a slave population.

As for the real source of many flood stories, the most likely one is that detailed HERE in the article from the National Geographic, The Black Sea and the Search for Noah’s Flood. A catastrophic Black See flood is the most probable source of the story and it is no where near a world-wide flood as alleged in the Bible.

Also see More Possible Sources of the Flood Story.

Also note that fewer than 50% of the world’s cultures have flood legends. In his book Die Flutsagen: Ehnthographisch Btrachtet(1891), Richard Andre collected a compendium of flood myths (~90 traditions) from around the world . Of these:

  • 26 were “descendants” of the Babylonian story
  • 43 are totally independent in time and place from the Babylonian story
  • Most telling was the absence of flood stories from much of Europe, northern and central Asia, Africa, Arabia, and Japan (very strange IF there a world-wide deluge…that all these places should have NOT ONE story).

Andre reached the conclusion that IF everyone were the descendants of a small number of survivors from a single flood, THEN there would be a flood story in every culture and these stories would be consistent with each other.

The physics of Noah’s Ark are impossible. The flexibility of the wood being used opens gaps wide enough to dump hundreds of gallons of water a minute into the “ship.”

As a ship that large floats, there are tremendous strains and stresses over its length, and wood is flexible enough to make it impossible to keep the hull together. Wood is fairly flexible when subjected to large strains – trees caught in torrential floods bend and don’t break. It’s why wooden ships only reached certain sizes during real-life world history, bigger ships had to be made out of steel.

Even many of the largest wood ships (still mucho smaller than the ark! According to the Biblical description, it was a barge roughtly the size that would fit inside of one of our football stadiums!) built by master shipwrights at the peak of the shipbuilding art required numerous pumps and countermeasures to avoid sinking.

by RAFH at iidb.org:

Actually it is not the strength, as in pounds per square inch of tension or compression that makes steel better than wood. Fact is they built large ships out of concrete during WW1. A dozen of them. The remains of one is attached to a pier at Seabright Beach State Park on Monterey Bay of California. Concrete is an excellent shipbuilding material and its compressive strength is only about 2000 to 5000 psi (they do make concretes up to 10,000 psi plus). That’s roughly the same as wood. Steel, by the way, is about 36,000 psi to 50,000 psi (although again, higher strengths are made).

The big difference is stiffness. The modulus of elasticity of wood ranges from 1,000,000 to 2,000,000 psi. Concrete and steel moduli are 29,000,000 psi. Big difference.

Modulus of elasticity is what controls stiffness and that’s what limits spans as in the length of a ship.

Another aspect is steel can be made in large sheets and those welded together. Concrete is by nature homogeneous. Wood, by nature, comes in smaller pieces which means a lot more seams and joints. The connections of these is another issue, screws and such hold better in steel than in wood, especially in working joints. More joints in more flexible materials means more working of the joints and the faster they will fail.

Shear strength is another issue to consider, wood is 100 to 300 psi, steel is 36,000 to 50,000 psi. It is the steel in concrete that overcomes concrete’s low unreinforced shear strength.

The situation with boats is much the same as with tall buildings and long bridges.

And, no, it is not possible to build a wooden ship of the dimensions noted for the ark. OK, you could build it but it would fall apart almost immediately even in calm water. In any kind of storm, it wouldn’t last an hour.

Funniest thing about all the ark designs, they never show any means of propulsion and without propulsion there is no way to direct a ship to go anywhere. Ships in storms face huge forces and its absolutely necessary to keep the ship as perpendicular to the waves as possible unless you have the ship set up to ‘lay to’. If a ship is traveling downwind, with the waves, if it doesn’t keep up a given speed it will not have steerage and it will broach. Even aircraft carriers and supertankers can not survive major broaching. One of the Iowa class battleship, arguably the strongest ships ever built, would be hard pressed to survive a major broach.

Anyway, there is never any form of propulsion shown or discussed. Certainly 8 humans, even if they weren’t worked to death caring for thousands of wild animals, would never be able to propel even a small ship in calm waters. In a storm, even trying would likely be fatal.

Here’s one reason large wooden ships have a limit: Hogging.

From that site:

“Until the 1920’s a large percentage of the world’s shipping consisted of large wooden ships and their plague, after plain old rot, was “hog”. A ship floating quietly in still water is subjected to external forces. These are the weight of the vessel on its cargo (downwards) and the buoyancy force (upwards). Archimedes showed us that for a floating vessel, these two forces must be equal in magnitude. For a floating rectangular piece of wood, they are also equal in distribution. For most normally shaped ships, the distribution is not equal. For example, when an empty ship has more weight (relatively heavy structure, engines and equipment) in the ends, and more buoyancy in the middle. This “excess” of buoyancy in the middle cause the middle to rise up and the ends to bend down — a hog in profile. The opposite condition is sagging. For old wooden ships, this resulted in a long term, plastic deformation. The total curvature could be a meter or more in larger vessels. Some vessels like the Wapama hogged so much that they nearly broke in two. Hogging is no longer the problem it was in the 1920’s when it threatened the nation’s merchant fleet — because those ships have sunk!“Wooden ships, even wooden warships like USS Constitution, are actually quite weak even when new. Although solid shot may have ricocheted from their sides, they are generally unable, over time, to resist the fairly small forces they are subjected to moored in still water. There is a false idea that amazingly still has some following, that wooden ships were strong because they would flex. In fact, relative movement between structural members allows fresh water to enter the hull structure, carrying rot fungus spores deep inside.

“Engineers have often attempted to analyze the structures of wooden ships as if they were homogeneous box girders. This is a common misapplication of beam theory. Actually, a wooden ship, especially as it ages, more closely resembles a rather weakly bound bundle of reeds. These reeds are free to slide past each other. If traditionally built wooden ships were box girders, then one would expect to see many tensile failures amidships in the upper deck of a severely hogged vessel; however, this is not the case. Failures in longitudinal structure are infrequent and tend to be scattered almost uniformly throughout the vessel. The idea of “strength decks” or “extreme fiber” is largely irrelevant to the meaningful analysis of old wooden ships. Microscopic investigation reveal a generally low level of stress in “hogged” structural members. There often is evidence of plastic behavior, creep, around fastenings. Large overall deflections in the hull can be achieved with a very small amount of creep around the fastenings.

“The bundle of reeds metaphor implies that the ship is comparatively poor at resisting longitudinal loads due to a weakness in shear. Wooden ships are generally stiffer in lateral loading since the transverse frames are like individual beams. As a vessel ages and softens, even these relatively stiff beams can suffer large creep deflections. USS Constellation is an extreme example of an old, soft wooden ship and probably has large lateral deflections as well as hog — behaving more like a wet wicker basket than a bundle of reeds. Pushing up on the bottom of the basket causes the sides to bulge out and the bilges to drop. This is evidently the case since the keel has deflected over two feet and there is much less curvature in the upper decks. The vessel is also soft transversely. That is apparent from the curvature of the gun deck which is hogged in several distinct undulations. The upward force on the bottom comes from an unequal distribution of the weight and buoyancy forces on the vessel. In a newer, stiffer vessel it is possible to minimize this net force by the judicious placement of ballast both longitudinally and transversely in the bottom of the vessel. Here’s a link to a TCM paper on hogging”

As for the affect the downpour would have on the Earth:

written by Gawen at iidb.org

First- the global flood supposedly (Scripturally) covered the planet, […]and Mount Everest is 8,848 meters tall. The diameter of the earth at the equator, on the other hand, is 12,756.8 km. All we have to do is calculate the volume of water to fill a sphere with a radius of the Earth + Mount Everest; then we subtract the volume of a sphere with a radius of the Earth. Now, I know this won’t yield a perfect result, because the Earth isn’t a perfect sphere, but it will serve to give a general idea about the amounts involved.

So, here are the calculations:

First, Everest

V= 4/3 * pi * r cubed
= 4/3 * pi * 6387.248 km cubed
= 1.09151 x 10 to the 12 cubic kilometres (1.09151×102 km3)

Now, the Earth at sea level

V = 4/3 * pi * r cubed
= 4/3 * pi * 6378.4 km cubed
= 1.08698 x 10 to the 12 cubic kilometres (1.08698×1012 km3)

The difference between these two figures is the amount of water needed to just cover the Earth:

4.525 x 10 to the ninth cubic kilometres (4.525×1009 km3) Or, to put into a more sensible number, 4,525,000,000,000 cubic kilometres

This is one helluva lot of water.

For those who think it might come from the polar ice caps, please don’t forget that water is more dense than ice, and thus that the volume of ice present in those ice caps would have to be more than the volume of water necessary.

Some interesting physical effects of all that water, too. How much weight do you think that is? Well, water at STP weighs in at 1 gram/cubic centimetre (by definition)…so,

4.252×1009 km3 of water,
X 106 (= cubic meters),
X 106 (= cubic centimetres),
X 1 g/cm3 (= grams),
X 10-3 (= kilograms),
(turn the crank)
equals 4.525E+21 kg.

Ever wonder what the effects of that much weight would be? Well, many times in the near past (i.e., the Pleistocene), continental ice sheets covered many of the northern states and most all of Canada. For the sake of argument, let’s call the area covered by the Wisconsinian advance (the latest and greatest) was 10,000,000,000 (ten million) km2, by an average thickness of 1 km of ice (a good estimate…it was thicker in some areas [the zones of accumulation] and much thinner elsewhere [at the ablating edges]). Now, 1.00×1007 km2 X 1 km thickness equals 1.00E+07 km3 of ice.

Now, remember earlier that we noted that it would take 4.525×1009 km3 of water for the flood? Well, looking at the Wisconsinian glaciation, all that ice (which is frozen water, remember?) would be precisely 0.222% […do the math](that’s zero decimal two hundred twenty two thousandths) percent of the water needed for the flood.

Well, the Wisconsinian glacial stade ended about 25,000 YBP (years before present), as compared for the approximately supposedly 4,000 YBP flood event.

Due to these late Pleistocene glaciations (some 21,000 years preceding the supposed flood), the mass of the ice has actually depressed the crust of the Earth. That crust, now that the ice is gone, is slowly rising (called glacial rebound); and this rebound can be measured, in places (like northern Wisconsin), in centimetres/year. Sea level was also lowered some 10’s of meters due to the very finite amount of water in the Earth’s hydrosphere being locked up in glacial ice sheets (geologists call this glacioeustacy).

Now, glacial rebound can only be measured, obviously, in glaciated terranes, i.e., the Sahara is not rebounding as it was not glaciated during the Pleistocene. This lack of rebound is noted by laser ranged interferometery and satellite geodesy [so there], as well as by geomorphology. Glacial striae on bedrock, eskers, tills, moraines, rouche moutenees, drumlins, kame and kettle topography, fjords, deranged fluvial drainage and erratic blocks all betray a glacier’s passage. Needless to say, these geomorphological expressions are not found everywhere on Earth (for instance, like the Sahara). Therefore, although extensive, the glaciers were a local (not global) is scale. Yet, at only 0.222% the size of the supposed flood, they have had a PROFOUND and EASILY recognisable and measurable effects on the lands.

Yet, the supposed flood of Noah, supposedly global in extent, supposedly much more recent, and supposedly orders of magnitude larger in scale; has exactly zero measurable effects and zero evidence for it’s occurrence.

Golly, Wally. I wonder why that may be…?

Further, Mount Everest extends through 2/3 of the Earth’s atmosphere. Since two forms of matter can’t occupy the same space, we have an additional problem with the atmosphere. Its current boundary marks the point at which gasses of the atmosphere can escape the Earth’s gravitational field. Even allowing for partial dissolving of the atmosphere into our huge ocean, we’d lose the vast majority of our atmosphere as it is raised some 5.155 km higher by the rising flood waters; and it boils off into space.

Yet, we still have a quite thick and nicely breathable atmosphere. In fact, ice cores from Antarctica (as well as deep-sea sediment cores) which can be geochemically tested for paleoatmospheric constituents and relative gas ratios; and these records extend well back into the Pleistocene, far more than the supposed 4,000 YBP flood event. Strange that this major loss of atmosphere, atmospheric fractionation (lighter gasses (oxygen, nitrogen, fluorine, neon, etc.) would have boiled off first in the flood-water rising scenario, enriching what remained with heavier gasses (argon, krypton, xenon, radon, etc.)), and massive extinctions from such global upheavals are totally unevidenced in these cores.

Even further, let us take a realistic and dispassionate look at the other claims relating to global flooding and other such biblical nonsense.

Particularly, in order to flood the Earth to the Genesis requisite depth of 10 cubits (~15′ or 5 m.) above the summit of Mt. Ararat (16,900′ or 5,151 m AMSL), it would obviously require a water depth of 16,915′ (5,155.7 m), or over three miles above mean sea level. In order to accomplish this little task, it would require the previously noted additional 4.525 x 109 km3 of water to flood the Earth to this depth. The Earth’s present hydrosphere (the sum total of all waters in, on and above the Earth) totals only 1.37 x 109 km3. Where would this additional 4.525 x 109 km3 of water come from? It cannot come from water vapour (i.e., clouds) because the atmospheric pressure would be 840 times greater than standard pressure of the atmosphere today. Further, the latent heat released when the vapour condenses into liquid water would be enough to raise the temperature of the Earth’s atmosphere to approximately 3,570 C (6,460 F).

Someone, who shall properly remain anonymous, suggested that all the water needed to flood the Earth existed as liquid water surrounding the globe (i.e., a “vapour canopy”). This, of course, it staggeringly stupid. What is keeping that much water from falling to the Earth? There is a little property called gravity that would cause it to fall.

Let’s look into that from a physical standpoint. To flood the Earth, we have already seen that it would require 4.252 x 109 km3 of water with a mass of 4.525 x 1021 kg. When this amount of water is floating about the Earth’s surface, it stored an enormous amount of potential energy, which is converted to kinetic energy when it falls, which, in turn, is converted to heat upon impact with the Earth. The amount of heat released is immense:

Potential energy: E=M*g*H, where
M = mass of water,
g = gravitational constant and,
H = height of water above surface.

Now, going with the Genesis version of the Noachian Deluge as lasting 40 days and nights, the amount of mass falling to Earth each day is 4.525 x 1021 kg/40 24 hr. periods. This equals 1.10675 x 1020 kilograms daily. Using H as 10 miles (16,000 meters), the energy released each day is 1.73584 x 1025 joules. The amount of energy the Earth would have to radiate per m2/sec is energy divided by surface area of the Earth times number of seconds in one day. That is: e = 1.735384 x 1025/(4*3.14159* ((6386)2*86,400)) = 391,935.0958 j/m2/s.

Currently, the Earth radiates energy at the rate of approximately 215 joules/m2/sec and the average temperature is 280 K. Using the Stefan- Boltzman 4’th power law to calculate the increase in temperature:

E (increase)/E (normal) = T (increase)/T4 (normal)
E (normal) = 215 E (increase) = 391,935.0958 T (normal) = 280.

Turn the crank, and T (increase) equals 1800 K.

The temperature would thusly rise 1800 K, or 1,526.84 C (that’s 2,780.33 F…lead melts at 880 F…ed note). It would be highly unlikely that anything short of fused quartz would survive such an onslaught. Also, the water level would have to rise at an average rate of 5.5 inches/min; and in 13 minutes would be in excess of 6′ deep.

Finally, at 1800 K water would not exist as liquid.

Noah’s flood simply did not happen – unless you appeal to miracles. But appealing to miracles is epistemically worthless since they are unfalsifiable.

This is the end of the ‘skeptical’ article.

In my opinion, it is disputable because evidence can be fabricated by whomever wants to provide a specific narrative. The only way to be sure is to go in the past and see for yourself.

There is historical narrative that overlaps the Flood. Some consider it fact, some consider it fairy tales.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yellow_Emperor (2697–2597 or 2698–2598 BC)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emperor_Ku  (2436-2366 BCE)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emperor_Yao (2333-2234 BCE)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emperor_Shun (2233-2184 BC)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yu_the_Great  (2200-2101 BC)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Three_Sovereigns_and_Five_Emperors (from circa 2852 BC to 2070 BC)


Also, in these chinese legends, there is a Flood:

Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Flood_(China)

The Great Flood of Gun-Yu (traditional Chinese鯀禹治水), also known as the Gun-Yu myth,[1] was a major flood event in ancient China that allegedly continued for at least two generations, which resulted in great population displacements among other disasters, such as storms and famine. People left their homes to live on the high hills and mounts, or nest on the trees.[2] According to mythological and historical sources, it is traditionally dated to the third millennium BCE, during the reign of Emperor Yao. Archaeological evidence of an outburst flood on the Yellow River (possibly among the worst anywhere in the world in the past 10,000 years) has been dated to about 1920 BCE (several centuries later than the traditional recorded beginning of the Xia dynasty), and is suggested to have been the basis for the myth.[3]

Treated either historically or mythologically, the story of the Great Flood and the heroic attempts of the various human characters to control it and to abate the disaster is a narrative fundamental to Chinese culture. Among other things, the Great Flood of China is key to understanding the history of the founding of both the Xia dynasty and the Zhou dynasty, it is also one of the main flood motifs in Chinese mythology, and it is a major source of allusion in Classical Chinese poetry.

More about China’s timeline: 



Now, for the Hindu timeline:

Source: http://ompage.net/Text/hindutimeline.htm

Hindu Timeline

How to Read the TimelineNot all major ruling dynasties are included, for at times India was divided into dozens of small independent
kingdoms. Approximate dates are preceded by the letter “ca,” an abbreviation of the word “circa,” which 
denotes “about,” “around” or “in approximately.” all dates prior to Buddha (624 bce) are considered estimates.

bce: Abbreviation for “before common era,” referring to dating prior to the year
zero in the Western, or Gregorian calendar, system.

ce: Abbreviation for “common era.” Equivalent to the abbreviation ad. Following a
date, it indicates that the year in question comes after the year zero in the Western,
or Gregorian calendar, system. 

Hindu Timeline Part 1
-2.5m to -1000bce-2.5 m: Genus Homo originates in Africa, cradle of humanity.

-2 m: Stone artifacts are made and used by hominids in North India, an area rich in
animal species, including the elephant.

-500,000: Stone hand axes and other tools are used in N. India.

-470,000: India’s hominids are active in Tamil Nadu and Punjab.

-400,000: Soan culture in India is using primitive chopping tools.

-360,000: Fire is first controlled by homo erectus in China.

-300,000: Homo sapiens roams the earth, from Africa to Asia.

-100,000: Homo sapiens sapiens (humans) with 20th-century man’s brain size
(1,450 cc) live in East Africa. Populations separate. Migrations proceed to Asia via
the Isthmus of Suez.

-75,000: Last ice age begins. Human population is 1.7 million.

-45,000: After mastery of marine navigation, migrations from Southeast Asia settle
Australia and the Pacific islands.

-40,000: Groups of hunter-gatherers in Central India are living in painted rock
shelters. Similar groups in Northern Punjab work at open sites protected by

-35,000: Migrations of separated Asian populations settle Europe.

-30,000: American Indians spread throughout the Americas.

-10,000: Last ice age ends after 65,000 years; earliest signs of agriculture. World
population 4 million; India is 100,000.

-10,000: Taittiriya Brahmana 3.1.2 refers to Purvabhadrapada nakshatra’s rising
due east, a phenomenon occurring at this date (Dr. B.G. Siddharth of Birla Science
Institute), indicating the earliest known dating of the sacred Veda.

-10,000: Vedic culture, the essence of humanity’s eternal wisdom, Sanatana
Dharma, lives in the Himalayas at end of Ice Age.

-9000: Old Europe, Anatolia and Minoan Crete display a Goddess-centered culture
reflecting a matriarchial order.

-8500: Taittiriya Samhita 6.5.3 places Pleiades asterism at winter solstice,
suggesting the antiquity of this Veda.

-7500: Excavations at Neveli Cori in Turkey reveal advanced civilization with
meticulous architecture and planning. Dr. Sri B.G. Siddharth believes this was a
Vedic culture.

-7000: Proto-Vedic period ends. Early Vedic period begins.

-7000: Time of Manu Vaivasvata, “father of mankind,” of Sarasvati-Drishadvati
area (also said to be a South Indian Maharaja who sailed to the Himalayas during a
great flood).

-7000: Early evidence of horses in the Ganga region (Frawley).

-7000: Indus-Sarasvati area residents of Mehrgarh grow barley, raise sheep and
goats. They store grain, entomb their dead and construct buildings of sun-baked
mud bricks.

-6776: Start of Hindu lists of kings according to ancient Greek references that give
Hindus 150 kings and a history of 6,400 years before 300bce; agrees with next

-6500: Rig Veda verses (e.g., 1.117.22, 1.116.12, say winter solstice
begins in Aries (according to Dr. D. Frawley), indicating the antiquity of this section
of the Vedas.

-6000: Early sites on the Sarasvati River, then India’s largest, flowing west of Delhi
into the Rann of Kutch; Rajasthan is a fertile region with much grassland, as
described in the Rig Veda. The culture, based upon barley (yava), copper (ayas)
and cattle, also reflects that of the Rig Veda.

-5500: Mehrgarh villagers are making baked pottery and thousands of small, clay of
female figurines (interpreted to be earliest signs of Shakti worship), and are involved
in long-distance trade in precious stones and sea shells.

-5500: Date of astrological observations associated with ancient events later
mentioned in the Puranas (Alain Danielou).

-5000: World population, 5 million, doubles every 1,000 years.

-5000: Beginnings of Indus-Sarasvati civilizations of Harappa and Mohenjo-daro.
Date derived by considering archeological sites, reached after excavating 45 feet.
Brick fire altars exist in many houses, suggesting Vedic fire rites, yajna. Earliest
signs of worship of Lord Siva. This mature culture will last 3,000 years, ending
around -1700.

-5000: Rice is harvested in China, with grains found in baked bricks. But its
cultivation originated in Eastern India.

-4300: Traditional dating for Lord Rama’s time.

-4000: Excavations from this period at Sumerian sites of Kish and Susa reveal
existence of Indian trade products.

-4000: India’s population is 1 million.

-4000: Date of world’s creation (Christian genealogies).

-3928: July 25th, the earliest eclipse mentioned in the Rig Veda (according to Indian
researcher Dr. Shri P.C. Sengupta).

-3200: Hindu astronomers called nakshatra darshas record in Vedic texts their
observations of full moon and new moon at the winter and summer solstices and
spring and fall equinoxes with reference to 27 fixed stars (nakshatras) spaced nearly
equally on the moon’s ecliptic or apparent path across the sky. The precession of
the equinoxes (caused by the wobbling of the Earth’s axis of rotation) causes the
nakshatras to appear to drift at a constant rate along a predictable course over a
25,000-year cycle. From these observations historians are able to calculate
backwards and determine the date when the indicated position of moon, sun and
nakshatra occurred.

-3102: Kali Era Hindu calendar starts. Kali Yuga begins.

-3100: Reference to vernal equinox in Rohini (middle of Taurus) from some
Brahmanas, as noted by B.G. Tilak, Indian scholar and patriot. Traditional date of
the Mahabharata war and lifetime of Lord Krishna.

-3100: Early Vedic period ends, late Vedic period begins.

-3100: India includes Afghanistan and parts of Central Asia.

-3100: Aryan people inhabit Iran, Iraq and Western Indus-Sarasvati Valley frontier.
Frawley describes Aryans as “a culture of spiritual knowledge.” He and others
believe 1) the Land of Seven Rivers (Sapta Sindhu) mentioned in the Rig Veda
refers to India only, 2) that the people of Indus-Sarasvati Valleys and those of Rig
Veda are the same, and 3) there was no Aryan invasion. This view is now
prevailing over the West’s historical concept of the Aryans as a separate ethnic or
linguistic group. Still others claim the Indus-Sarasvati people were Dravidians who
moved out or were displaced by incoming Aryans.

-3000: Weaving in Europe, Near East and Indus-Sarasvati Valley is primarily coiled
basketry, either spiraled or sewn.

-3000: Evidence of horses in South India.

-3000: People of Tehuacan, Mexico, are cultivating corn.

-3000: Saiva Agamas are recorded in the time of the earliest Tamil Sangam. (A
traditional date.)

-2700: Seals of Indus-Sarasvati Valley indicate Siva worship, in depictions of Siva
as Pashupati, Lord of Animals.

-2600: Indus-Sarasvati civilization reaches a height it sustains until 1700 bce.
Spreading from Pakistan to Gujarat, Punjab and Uttar Pradesh, it is the largest of
the world’s three oldest civilizations with links to Mesopotamia (possibly Crete),
Afghanisthan, Central Asia and Karnataka. Harappa and Mohenjo-daro have
populations of 100,000.

-2600: Major portions of the Veda hymns are composed during the reign of
Vishvamitra I (Dating by Dr. S.B. Roy).

-2600: Drying up of Drishadvati River of Vedic fame, along with possible shifting of
the Yamuna to flow into the Ganga.

-2600: First Egyptian pyramid is under construction.

-2500: Main period of Indus-Sarasvati cities. Culture relies heavily on rice and
cotton, as mentioned in Atharva Veda, which were first developed in India. Ninety
percent of sites are along the Sarasvati, the region’s agricultural bread basket.
Mohenjo-daro is a large peripheral trading center. Rakhigari and Ganweriwala (not
yet excavated in 1994) on the Sarasvati are as big as Mohenjo-daro. So is
Dholarvira in Kutch. Indus-Sarasvati sites have been found as far south as
Karnataka’s Godavari River and north into Afghanistan on the Amu Darya River.

-2500: Reference to vernal equinox in Krittika (Pleiades or early Taurus) from
Yajur and Atharva Veda hymns and Brahmanas. This corresponds to Harappan
seals that show seven women (the Krittikas) tending a fire.

-2300: Sargon founds Mesopotamian kingdom of Akkad, trades with
Indus-Sarasvati Valley cities.

-2300: Indo-Europeans in Russia’s Ural steppelands develop efficient spoked-wheel
chariot technology, using 1,000-year-old horse husbandry and freight-cart

-2050: Vedic people are living in Persia and Afghanistan.

-2051: Divodasa reigns to -1961, has contact with Babylon’s King Indatu
(Babylonian chronology). Dating by S.B. Roy.

ca -2040: Prince Rama is born at Ayodhya, site of future Rama temple. (This and
next two datings by S.B. Roy.)

-2033: Reign of Dasharatha, father of Lord Rama. King Ravana, villain of the
Ramayana, reigns in Sri Lanka.

-2000: Indo-Europeans (Celts, Slavs, Lithuanians, Ukranians) follow cosmology,
theology, astronomy, ritual, society and marriage that parallel early Vedic patterns.

-2000: Probable date of first written Saiva Agamas.

-2000: World population: 27 million. India: 5 million or 22%. India has roughly G of
human race throughout history.

-1915: All Madurai Tamil Sangam is held at Thiruparankundram (according to
traditional Tamil chronology).

-1900: Late Vedic period ends, post Vedic period begins.

-1900: Drying up of Sarasvati River, end of Indus-Sarasvati culture, end of the
Vedic age. After this, the center of civilization in ancient India relocates from the
Sarasvati to the Ganga, along with possible migration of Vedic peoples out of India
to the Near East (perhaps giving rise to the Mittani and Kassites, who worship
Vedic Gods). The redirection of the Sutlej into the Indus causes the Indus area to
flood. Climate changes make the Sarasvati region too dry for habitation. (Thought
lost, its river bed is finally photographed from satellite in the 1990s.)

-1500: Egyptians bury their royalty in the Valley of the Kings.

-1500: Polynesians migrate throughout Pacific islands.

-1500: Submergence of the stone port city of Dwarka near Gujarat, where early
Brahmi script, India’s ancient alphabet, is used. Recent excavation by Dr. S.R. Rao.
Larger than Mohenjo-daro, many identify it with the Dwarka of Krishna. Possible
date of Lord Krishna. Indicates second urbanization phase of India between
Indus-Sarasvati sites like Harappa and later cities on the Ganga.

-1500: Indigenous iron technology in Dwarka and Kashmir.

-1500: Cinnamon is exported from Kerala to Middle East.

-1472: Reign of Dhritarashtra, father of the Kauravas. Reign of Yudhisthira, king of
the Pandavas. Life of Sage Yajnavalkya. Date based on Mahabharata’s citation of
winter solstice at Dhanishtha, which occurs around this time.

-1450: End of Rig Veda Samhita narration.

-1450: Early Upanishads are composed during the next few hundred years, also
Vedangas and Sutra literature.

-1424: Bharata battle is fought, as related in the Mahabharata. (Professor Subash
Kak places the battle at -2449. Other authors give lower dates, up to 9th century

-1424: Birth of Parikshit, grandson of Arjuna, and next king.

-1350: At Boghaz Koi in Turkey, stone inscription of the Mitanni treaty lists as
divine witnesses the Vedic Deities Mitra, Varuna, Indra and the Nasatyas (Ashvins).

-1316: Mahabharata epic poem is composed by Sage Vyasa.

-1300: Panini composes Ashtadhyayi, systematizing Sanskrit grammar in 4,000
terse rules. (Date according to Roy.)

-1300: Changes are made in the Mahabharata and Ramayana through 200 bce.
Puranas are edited up until 400 ce. Early smriti literature is composed over next 400

-1255: King Shuchi of Magadha writes Jyotisha Vedanga, including astronomical
observations which date this scripture-that summer solstice occurs in Ashlesha

-1250: Moses leads 600,000 Jews out of Egypt.

-1200: Probable time of the legendary Greek Trojan War celebrated in Homer’s
epic poems, Iliad and Odyssey (ca -750).

-1124: Elamite Dynasty of Nebuchadnezzar (-1124-1103) moves capital to
Babylon, world’s largest city, covering 10,000 hectares, slightly larger than
present-day San Francisco.

-1000: Late Vedic period ends. Post-Vedic period begins. 

Hindu Timeline Part 2
-1000bce to 1000ce

-1000: World population is 50 million, doubling every 500 years.

-975: King Hiram of Phoenicia, for the sake of King Solomon of Israel, trades with
the port of Ophir (Sanskrit: Supara) near modern Bombay, showing the trade
between Israel and India. Same trade goes back to Harappan era.

-950: Jewish people arrive in India in King Solomon’s merchant fleet. Later Jewish
colonies find India a tolerant home.

-950: Gradual breakdown of Sanskrit as a spoken language occurs over the next
200 years.

-925: Jewish King David forms an empire in what is present-day Israel and

-900: Iron Age in India. Early use dates to at least -1500.

ca -900: Earliest records of the holy city of Varanasi (one of the world’s oldest
living cities) on the sacred river Ganga.

-900: Use of iron supplements bronze in Greece.

-850: The Chinese are using the 28-nakshatra zodiac called Shiu, adapted from the
Hindu jyotisha system.

ca -800: Later Upanishads are recorded.

-800: Later smriti, secondary Hindu scripture, is composed, elaborated and
developed during next 1,000 years.

-776: First Olympic Games are held in Greece.

-750: Prakrits, vernacular or “natural” languages, develop among India’s common
peoples. Already flourishing in 500 bce , Pali and other Prakrits are chiefly known
from Buddhist and Jain works composed at this time.

-750: Priestly Sanskrit is gradually refined over next 500 years, taking on its
classical form.

-700: Life of Zoroaster of Persia, founder of Zoroastrianism. His holy book, Zend
Avesta, contains many verses from the Rig and Atharva Veda. His strong
distinctions between good and evil set the dualistic tone of God and devil which
distinguishes all later Western religions.

-700: Early Smartism emerges from the syncretic Vedic brahminical (priestly caste)
tradition. It flourishes today as a liberal sect alongside Saiva, Vaishnava and Shakta

-623-543: Life of Siddhartha Gautama, the Buddha, born in Uttar Pradesh in a
princely Shakya Saivite family. (Date by Sri Lankan Buddhists. Indian scholars say
-563-483. Mahayanists of China and Japan prefer -566-486 or later.)

ca -600: Life of Sushruta, of Varanasi, the father of surgery. His ayurvedic treatises
cover pulse diagnosis, hernia, cataract, cosmetic surgery, medical ethics, 121
surgical implements, antiseptics, use of drugs to control bleeding, toxicology,
psychiatry, classification of burns, midwifery, surgical anesthesia and therapeutics
of garlic.

ca -600: The Ajivika sect, an ascetic, atheistic group of naked sadhus reputated for
fierce curses, is at its height, continuing in Mysore until the 14th century.
Adversaries of both Buddha and Mahavira, their philosophy is deterministic, holding
that everything is inevitable.

ca -600: Lifetime of Lao-tzu, founder of Taoism in China, author of Tao-te Ching.
Its esoteric teachings of simplicity and selflessness shape Chinese life for 2,000
years and permeate the religions of Vietnam, Japan and Korea.

-599-527: Lifetime of Mahavira Vardhamana, 24th Tirthankara and revered
renaissance Jain master. His teachings stress strict codes of vegetarianism,
asceticism and nonviolence. (Some date his life 40 years later. )

-560: In Greece, Pythagoras teaches math, music, vegetarianism and yoga-drawing
from India’s wisdom ways.

-551-478: Lifetime of Confucius, founder of Confucianist faith. His teachings on
social ethics are the basis of Chinese education, ruling-class ideology and religion.

-518: Darius I of Persia (present Iran) invades Indus Valley. This Zoroastrian king
shows tolerance for local religions.

ca -500: Lifetime of Kapila, founder of Sankhya Darshana, one of six classical
systems of Hindu philosophy.

ca -500: Dams to store water are constructed in India.

-500: World population is 100 million. India population is 25 million (15 million of
whom live in the Ganga basin).

ca -500: Over the next 300 years (according to the later dating of Muller) numerous
secondary Hindu scriptures (smriti) are composed: Shrauta Sutras, Grihya Sutras,
Dharma Sutras, Mahabharata, Ramayana and Puranas, etc.

ca -500: Tamil Sangam age (500 bce-500 ce) begins. Sage Agastya writes
Agattiyam, first known Tamil grammar. Tolkappiyar writes Tolkappiyam
Purananuru, also on grammar, stating that he is recording thoughts on poetry,
rhetoric, etc., of earlier grammarians, pointing to high development of Tamil
language prior to his day. He gives rules for absorbing Sanskrit words into Tamil.
Other famous works from the Sangam age are the poetical collections Paripadal,
Pattuppattu, Ettuthokai Purananuru, Akananuru, Aingurunuru, Padinenkilkanakku.
Some refer to worship of Vishnu, Indra, Murugan and Supreme Siva.

ca -486: Ajatashatru (reign -486-458) ascends Magadha throne.

-480: Ajita, a nastika (atheist) who teaches a purely material explanation of life and
that death is final, dies.

-478: Prince Vijaya, exiled by his father, King Sinhabahu, sails from Gujarat with
700 followers. Founds Singhalese kingdom in Sri Lanka. (Mahavamsa chronicle, ca

-450: Athenian philosopher Socrates flourishes (ca -470-400).

-428-348: Lifetime of Plato, Athenian disciple of Socrates. This great philosopher
founds Athens Academy in -387.

ca -400: Panini composes his Sanskrit grammar, the Ashtadhyayi. (Date accepted
among most Western scholars.)

ca -400: Lifetime of Hippocrates, Greek physician and “father of medicine,”
formulates Hippocratic oath, code of medical ethics still pledged by present-day
Western doctors.

ca -350: Rainfall is measured by Indian scientists.

-326: Alexander the Great of Greece invades, but fails to conquer, Northern India.
His soldiers mutiny. He leaves India the same year. Greeks who remain in India
intermarry with Indians. Interchanges of philosophy influence both civilizations.
Greek sculpture impacts Hindu styles. Bactria kingdoms later enhance Greek

305: Chandragupta Maurya, founder of first pan-Indian empire (-324-184), defeats
Greek garrisons of Seleucus, founder of Seleucan Empire in Persia and Syria. At its
height under Emperor Ashoka (reign -273-232), the Mauryan Empire includes all
India except the far South.

ca -302: Kautilya (Chanakya), minister to Chandragupta Maurya, writes
Arthashastra, a compendium of laws, administrative procedures and political advice
for running a kingdom.

-302: In Indica, Megasthenes, envoy to King Seleucus, reveals to Europe in colorful
detail the wonders of Mauryan India: an opulent society with abundant agriculture,
engineered irrigation and 7 castes: philosophers, farmers, soldiers, herdsmen,
artisans, magistrates and counselors.

ca -300: Chinese discover cast iron, known in Europe by 1300 ce.

ca -300: Pancharatra Vaishnava sect is prominent. All later Vaishnava sects are
based on the Pancharatra beliefs (formalized by Shandilya around 100 ce).

ca -300: Pandya kingdom (-300-1700 ce) of S. India is founded, constructs
magnificent Minakshi temple at its capital, Madurai. Builds temples of Shrirangam
and Rameshvaram, with its thousand-pillared hall (ca 1600 ce).

-297: Emperor Chandragupta abdicates to become a Jain monk.

-273: Ashoka (-273-232 reign), greatest Mauryan Emperor, grandson of
Chandragupta, is coronated. Repudiating conquest through violence after his brutal
invasion of Kalinga, 260 bce, he converts to Buddhism. Excels at public works and
sends diplomatic peace missions to Persia, Syria, Egypt, North Africa and Crete,
and Buddhist missions to Sri Lanka, China and other Southeast Asian countries.
Under his influence, Buddhism becomes a world power. His work and teachings are
preserved in Rock and Pillar Edicts (e.g., lion capital of the pillar at Sarnath,
present-day India’s national emblem).

-251: Emperor Ashoka sends his son Mahendra (-270-204) to spread Buddhism in
Sri Lanka, where he is to this day revered as the national faith’s founding

ca -250: Lifetime of Maharishi Nandinatha, first known satguru in the Kailasa
Parampara of the Nandinatha Sampradaya. His eight disciples are Sanatkumar,
Shanakar, Sanadanar, Sananthanar, Sivayogamuni, Patanjali, Vyaghrapada and
Tirumular (Sundaranatha).

ca -221: Great Wall of China is built, ultimately 2,600 miles long, the only
man-made object visible from the moon.

ca -200: Lifetime of Rishi Tirumular, shishya of Maharishi Nandinatha and author
of the 3,047-verse Tirumantiram, a summation of Saiva Agamas and Vedas, and
concise articulation of the Nandinatha Sampradaya teachings, founding South
India’s monistic Saiva Siddhanta school.

ca -200: Lifetime of Patanjali, shishya of Nandinatha and gurubhai (brother monk)
of Rishi Tirumular. He writes the Yoga Sutras at Chidambaram, in South India.

ca -200: Lifetime of Bhogar Rishi, one of eighteen Tamil siddhas. This mystic
shapes from nine poisons the Palaniswami murti enshrined in present-day Palani
Hills temple in South India. Bhogar is either from China or visits there.

ca -200: Lifetime of Saint Tiruvalluvar, poet-weaver who lived near present-day
Madras, author of Tirukural, “Holy Couplets,” the classic Tamil work on ethics and
statecraft (sworn on in today’s South Indian law courts).

ca -200: Jaimini writes the Mimamsa Sutras.

ca -150: Ajanta Buddhist Caves are begun near present-day Hyderabad.
Construction of the 29 monasteries and galleries continues until approximately 650
ce. The famous murals are painted between 600 bce and 650 ce.

-145: Chola Empire (-145-1300 ce) of Tamil Nadu is founded, rising from modest
beginnings to a height of government organization and artistic accomplishment,
including the development of enormous irrigation works.

-140: Emperor Wu begins three-year reign of China; worship of the Mother
Goddess, Earth, attains importance.

-130: Reign ends of Menander (Milinda), Indo-Greek king who converts to

-58: Vikrama Samvat Era Hindu calendar begins.

-50: Kushana Empire begins (-50-220 ce). This Mongolian Buddhist dynasty rules
most of the Indian subcontinent, Afghanistan and parts of Central Asia.

ca -10: Ilangovadikal, son of King Cheralathan of the Tamil Sangam age, writes the
outstanding epic Silappathikaram, classical Tamil treatise on music and dance.

Western Calendar Begins. C.E. – Common Era

-4: Jesus of Nazareth (-4-30 ce), founder of Christianity, is born in Bethlehem
(current Biblical scholarship).

10: World population is 170 million. India population is 35 million: 20.5% of world.

ca 50: South Indians occupy Funan, Indochina. Kaundinya, an Indian brahmin, is
first king. Shaivism is the state religion.

53: Legend records Saint Thomas’ death in Madras, one of the twelve Apostles of
Christ and founder of the Church of the Syrian Malabar Christians (Syrian Rite) in

ca 60: Buddhism is introduced in China by Emperor Ming Di (reign: 58-76) after he
converts to the faith. Brings two monks from India who erect temple at modern

ca 75: A Gujarat prince named Ajishaka invades Java.

78: Shaka Hindu calendar begins.

ca 80: Jains divide, on points of rules for monks, into the Shvetambara,
“white-clad,” and the Digambara, “sky-clad.”

ca 80-180: Lifetime of Charaka. Court physician of the Kushan king, he formulates
a code of conduct for doctors of ayurveda and writes Charaka Samhita, a manual
of medicine.

ca 100: Lifetime of Shandilya, first systematic promulgator of the ancient
Pancharatra doctrines, whose Bhakti Sutras, devotional aphorisms on Vishnu,
inspire a Vaishnava renaissance. The Samhita of Shandilya and his followers, the
Pancharatra Agama, embody the chief doctrines of present-day Vaishnavas. By the
10th century the popular sect leaves permanent mark on many Hindu schools.

100: Zhang Qian of China establishes trade routes to India and as far west as Rome,
later known as the “Silk Roads.”

105: Paper is invented in China.

117: The Roman Empire reaches its greatest extent.

125: Shatakarni (ca 106-130 reign) of Andhra’s Satavahana

(-70-225) dynasty destroys Shaka kingdom of Gujarat.

ca 175: Greek astronomer Ptolemy, known as Asura Maya in India, explains solar
astronomy, Surya Siddhanta, to Indian students of the science of the stars.

180: Mexican city of Teotihuacan has 100,000 population and covers 11 square
miles. Grows to 250,000 by 500 ce.

ca 200: Lifetime of Lakulisha, famed guru who leads a reformist movement within
Pashupata Saivism.

ca 200: Hindu kingdoms established in Cambodia and Malaysia.

205-270: Lifetime of Plotinus, Egyptian-born monistic Greek philosopher and
religious genius who transforms a revival of Platonism in the Roman Empire into
what present-day scholars call Neoplatonism, which greatly influences Islamic and
European thought. He teaches ahimsa, vegetarianism, karma, reincarnation and
belief in a Supreme Being, both immanent and transcendent.

ca 250: Pallava dynasty (ca 250-885) is established in Tamil Nadu, responsible for
building Kailasa Kamakshi Temple complex at their capital of Kanchi and the great
7th-century stone monuments at Mahabalipuram.

ca 275: Buddhist monastery Mahavihara is founded in Anuradhapura, capital of Sri

350: Imperial Gupta dynasty (320-540) flourishes. During this “Classical Age”
norms of literature, art, architecture and philosophy are established. This North
Indian empire promotes Vaishnavism and Saivism and, at its height, rules or
receives tribute from nearly all India. Buddhism also thrives under tolerant Gupta

ca 350: Lifetime of Kalidasa, the great Sanskrit poet and dramatist, author of
Shakuntala and Meghaduta. (The traditional date, offered by Prof. Subash Kak, is
50 bce.)

ca 350: Licchavi dynasty (ca 350-900) establishes Hindu rule in Nepal. Small
kingdom becomes the major intellectual and commercial center between South and
Central Asia.

358: Huns, excellent archers and horsemen possibly of Turkish origin, invade
Europe from the East.

375: Maharaja Chandragupta II Vikramaditya, greatest Hindu monarch, reigns to
413, expanding the prosperous Gupta empire northward beyond the Indus River.

391: Roman Emperor Theodosius destroys Greek Hellenistic temples in favor of

ca 400: Laws of Manu (Manu Dharma Shastras) written. Its 2,685 verses codify
cosmogony, four ashramas, government, domestic affairs, caste and morality
(others date at -600).

ca 400: Polynesians sailing in open outrigger canoes reach as far as Hawaii and
Easter Island.

ca 400: Shaturanga, Indian forerunner of chess, has evolved from Ashtapada, a
board-based race game, into a four-handed war game played with a die. Later, in
deference to the Laws of Manu, which forbid gambling, players discard the die and
create Shatranj, a two-sided strategy game.

ca 400: Vatsyayana writes Kamasutra, famous text on erotics.

419: Moche people of Peru build a Sun temple 150 feet high using 50 million

438-45: Council of Ferrara-Florence, Italy, strengthens Roman Catholic stance
against doctrine of reincarnation.

ca 440: Ajanta cave frescoes (long before Islam) depict Buddha as Prince
Siddhartha, wearing “chudidara pyjama” and a prototype of the present-day “Nehru

450-535: Life of Bodhidharma of South India, 28th patriarch of India’s Dhyana
Buddhist sect, founder of Ch’an Buddhism in China (520), known as Zen in Japan.

ca 450: Hephtalite invasions (ca 450-565) take a great toll in North India. These
“white Huns” (or Hunas) from China are probably not related to Europe’s Hun

ca 450: As the Gupta Empire declines, Indian sculptural style evolves and continues
until the 16th century. The trend is away from the swelling modeled forms of the
Gupta period toward increasing flatness and linearity.

453: Attila the Hun dies after lifetime of plundering Europe.

499: Aryabhata I (476-ca 550), Indian astronomer and mathematician, using Hindu
(aka Arabic) numerals accurately calculates pi () to 3.1416, and the solar year to
365.3586805 days. A thousand years before Copernicus, Aryabhata propounds a
heliocentric universe with elliptically orbiting planets and a spherical Earth spinning
on its axis, explaining the apparent rotation of the heavens. Writes Aryabhatiya,
history’s first exposition on plane and spherical trigonometry, algebra and arithmetic.

ca 500: Mahavamsa, chronicling Sri Lankan history from -500 is written in Pali,
probably by Buddhist monk Mahanama. A sequel, Chulavamsha, continues the
history to 1500.

ca 500: Sectarian folk traditions are revised, elaborated and reduced to writing as
the Puranas, Hinduism’s encyclopedic compendium of culture and mythology.

500: World population is 190 million. India population is 50 million: 26.3% of

510: Hephtalite Mihirakula from beyond Oxus River crushes imperial Gupta power.
Soon controls much of N.C. India.

ca 533: Yashovarman of Malva and Ishanavarman of Kanauj defeat and expel the
Hephtalites from North India.

ca 543: Pulakeshin I founds Chalukya Dynasty (ca 543-757; 975-1189) in Gujarat
and later in larger areas of West India.

548: Emperor Kimmei officially recognizes Buddhism in Japan by accepting a gift
image of Buddha from Korea.

553: Council of Constantinople II denies doctrine of soul’s existence before
conception, implying reincarnation is incompatible with Christian belief.

565: The Turks and Persians defeat the Hephtalites.

570-632: Lifetime of Mohammed, preacher of the Quraysh Bedoin tribe, founder of
Islam. Begins to preach in Mecca, calling for an end to the “demons and idols” of
Arab religion and conversion to the ways of the one God, Allah.

ca 590-671: Lifetime of Saiva saint Nayanar Tirunavukkarasu, born into a farmer
family at Amur, now in South Arcot, Tamil Nadu. He writes 312 songs, totalling
3,066 Tirumurai verses. Cleaning the grounds of every temple he visits, he
exemplifies truly humble service to Lord Siva. His contemporary, the child-saint
Nayanar Sambandar, addresses him affectionately as Appar, “father.”

ca 598-665: Lifetime of Brahmagupta, preeminent Indian astronomer, who writes
on gravity and sets forth the Hindu astronomical system in his Brahma Sphuta
Siddhanta. Two of 25 chapters are on sophisticated mathematics.

ca 600: Religiously tolerant Pallava King Narasinhavarman builds China Pagoda, a
Buddhist temple, at the Nagapatam port for Chinese merchants and visiting monks.

ca 610: Muhammed begins prophecies, flees to Mecca in 622.

ca 600-900: Twelve Vaishnava Alvar saints of Tamil Nadu flourish, writing 4,000
songs and poems (assembled in their cannon Nalayira Divya Prabandham) praising
Narayana, Rama and narrating the love of Krishna and the gopis.

ca 600: Life of Banabhatta, Shakta master of Sanskrit prose, author of
Harshacharita (story of Harsha) and Kadambari.

606: Buddhist Harshavardhana, reigning 606-644, establishes first great kingdom
after the Hephtalite invasions, eventually ruling all India to the Narmada River in the

ca 630: Vagbhata writes Ashtanga Sangraha on ayurveda.

630-34: Chalukya Pulakeshin II becomes Lord of South India by defeating
Harshavardhana, Lord of the North.

630-44: Chinese pilgrim Hiuen-Tsang (Huan Zang) travels in India, recording
voluminous observations. Population of Varanasi is 10,000, mostly Saiva. Nalanda
Buddhist university (his biographer writes) has 10,000 residents, including 1,510
teachers, and thousands of manuscripts.

641-45: Arab Muslims conquer Mesopotamia, Egypt and Persia.

ca 650: Lifetime of Nayanar Saiva saint Tirujnana Sambandar. Born a brahmin in
Tanjavur, he writes 384 songs totalling 4,158 verses that make up the first three
books of Tirumurai. At 16, he disappears into the sanctum of Nallur temple, near
Tiruchi, Tamil Nadu.

ca 650: More than 60 Chinese monks have traveled to India and her colonies. Four
hundred Sanskrit works have been translated into Chinese, 380 survive to the
present day.

686-705: Reign of Pallava King Rajasinha. He inherits the stone-carving legacy of
Emperor Mahendra and his son, Narasinha, who began the extensive sculptural art
in the thriving sea-port of Mahabalipuram.

ca 700: Over the next 100 years the Indonesian island of Bali receives Hinduism
from its neighbor, Java.

712: Muslims conquer Sind region (Pakistan), providing base for pillaging
expeditions that drain North India’s wealth.

732: French prevent Muslim conquest of Europe, stopping Arabs at Poitiers,
France, the NW limit of Arab penetration.

739: Chalukya armies beat back Arab Muslim invasions at Navasari in modern

ca750-1159: Pala dynasty arises in Bihar and Bengal, last royal patrons of
Buddhism, which they help establish in Tibet.

ca 750: Kailasa temple is carved out of a hill of rock at Ellora.

ca 750: Hindu astronomer and mathematician travels to Baghdad, with
Brahmagupta’s Brahma Siddhanta (treatise on astronomy) which he translates into
Arabic, bestowing decimal notation and use of zero on Arab world.

ca 750: Lifetime of Bhavabhuti, Sanskrit dramatist, second only to Kalidasa. Writes
Malati Madhava, a Shakta work.

ca 750: Valmiki writes 29,000-verse Yoga Vasishtha.

ca 750: A necklace timepiece, kadikaram in Tamil, is worn by an Emperor
(according to scholar M. Arunachalam).

788: Adi Shankara (788-820) is born in Malabar, famous monk philosopher of
Smarta tradition who writes mystic poems and scriptural commentaries including
Viveka Chudamani, and regularizes ten monastic orders called Dashanami.
Preaches Mayavada Advaita, emphasizing the world as illusion and God as the sole

ca 800: Bhakti revival curtails Buddhism in South India. In the North, Buddha is
revered as Vishnu’s 9th incarnation.

ca 800: Life of Nammalvar, greatest of Alvar saints. His poems shape the beliefs of
Southern Vaishnavas to the present day.

ca 800: Lifetime of Vasugupta, modern founder of Kashmir Saivism, a monistic,
meditative school.

ca 800: Lifetime of Auvaiyar, woman saint of Tamil Nadu, great devotee of Lord
Ganesha and author of Auvai Kural. She is associated with the Lambika kundalini
school. (A second date for Auvaiyar of 200 bce is from a story about Auvaiyar and
Saint Tiruvalluvar as siblings. A third Auvaiyar reference is dated at approximately
1000. (Auvaiyar is a Tamil word meaning “old, learned woman;” some believe it
may refer to three different persons.)

ca 800: Lifetime of Karaikkal Ammaiyar, one of the 63 Saiva saints of Tamil Nadu.
Her mystical and yogic hymns, preserved in the Tirumurai, remain popular to the
present day.

ca 825: Nayanar Tamil saint Sundarar is born into a family of Adishaiva temple
priests in Tirunavalur in present-day South Arcot. His 100 songs in praise of Siva
(the only ones surviving of his 38,000 songs) make up Tirumurai book 7. His Tiru
Tondattohai poem, naming the Saiva saints, is the basis for Saint Sekkilar’s

ca 800: Lifetime of Andal, woman saint of Tamil Nadu. Writes devotional poetry to
Lord Krishna, disappears at age 16.

ca 825: Vasugupta discovers the rock-carved Siva Sutras.

846: Vijayalaya reestablishes his Chola dynasty, which over the next 100 years
grows and strengthens into one of the greatest South Indian Empires ever known.

ca 850: Shri Vaishnava sect established in Tamil Nadu by Acharya Nathamuni,
forerunner of great theologian Ramanuja.

ca 850: Life of Manikkavasagar, Saiva Samayacharya saint, born in Tiruvadavur,
near Madurai, into a Tamil brahmin family. Writes famed Tiruvasagam, 51 poems
of 656 verses in 3,394 lines, chronicling the soul’s evolution to God Siva.
Tirupalli-eluchi and Tiruvembavai are classic examples of his innovative style of
devotional songs.

875: Muslim conquests extend from Spain to Indus Valley.

885: Cholas kill Aparajita, king of the Pallavas, in battle.

ca 900: Lifetime of Matsyendranatha, exponent of the Natha sect emphasizing
kundalini yoga practices.

ca 900: Under the Hindu Malla dynasty (ca 900-1700) of Nepal, legal and social
codes influenced by Hinduism are introduced. Nepal is broken into several

ca 900-1001: Lifetime of Sembiyan Ma Devi, queen of Maharaja Gandaraditta
Chola from 950-957 and loyal patron of Saivism, builds ten temples and inspires
and molds her grand-nephew prince, son of Sundara Chola, into the great
temple-builder, Emperor Rajaraja I.

900: Mataramas dynasty in Indonesia reverts to Saivism after a century of
Buddhism, building 150 Saiva temples.

ca 950: Lifetime of Gorakshanatha, Natha yogi who founds the order of Kanphatha
Yogis and Gorakshanatha Saivism, the philosophical school called Siddha

ca 950-1015: Lifetime of Kashmir Saiva guru Abhinavagupta.

960: Chola King Vira, after having a vision of Siva Nataraja dancing, commences
enlargement of the Siva temple at Chidambaram, including the construction of the
gold-roofed shrine. The enlargement is completed in 1250 ce.

985: Rajaraja I (reign 985-1014) ascends the South Indian Chola throne and ushers
in a new age of temple architecture exemplified at Tanjavur, Darasuram,
Tirubhuvanam and Chidambaram. Pallava architectural influences (dominant
vimanas, inconspicuous gopuras) fade.

ca 1000: Gorakshanatha writes Siddha Siddhanta Paddhati, “Tracks on the
Doctrines of the Adepts.” The nature of God and universe, structure of chakras,
kundalini force and methods for realization are explained in 353 verses. 

Hindu Timeline Part 3
1000ce to 1500ce

1000: World population is 265 million. India population is 79 million, 29.8% of

ca 1000: A few Hindu communities from Rajasthan, Sindh and other areas, the
ancestors of present-day Romani, or Gypsies, gradually move to Persia and on to

ca 1000: Vikings reach North America, landing in Nova Scotia.

ca 1000: Polynesians arrive in New Zealand, last stage in the greatest migration and
navigational feat in history, making them the most widely-spread race on Earth.

1001: Turkish Muslims sweep through the Northwest under Mahmud of Ghazni,
defeating Jayapala of Hindu Shahi Dynasty of S. Afghanisthan and Punjab at
Peshawar. This is the first major Muslim conquest in India.

ca 1010: Tirumurai, Tamil devotional hymns of Saiva saints, is collected as an
anthology by Nambiandar Nambi.

1017: Mahmud of Ghazni sacks Mathura, birthplace of Lord Krishna, and
establishes a mosque on the site during one of his 17 Indian invasions for holy war
and plunder.

1017-1137: Life of Ramanuja of Kanchipuram, Tamil philosopher-saint of Shri
Vaishnava sect that continues bhakti tradition of S. Indian Alvar saints. His strongly
theistic nondual Vishishtadvaita Vedanta philosophy restates Pancharatra tradition.
Foremost opponent of Shankara’s system, he dies at age 120 while head of
Shrirangam monastery.

1018-1060: Lifetime of Bhojadeva Paramara, Gujarati king, poet, artist and
monistic Saiva Siddhanta theologian.

1024: Mahmud of Ghazni plunders Somanath Siva temple, destroying the Linga and
killing 50,000 Hindu defenders. He later builds a mosque on the remaining walls.

1025: Chola ruler Maharaja Rajendra I sends victorious naval expeditions to Burma,
Malaysia and Indonesia, initiating decline of Mahayana Buddhist empire of

ca 1040: Chinese invent the compass and moveable type and perfect the use of
gunpowder, first invented and used in India as an explosive mixture of saltpetre,
sulfur and charcoal to power guns, cannons and artillery.

ca 1050: Lifetime of Shrikantha, promulgator of Siva Advaita, a major philosophical
school of Saivism.

ca 1130-1200: Lifetime of Nimbarka, Telegu founder of the Vaishnava Nimandi
sect holding the philosophy of dvaitadvaita, dual-nondualism. He introduces the
worship of Krishna together with consort Radha. (Present-day Nimavats revere
Vishnu Himself, in the form of the Hamsa Avatara, as the originator of their sect.)

ca 1130: Lifetime of Sekkilar, Tamil chief minister under Chola Emperor
Kulottunga II (reign 1133-1150) and author of Periyapuranam, 4,286-verse epic
biography (hagiography) of the 63 Saiva saints and 12th book of Tirumurai.

ca 1150: Life of Basavanna, renaissance guru of the Vira Saiva sect, stressing free
will, equality, service to humanity and worship of the Sivalinga worn around the

ca 1150: Khmer ruler Suryavarman II completes Angkor Wat temple (in
present-day Cambodia), where his body is later entombed and worshiped as an
embodiment of Vishnu. This largest Hindu temple in Asia is 12 miles in
circumference, with a 200-foot high central tower.

ca 1162: Mahadevi is born, female Saiva ascetic saint of Karnataka, writes 350
majestic and mystical poems.

1175: Toltec Empire of Mexico crumbles.

1185: Mohammed of Ghur conquers Punjab and Lahore.

1191: Eisai founds Rinzai Zen sect in Japan after study in China.

1193: Qutb ud-Din Aybak founds first Muslim Sultanate of Delhi, establishing the
Mamluk Dynasty (1193-1290).

1197: Great Buddhist university of Nalanda is destroyed by Muslim Ikhtiyar ud-din.

1200: All of North India is under Muslim domination.

1200: India population reaches 80 million.

ca 1200: An unknown author writes Yoga Yajnavalkya.

1215: King John is forced to sign the Magna Carta, giving greater rights to citizens
in England.

1227: Mongolian Emperor Genghis Khan, conqueror of a vast area from Beijing,
China, to Iran and north of Tibet, the largest empire the world has yet seen, dies.

1230-60: Surya temple at Konarak, Orissa, India, is constructed.

1238-1317: Lifetime of Ananda Tirtha, Madhva, venerable Vaishnava dualist and
opponent of Shankara’s mayavadin advaita philosophy. He composes 37 works and
founds Dvaita Vedanta school, the Brahma Vaishnava Sampradaya and its eight
monasteries, ashtamatha, in Udupi.

ca 1250: Lifetime of Meykandar, Saiva saint who founds the Meykandar school of
pluralistic Saiva Siddhanta, of which his 12-sutra Sivajnanabodham becomes its
core scripture.

1260: Meister Eckhart, the German mystic, is born.

1268-1369: Lifetime of Vedanta Deshikar, gifted Tamil scholar and poet who
founds sect of Vaishnavism called Vadakalai, headquartered at Kanchipuram.

1270-1350: Lifetime of Namadeva, foremost poet saint of Maharashtra’s Varkari
(“pilgrim”) Vaishnava school, disciple of Jnanadeva. He and his family compose a
million verses in praise of Lord Vithoba (Vishnu).

1272: Marco Polo visits India en route to China.

1274: Council of Lyons II declares that souls go immediately to heaven, purgatory
or hell; interpreted by Catholic fathers as condemning the doctrine of reincarnation.

1275-96: Lifetime of Jnanadeva, Natha-trained Vaishnava saint, founder of the
Varkari school, who writes Jnaneshvari, a Marathi verse commentary on Bhagavad
Gita, which becomes Maharashtra’s most popular book.

1279: Muktabai is born, Maharashtrian Varkari saint and Natha yogini, writes 100
sacred verses.

1280: Mongol (Yuen) dynasty (1280-1368) begins in China, under which occurs the
last of much translation work into Chinese from Sanskrit.

1296: Ala-ud-din, second king of Khalji dynasty, rules most of India after his
General Kafur conquers the South, extending Muslim dominion to Rameshwaram.

ca 1300: Lifetime of Janabai, Maharashtrian Varkari Vaishnava woman saint who
writes a portion of Namadeva’s million verses to Vithoba (Vishnu).

ca 1300: The Ananda Samucchaya is written, 277 stanzas on hatha yoga, with
discussion of the chakras and the nadis.

1300: Muslim conquerors reach Cape Comorin at the southernmost tip of India and
build a mosque there.

1317-72: Life of Lalla of Kashmir. Saiva renunciate, mystic poetess contributes
significantly to the Kashmiri language.

1336: Vijayanagara Empire (1336-1565-1646) of South India is founded. European
visitors are overwhelmed by the wealth and advancement of its 17-square-mile

1345: Aztecs establish great civilization in Mexico.

1346-90: Life of Krittivasa, translator of Ramayana into Bengali.

1347: Plague called the Black Death spreads rapidly, killing 75 million worldwide
before it recedes in 1351.

ca 1350: Svatmarama writes Hatha Yoga Pradipika.

ca 1350: Lifetime of Appaya Dikshita, South Indian philosoper saint whose writings
reconcile Vaishnavism and Saivism. He advances Siva Advaita and other Saiva
schools and compiles a temple priests’ manual still used today.

1398: Tamerlane (Timur) invades India with 90,000 cavalry and sacks Delhi
because its Muslim Sultanate is too tolerant of Hindu idolatry. A Mongolian
follower of Sufism, he is one of the most ruthless of all conquerors.

1399: Hardwar, Ganga pilgrimage town, is sacked by Timur.

ca 1400: Goraksha Upanishad is written.

1414: Hindu prince Parameshvara of Malaysia converts to Islam.

1414-80: Life of Gujarati Vaishnava poet-saint Narasinha Mehta.

1415: Bengali poet-singer Baru Chandidas writes Shrikrishnakirtana, a collection of
exquisite songs praising Krishna.

1429: Joan of Arc, age 17, leads the French to victory over the English.

ca 1433: China cloisters itself from outside world by banning further voyages to the
West. (First bamboo curtain.)

1440-1518: Lifetime of Kabir, Vaishnava reformer with who has both Muslim and
Hindu followers. (His Hindi songs remain immensely popular to the present day.)

ca 1440: Johannes Gutenberg (ca 1400-1468) invents the West’s first
moveable-type printing press in Germany.

1450?-1547: Lifetime of Mirabai, Vaishnava Rajput princess saint who, married at
an early age to the Rana of Udaipur, devotes herself to Krishna and later renounces
worldly life to wander India singing to Him beautiful mystic compositions that are
sung to the present day.

1469-1538: Lifetime of Guru Nanak, founder of Sikhism, originally a reformist
Hindu sect stressing devotion, faith in the guru, repetition of God’s name and
rejection of renunciation and caste. (Most Sikhs in the present day consider
themselves members of a separate religion.)

1478: Spanish Inquisition begins. Over the next 20 years, Christians burn several
thousand persons at the stake.

1479-1531: Lifetime of Vallabhacharya, a married Telegu brahmin saint who
teaches pushtimarga, “path of love,” and a lofty nondual philosophy, Shuddhadvaita
Vedanta, in which souls are eternally one with Brahman. Vallabhacharya’s
Vaishnavism worships Krishna in the form of Shri Nathji.

1483-1563: Lifetime of Surdas, sightless Hindi bard of Agra, whose hymns to
Krishna are compiled in the Sursagar.

1486-1543: Life of Chaitanya, Bengali founder of popular Vaishnava sect which
proclaims Krishna Supreme God and emphasizes sankirtan, group chanting and

1492: Looking for India, Christopher Columbus lands on San Salvador island in the
Caribbean, thus “discovering” the Americas and proving that the earth is round, not

1498: Portugal’s Vasco da Gama sails around Cape of Good Hope to Calicut,
Kerala, first European to find sea route to India.

ca 1500: Life of Arunagirinathar, Tamil saint, author of Tiruppugal hymns;
emphasizes feeding the hungry during a time of Muslim oppression and disrupted
family life.

ca 1500: Buddhist and Saiva Hindu princes are forced off Java by invading
Muslims. They resettle on neighboring Bali, with their overlapping priesthoods and
vast royal courts: poets, dancers, musicians and artisans. Within 100 years they
construct what many call a fairytale kingdom. 

Hindu Timeline Part 4
1500ce to 1800ce

1500: World population 425 million; 105 million live in India.

1503-1566: Lifetime of Nostradamus, French physician and astrologer who wrote
Centuries (1555), a book of prophecies.

1509-1529: Reign of Maharaja Krishnadevaraya of the Vijayanagara Empire in
Andhra Pradesh.

1510: Portuguese Catholics conquer Goa to serve as capital of their Asian maritime
empire, beginning conquest and exploitation of India by Europeans.

1517: Luther begins Protestant reformation in Europe.

ca 1520: Poet-saint Purandardas (1480-1564) of the Vijayanagara court
systematizes Karnatak music.

1526: Mughal conqueror Babur (1483-1530) defeats the Sultan of Delhi and
captures the Koh-i-noor diamond. Occupying Delhi, by 1529 he founds the Indian
Mughal Empire (1526-1761), consolidated by his grandson Akbar.

1528: Emperor Babur destroys temple at Lord Rama’s birthplace in Ayodhya,
erects Muslim masjid, or monument.

1532-1623: Life of Monk-poet Tulasidasa. Writes Ramacharitamanasa (1574-77),
greatest medieval Hindi literature (based on Ramayana). It advances Rama worship
in the North.

1542: Portuguese Jesuit priest Francis Xavier (1506-1552), most successful
Catholic missionary, lands in Goa. First to train and employ native clergy in
conversion efforts, he brings Christianity to India, Malay Archipelago and Japan.

1544-1603: Life of Dadu, ascetic saint of Gujarat, founder of Dadupantha, which is
guided by his Bani poems in Hindi.

1556: Akbar (1542-1605), grandson of Babur, becomes third Mughal Emperor at
age 13. Disestablishes Islam as state religion and declares himself impartial ruler of
Hindus and Muslims; encourages art, culture, religious tolerance.

1565: Muslim forces defeat and completely destroy the city of Vijayanagara.
Empire’s final collapse comes in 1646.

1565: Polish astronomer Copernicus’ (1473-1543) Heliocentric system, in which the
Earth orbits the sun, gains popularity in Europe among astronomers and

1569: Akbar captures fortress of Ranthambor, ending Rajput independence. Soon
controls nearly all of Rajasthan.

ca 1570: Ekanatha (1533-99), Varkari Vaishnava saint and mystic composer, edits
Jnanadeva’s Jnaneshvari and translates Bhagavata Purana, advancing Marathi

1588: British ships defeat the Spanish Armada off the coast of Calais, France, to
become rulers of the high seas.

1589: Akbar rules half of India, shows tolerance for all faiths.

1595: Construction is begun on Chidambaram Temple’s Hall of a Thousand Pillars
in South India, completed in 1685.

ca 1600: “Persian wheel” to lift water by oxen is adopted, one of few farming
innovations since Indus Valley civilization.

1600: Royal Charter forms the East India Company, setting in motion a process that
ultimately results in the subjugation of India under British rule.

1603-4: Guru Arjun compiles Adi Granth, Sikh scripture.

1605: Akbar the Great dies at age 63. His son Jahangir succeeds him as fourth
Mughal Emperor.

1605: Sikh Golden Temple (Harimandir) at Amritsar, Punjab, is finished,
completely covered with gold leaf.

1608-49: Lifetime of Tukaram, beloved Varkari sant famed for his abhangas,
“unbroken hymns,” to Krishna. Considered greatest Marathi spiritual composer.

1608-81: Lifetime of Ramdas, mystic poet, Sivaji’s guru, Marathi saint, who gives
Hindus the dhvaja, saffron flag.

1610: Galileo of Italy (1564-1642) perfects the telescope, with which he confirms
the Copernican theory. Condemned a heretic by the Catholic Inquisition for his

1613-14: British East India Company sets up trading post at Surat.

1615-18: Mughals grant Britain right to trade and establish factories in exchange for
English navy’s protection of the Mughal Empire, which faces Portuguese sea

1619: Jaffna kingdom is annexed and Sri Lanka’s ruling dynasty deposed by
Portuguese Catholics who, between 1505 and 1658, destroy most of the island’s
Hindu temples.

1619: First black slaves from Africa are sold in the USA.

1620: European pilgrims land and settle at Plymouth Rock, US.

1627-80: Life of Sivaji, valiant general and tolerant founder of Hindu Maratha
Empire (1674-1818). Emancipates large areas confiscated by Muslims, returning
them to Hindu control. First Indian ruler to build a major naval force.

ca 1628-88: Lifetime of Kumaraguruparar, prolific poet-saint of Tamil Nadu who
founds monastery in Varanasi to propound Saiva Siddhanta philosophy.

1630: Over the next two years, millions starve to death as Shah Jahan (1592-1666),
fifth Mughal Emperor, empties the royal treasury to buy jewels for his “Peacock

1647: Shah Jahan completes Taj Mahal in Agra beside Yamuna River. Its
construction has taken 20,000 laborers 15 years, at a total cost equivalence of
US$25 million.

1649: Red Fort is completed in Delhi by Shah Jahan.

ca 1650: Dharmapuram Aadheenam, Saiva monastery, founded near Mayuram,
South India, by Guru Jnanasambandar.

ca 1650: Robert de Nobili (1577-1656), Portuguese Jesuit missionary noted for
fervor and intolerance, arrives in Madurai, declares himself a brahmin, dresses like
a Hindu monk and composes Veda-like scripture extolling Jesus.

ca 1650: Two yoga classics, Siva Samhita and Gheranda Samhita, are written.

1654: A Tamil karttanam is written and sung to celebrate recovery installation of
Tiruchendur’s Murugan murti.

1658: Zealous Muslim Aurangzeb (1618-1707) becomes Mughal Emperor. His
discriminatory policies toward Hindus, Marathas and the Deccan kingdoms
contribute to the dissolution of the Mughal Empire by 1750.

1660: Frenchman Francois Bernier reports India’s peasantry is living in misery
under Mughal rule.

1664: Great Plague of London kills 70,000, 15% of the population.

1675: Aurangzeb executes Sikh Guru Tegh Bahadur, beginning the Sikh-Muslim
feud that continues to this day.

1679: Aurangzeb levies Jizya tax on non-believers, Hindus.

1688: Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb demolishes all temples in Mathura, said to
number 1,000. (During their reign, Muslim rulers destroy roughly 60,000 Hindu
temples throughout India, constructing mosques on 3,000 sites.)

1700: World population is 610 million. India population is 165 million: 27% of

1705-42: Lifetime of Tayumanavar, Tamil Saiva poet saint and devotional yogic
philosopher of Tiruchirappalli.

1708: Govind Singh, tenth and last Sikh guru, is assassinated.

1708-37: Jai Singh II builds astronomical observatories in Delhi, Jaipur, Ujjain,
Benares and Mathura.

1718-75: Lifetime of Ramprasad, Bengali Shakta poet-saint.

1722: Peter the Great rules in Russia.

ca 1725: Jesuit Father Hanxleden compiles first Sanskrit grammar in a European

ca 1750: Shakta songs of Bengali poets Ramprasad Sen and Kamalakanta
Bhattacharya glorify Her as loving Mother and Daughter and stimulate a rise in
devotional Shaktism.

1751: Robert Clive, age 26, seizes Arcot in modern Tamil Nadu as French and
British fight for control of South India.

1760: Saiva sannyasis fight Vaishnava vairagis in tragic battle at Hardwar Kumbha
Mela; 18,000 monks are killed.

1760: Eliezer (Besht), liberal founder of Hasidic Judaism, dies.

1761: Afghan army of Ahmad Shah Durrani routs Hindu Maratha forces at Panipat,
ending Maratha hegemony in North India. As many as 200,000 Hindus are said to
have died in the strategic eight-hour battle.

1764: British defeat the weak Mughal Emperor to become rulers of Bengal, richest
province of India.

1769: Prithivi Narayan Shah, ruler of Gorkha principality, conquers Nepal Valley;
moves capital to Kathmandu, establishing present-day Hindu nation of Nepal.

ca 1770-1840: Life of Rishi from the Himalayas, guru of Kadaitswami and first
historically known satguru of the Nandinatha Sampradaya’s Kailasa Parampara
since Tirumular.

1773: British East India Company obtains monopoly on the production and sale of
opium in Bengal.

ca 1780-1830: Golden era of Karnatik music. Composers include Tyagaraja,
Dikshitar and Shastri.

1781: George Washington defeats British at Yorktown, US.

1781-1830: Lifetime of Sahajanandaswami, Gujarati founder of the Swaminarayan
sect (with 1.5 million followers today).

1784: Judge and linguist Sir William Jones founds Calcutta’s Royal Asiatic Society.
First such scholastic institution.

1786: Sir William Jones uses the Rig Veda term Aryan (“noble”) to name the parent
language (now termed Indo-European) of Sanskrit, Greek, Latin and Germanic

1787-95: British Parliament impeaches Warren Hastings, Governor General of
Bengal (1774-85) for misconduct.

1787: British Committee for the Abolition of the Slave Trade is formed, marking
the beginning of the end of slavery.

1789: French revolution begins with storming of the Bastille.

1792: Britain’s Cornwallis defeats Tipu Sahib, Sultan of Mysore and most powerful
ruler in South India, main bulwark of resistance to British expansion in India.

1793: Eli Whitney invents the cotton gin in the US, greatly affecting the institution
of slavery.

1796: Over two million worshipers compete for sacred Ganga bath at Kumbha Mela
in Hardwar. Five thousand Saiva ascetics are killed in tragic clash with Sikh

1799: Sultan Tipu is killed in battle against 5,000 British soldiers who storm and
raze his capital, Srirangapattinam. 

Hindu Timeline  Part 5
1800ce to the Present and Beyond!

1803: Second Anglo-Maratha war results in British Christian capture of Delhi and
control of large parts of India.

1803: India’s population is 200 million.

1803-82: Lifetime of Ralph Waldo Emerson, American poet who helps popularize
Bhagavad Gita and Upanishads in US.

1807: Importation of slaves is banned in the US through an act of Congress
motivated by Thomas Jefferson.

1809: British strike a bargain with Ranjit Singh for exclusive areas of influence.

ca 1810-75: Lifetime of renaissance guru Kadaitswami, born near Bangalore, sent
to Sri Lanka by Rishi from the Himalayas to strengthen Saivism against Catholic

1812: Napoleon’s army retreats from Moscow. Only 20,000 soldiers survive out of
a 500,000-man invasion force.

1814: First practical steam locomotive is built.

1817-92: Lifetime of Bahaullah, Mirza Husayn ‘Ali, founder of Baha’i faith (1863),
a major off-shoot religion of Islam.

1818-78: Lifetime of Sivadayal, renaissance founder of the esoteric reformist
Radhasoami Vaishnava sect in Agra.

1820: First Indian immigrants arrive in the US.

1822-79: Life of Arumuga Navalar of Jaffna, Sri Lanka, renaissance activist who
propounds Advaita Siddhanta, writes first Hindu catechism and translates Bible into
Tamil so it can be compared faithfully to the Vedas and Agamas.

1823-74: Life of Ramalingaswami, Tamil saint, renaissance founder of Vadalur’s
“Hall of Wisdom for Universal Worship.”

1824-83: Lifetime of Swami Dayananda Sarasvati, renaissance founder of Arya
Samaj (1875), Hindu reformist movement stressing a return to the values and
practices of the Vedas. Author of Satya Prakash, “Light on Truth.”

1825: First massive immigration of Indian workers from Madras is to Reunion and
Mauritius. This immigrant Hindu community builds their first temple in 1854.

1828: Ram Mohan Roy (1772-1833) founds Adi Brahmo Samaj in Calcutta, first
movement to initiate religio-social reform. Influenced by Islam and Christianity, he
denounces polytheism, idol worship; repudiates the Vedas, avataras, karma and
reincarnation, caste and more.

1831-91: Lifetime of Russian mystic Madame H.P. Blavatsky, founder of
Theosophical Society in 1875, bringing aspects of psychism, Buddhism and
Hinduism to the West.

1831: British Christians defeat Ranjit Singh’s forces at Balakot, in Sikh attempt to
establish a homeland in N.W. India.

1833: Slavery is abolished in British Commonwealth countries, giving impetus to
abolitionists in United States.

1835: Civil service jobs in India are opened to Indians.

1835: Macaulay’s Minute furthers Western education in India. English is made
official government and court language.

1835: Mauritius receives 19,000 immigrant indentured laborers from India. Last
ship carrying workers arrives in 1922.

1836-86: Lifetime of Shri Ramakrishna, God-intoxicated Bengali Shakta saint, guru
of Swami Vivekananda. He exemplifies the bhakti dimension of Shakta

1837: Britain formalizes emigration of Indian indentured laborers to supply cheap
labor under a system more morally acceptable to British Christian society than
slavery, illegal in the British Empire since 1833.

1837: Kali-worshiping Thugees are suppressed by British.

1838: British Guyana receives its first 250 Indian laborers.

1838-84: Lifetime of Keshab Chandra Sen, Hindu reformer who founds Brahma
Samaj of India, a radical offshoot of the Adi Brahmo Samaj of Ram Mohan Roy.

1840-1915: Lifetime of Satguru Chellappaswami of Jaffna, Sri Lanka, initiated at
age 19 by Siddha Kadaitswami as next satguru in the Nandinatha Sampradaya’s
Kailasa Parampara.

1840: Joseph de Goubineau (1816-1882), French scholar, writes The Inequality of
Human Races. Proclaims the “Aryan race” superior to other great strains and lays
down the aristocratic class-doctrine of Aryanism that later provides the basis for
Adolf Hitler’s Aryan racism.

1842-1901: Life of Eknath Ranade, founder of Prarthana Samaj. His social-reform
thinking inspires Gokhale and Gandhi.

1843: British conquer the Sind region (present-day Pakistan).

1845: Trinidad receives its first 197 Indian immigrant laborers.

1846: British forcibly separate Kashmir from the Sikhs and sell it to the Maharaja of
Jammu for pounds1,000,000.

1849: Sikh army is defeated by the British at Amritsar.

1850: First English translation of the Rig Veda by H.H. Wilson, first holder of
Oxford’s Boden Chair, founded “to promote the translation of the Scriptures into
English, so as to enable his countrymen to proceed in the conversion of the natives
of India to the Christian religion.”

1851: Sir M. Monier-Williams (1819-99) publishes English-Sanskrit Dictionary. His
completed Sanskrit-English Dictionary is released in 1899 after three decades of

1853-1920: Lifetime of Shri Sharada Devi, wife of Shri Ramakrishna.

1853: Max Muller (1823-1900), German Christian philologist and Orientalist,
advocates the term Aryan to name a hypothetical primitive people of Central Asia,
the common ancestors of Hindus, Persians and Greeks. Muller speculates that this
“Aryan race” divided and marched west to Europe and east to India and China
around 1500 bce. Their language, Muller contends, developed into Sanskrit, Greek,
Latin, German, etc., and all ancient civilizations descended from this Aryan race.

1856: Catholic missionary Bishop Caldwell coins the term Dravidian to refer to
South Indian Caucasian peoples.

1857: First Indian Revolution, called the Sepoy Mutiny, ends in a few months with
the fall of Delhi and Lucknow.

1858: India has 200 miles of railroad track. By 1869 5,000 miles of steel track have
been completed by British railroad companies. In 1900, total track is 25,000 miles,
and by World War I, 35,000 miles. By 1970, at 62,136 miles, it has become the
world’s greatest train system. Unfortunately, this development depletes India’s
forest lands.

1859: Charles Darwin, releases controversial book, The Origin of Species,
propounding his “natural selection” theory of evolution, laying the foundations of
modern biology.

1860: S.S. Truro and S.S. Belvedere dock in Durban, S. Africa, carrying first
indentured servants (from Madras and Calcutta) to work sugar plantations. With
contracts of five years and up, thousands emigrate over next 51 years.

1861: American Civil War begins in Charleston, S. Carolina.

1861-1941: Lifetime of Bengali poet Rabindranath Tagore, awarded the Nobel
Prize for Literature in 1913.

1863-1902: Life of Swami Vivekananda, dynamic renaissance missionary to West
and catalyst of Hindu revival in India.

1869-1948: Lifetime of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, Indian nationalist and
Hindu political activist who develops the strategy of nonviolent disobedience that
forces Christian Great Britain to grant independence to India (1947).

1870: Papal doctrine of infallibility is asserted by the Vatican.

1872-1964: Lifetime of Satguru Yogaswami, Natha renaissance sage of Sri Lanka,
Chellappaswami’s successor in the Kailasa Parampara of the Nandinatha

1872-1950: Life of Shri Aurobindo Ghosh, Bengali Indian nationalist and
renaissance yoga philosopher. His 30-volume work discusses the “superman,” the
Divinely transformed individual soul. Withdraws from the world in 1910 and founds
international ashram in Pondicherry.

1873-1906: Lifetime of Swami Rama Tirtha, who lectures throughout Japan and
America spreading “practical Vedanta.”

1875: Madame Blavatsky founds Theosophical Society in New York, later
headquartered at Adyar, Madras, where Annie Besant, president (1907-1933), helps
revitalize Hinduism with metaphysical defense of its principles.

1876: British Queen Victoria (1819-1901), head of Church of England, is
proclaimed Empress of India (1876-1901).

1876: Alexander Graham Bell invents the telephone.

1876-1990: Max Muller, pioneer of comparative religion as a scholarly discipline,
publishes 50-volume Sacred Books of the East, English translations of
Indian-Oriental scriptures.

1877-1947: Lifetime of Sri Lanka’s Ananda Coomaraswamy, foremost interpreter
of Indian art and culture to the West.

1879: Incandescent lamp is invented by Thomas Edison (1847-1931). The
american inventor patents more than a thousand inventions, among them the
microphone (1877) and the phonograph (1878). In New York (1881-82) he installs
the world’s first central electric power plant.

1879: The “Leonidas,” first emigrant ship to Fiji, adds 498 Indian indentured
laborers to the nearly 340,000 already working in other British Empire colonies.

1879-1966: Lifetime of Sadhu T.L. Vaswani, altruistic Sindhi poet and servant of
God, founds several Hindu missions in India and seven Mira Educational

1879-1950: Lifetime of Shri Ramana Maharshi, Hindu Advaita renunciate
renaissance saint of Tiruvannamalai, South India.

1882-1927: Lifetime of Hazrat Inayat Khan, Indian-born Muslim mystic,
instrumental in bringing Sufism to the West.

1884-1963: Lifetime of Swami Ramdas, known as “Papa,” Indian saint and devotee
of Lord Rama.

1885: A group of middle-class intellectuals in India, some of them British, found the
Indian National Congress to be a voice of Indian opinion to the British government.
This was the origin of the later Congress Party.

1885: First automobile powered by an internal combustion engine is produced by
Karl Benz in Mannheim, Germany. Henry Ford makes his first car in 1893 in the
US and later invents assembly line production.

1886: Rene Guenon is born, first European philosopher to become a Vedantin, says
biographer Robin Waterfield.

1887-1963: Life of Swami Sivananda, Hindu universalist renaissance guru, author
of 200 books, founder of Divine Life Society, with 400 branches worldwide in
present day.

1888: Max Muller, revising his stance, writes, “Aryan, in scientific language, is
utterly inapplicable to race. If I say Aryas, I mean neither blood nor bones, nor hair
nor skull; I mean simply those who spoke the Aryan language.”

1888-1975: Lifetime of Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, renowned Tamil panentheist,
renaissance philosopher, eminent writer; free India’s first vice-president and second

1891: Maha Bodhi Society, an organization to encourage Buddhist studies in India
and abroad, is founded in Sri Lanka by Buddhist monk Anagarika Dharmapala.

1893: Swami Vivekananda represents Hinduism at Chicago’s Parliament of the
World’s Religions, first ever interfaith gathering, dramatically enlightening Western
opinion as to the profundity of Hindu philosophy and culture.

1893-1952: Life of Paramahamsa Yogananda, universalist Hindu, renaissance
founder of Self Realization Fellowship (1925) in US, author of famed
Autobiography of a Yogi (1946), popular book globalizing India’s spiritual traditions.

1894: Gandhi drafts first petition protesting the indentured servant system. Less
than six months later, British announce the halt of indentured emigration from India.

1894-1994: Lifetime of Swami Chandrashekarendra, venerated Shankaracharya
saint of Kanchi monastery in South India.

1894-1969: Life of Meher Baba of Poona, silent sage whose mystical teachings
stress love, self-inquiry and God consciousness.

1896-1982: Lifetime of Anandamayi Ma, God-intoxicated yogini and mystic Bengali
saint. Her spirit lives on in devotees.

1896: Nationalist leader, Marathi scholar Bal Bangadhar Tilak (1857-1920) initiates
Ganesha Visarjana and Sivaji festivals to fan Indian nationalism. He is first to
demand complete independence, Purna Svaraj, from Britain.

1896-1977: Lifetime of Vaishnava Hindu renaissance activist Bhaktivedanta Swami
Pradhupada. Founds Krishna Consciousness (ISKCON) in US in 1966. Dies 11
years later.

1896: American humorist Mark Twain writes Following the Equator, describing his
three-month stay in India, during voyage to Hawaii, Fiji, New Zealand, Australia,
Sri Lanka, Mauritius, South Africa and England. According to him and his critics, it
is one of his finest works.

1897: Swami Vivekananda founds Ramakrishna Mission.

1898-1907: Cholera epidemic claims 370,000 lives in India.

1900: World population is 1.6 billion. India population is 290 million: 17.8% of

1900: India’s tea exports to Britain reach 137 million pounds.

1900-77: Uday Shankar of Udaipur, dancer and choreographer, adapts Western
theatrical techniques to Hindu dance, popularizing his ballet in India, Europe and the

1905: Lord Curzon, arrogant British Viceroy of India, resigns.

1905: Sage Yogaswami, age 33, is initiated by Chellappaswami at Nallur, Sri Lanka;
later becomes the next preceptor in the Nandinatha Sampradaya’s Kailasa

1906: Muslim League political party is formed in India.

1906: Dutch Christians overtake Bali after Puputan massacres in which Hindu
Balinese royal families are murdered.

1908-82: Lifetime of Swami Muktananda, global Kashmir Saiva renaissance satguru
and founder of Siddha Yoga Dham.

1909-69: Lifetime of Dada Lekhraj (1909-1969), Hindu renaissance founder of
Brahma Kumaris, Saivite social reform movement stressing meditation and world

1909: Gandhi and assistant Maganlal agitate for better working conditions and
abolition of indentured servitude in S. Africa. Maganlal continues Gandhi’s work in

1912: Anti-Indian racial riots on the US West Coast expel large Hindu immigrant

1913: New law prohibits Indian immigration to S. Africa, primarily in answer to
white colonists’ alarm at competition of Indian merchants and expired labor

1914: US government excludes Indian citizens from immigration. Restriction stands
until 1965.

1914: Austria’s Archduke Ferdinand is assassinated by Christian Serb nationalists.
Chain reaction leads to W.W. I.

1914: Swami Satchidananda is born, founder of Integral Yoga Institute and Light of
Truth Universal Shrine in the US.

1917: Communists under Lenin seize power in Russia, 1/6th of the Earth’s land
mass, following the Bolshevik Revolution.

1917: Last Hindu Indian indentured laborers are brought to British Christian
colonies of Fiji and Trinidad.

1917-93: Life of Swami Chinmayananda, Vedantist writer, lecturer, Hindu
renaissance founder of Chinmaya Mission and a co-founder of the Vishva Hindu

1918: World War I ends. Death toll is estimated at ten million.

1918: Spanish Influenza epidemic kills 12.5 million in India, 21.6 million worldwide.

1918: Shirdi Sai Baba, saint to both Hindus and Muslims, dies at approximately age

1919: Brigadier Dyer orders Gurkha troops to shoot unarmed demonstrators in
Amritsar, killing 379. Massacre convinces Gandhi that India must demand full
independence from oppressive British Christian rule.

1920: Gandhi formulates the satyagraha, “firmness in truth,” strategy of
noncooperation and nonviolence against India’s Christian British rulers. Later
resolves to wear only dothi to preserve homespun cotton and simplicity.

1920: System of indentured servitude is abolished by India, following grassroots
agitation by Mahatma Gandhi.

1920: Ravi Shankar is born in Varanasi, sitar master, composer and founder of
National Orchestra of India, he inspires Western appreciation of Indian music.

1922: Pramukh Swami is born, renaissance traditionalist Hindu, head of
Bochasanwasi Swaminarayan Sanstha Sangh.

1922: Tagore’s school at Shantineketan (founded 1901) is made into Vishva Bharati
Univ. Becomes national Univ., 1951.

1923: US law excludes citizens of India from naturalization.

1924: Sir John Marshall (1876-1958) discovers relics of the Indus Valley Hindu
civilization. Begins large-scale excavations.

1925: Dr. Keshav Baliram (K B) Hedgewar (1889 – 1940) founds Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS), a
Hindu nationalist movement.

1926: Satya Sai Baba is born, Hindu universalist renaissance charismatic guru,
educationalist, worker of miracles.

1927: Sivaya Subramuniyaswami is born, present-day satguru in the Nandinatha
Sampradaya’s Kailasa Parampara.

1927: Maharashtra bars tradition of dedicating girls to temples as Devadasis, ritual
dancers. Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Orissa soon follow suit; 20 years later,
Tamil Nadu bans devotional dancing and singing by women in its thousands of
temples and in all Hindu ceremonies.

1927 & 34: Indians permitted to sit as jurors and court magistrates.

1928: Hindu leader Jawaharlal Nehru drafts plan for a free India; becomes president
of Congress Party in 1929.

1929: Chellachiamman, woman saint of Sri Lanka, dies. She was mentor to Sage
Yogaswami and Kandiah Chettiar.

1931: Shri Chinmoy is born in Bengal, yogi, artist, self-transcendence master and
United Nations peace ambassador.

1931: 2.5 million Indians reside overseas; largest communities are in Sri Lanka,
Malaya, Mauritius and S. Africa.

1931: Dr. Karan Singh is born, son and heir apparent of Kashmir’s last Maharaja;
becomes parliamentarian, Indian ambassador to the US and global Hindu

1934: Paul Brunton’s instantly popular A Search in Secret India makes known to
the West such illumined holy men as Shri Chandrashekharendra and Ramana

1936-1991: Lifetime of Shrimati Rukmini Devi, founder of Kalakshetra-a school of
Hindu classical music, dance, theatrical arts, painting and handicrafts-in Madras.

1938: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan is founded in Bombay by K.M. Munshi to conserve,
develop and diffuse Indian culture.

1939: Adolph Hitler’s Mein Kampf (“My Struggle”), manifesto of Nazism,
published 1925, sells 5 million copies in 11 languages. It reveals his racist Aryan,
anti-Semitic ideology, strategy of revenge and Socialist rise to power.

1939: World War II begins September 3, as France and Britain declare war on
Germany after Germany invades Poland.

1939: Maria Montessori (1870-1952), first Italian female physician and “discoverer
of the child,” spends nine years in India teaching her kindergarten method and
studying Hinduism through the Theosophical Society in Adyar.

1939: Mohammed Ali Jinnah calls for a separate Muslim state.

1941: First US chair of Sanskrit and Indology established at Yale Univ.; American
Oriental Society founded in 1942.

1942: At sites along the lost Sarasvati River in Rajasthan, archeologist Sir Aurel
Stein finds shards with incised characters identical to those on Indus Valley seals.

1945: Germany surrenders to Allied forces. Ghastly concentration camps that killed
6 million Jews are discovered.

1945: US drops atomic bombs on Nagasaki and Hiroshima, Japan, ending World
War II. Total war dead is 60 million.

1945: United Nations founded by 4 Allied nations and China to “save succeeding
generations from the scourge of war.”

1947: India gains independence from Britain August 15. Pakistan emerges as a
separate Islamic nation, and 600,000 die in clashes during subsequent population
exchange of 14 million people between the two new countries.

1948: Britain grants colony of Sri Lanka Dominion status and self-government
under Commonwealth jurisdiction.

1948: Establishment of Sarva Seva Sangh, Gandhian movement for new social
order (Sarvodaya).

1948: Mahatma Gandhi is assassinated January 30th by Nathuram Godse, 35,
editor-publisher of a Hindu Mahasabha weekly in Poona, in retaliation for Gandhi’s
concessions to Muslim demands and agreeing to partition 27% of India to create the
new Islamic nation of Pakistan.

1949: Sri Lanka’s Sage Yogaswami initiates Sivaya Subramuniyaswami as his
successor in Nandinatha Sampradaya’s Kailasa Parampara. Subramuniyaswami
founds Saiva Siddhanta Church and Yoga Order the same year.

1949: India’s new constitution, authored chiefly by B.R. Ambedkar, declares there
shall be no “discrimination” against any citizen on the grounds of caste, jati, and that
the practice of “untouchability” is abolished.

1950: Wartime jobs in West, taking women out of home, have led to weakened
family, delinquency, cultural breakdown.

1950: India is declared a secular republic. Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru
(1947-1964) is determined to abolish casteism and industrialize the nation.
Constitution makes Hindi official national language; English to continue for 15
years; 14 major state languages are recognized.

1951: India’s Bharatiya Janata Sangh (BJP) party is founded.

1955-6: Indian government enacts social reforms on Hindu marriage, succession,
guardianship, adoption, etc.

1950-60s Tours of Ravi Shankar and Ali Akbar Khan lead to worldwide
popularization of Indian music.

1955: Albert Einstein (1879-1955), German physicist formulator of the relativity
theory dies. He declared Lord Siva Nataraja best metaphor for the workings of the

1956: Indian government reorganizes states according to linguistic principles and
inaugurates second Five-Year Plan.

1956: Swami Satchidananda makes first visit to America.

1957: Sivaya Subramuniyaswami founds Himalayan Academy and opens US’s first
Hindu temple, in San Francisco.

1959: Dalai Lama flees Tibet and finds refuge in North India as China invades his
Buddhist nation.

1959: The transistor makes computers smaller and faster than prototypes like the
51-foot-long, 8-foot high Mark I, containing I-million parts and 500 miles of wire,
invented for the US Navy in 1944 by IBM’s Howard Aiken. From the 1960s
onward, integrated circuitry and microprocessors will take computers-descendants
of the 5,000-year-old Oriental abacus-to unimaginable levels to revolutionize Earth’s
technology and society.

1960: Since 1930, 5% of immigrants to US have been Asians, while European
immigrants have constituted 58%.

1960: Border war with China shakes India’s nonaligned policy.

1961: India forcibly reclaims Goa, Damao and Diu from the Portuguese. Goa
became a state of India in 1987.

1963: US President Kennedy is assassinated in Dallas, Texas.

1963: Hallucinogenic drug culture arises in US. Hindu gurus decry the false promise
and predict “a chemical chaos.”

1964: India’s Vishva Hindu Parishad (VHP), a Hindu religious nationalist
movement, is founded to counter secularism.

1964: Rock group, the Beatles, practice Transcendental Meditation (TM), bringing
fame to Maharshi Mahesh Yogi.

1965: US immigration cancels racial qualifications and restores naturalization rights.
Welcomes 170,000 Asians yearly.

1966: J. Nehru’s daughter, Indira Gandhi, becomes Prime Minister of India, world’s
largest democracy, succeeding L. B. Shastri who took office after Nehru’s death in

1968: US Civil Rights leader Martin Luther King is assassinated.

1969: US astronaut Neil Armstrong sets foot on the moon.

1970: Kauai Aadheenam, Hindu monastery, site of Kadavul Hindu Temple, Saiva
Siddhanta Church headquarters, San Marga Sanctuary and editorial offices of
Hinduism Today is founded February 5 on Hawaii’s Garden Island.

1971: Rebellion in East Pakistan (formerly Bengal). Ten million Bengalis, mainly
Hindus, flee to India. Indo-Pak border clashes escalate to war. India defeats West
Pakistan. E. Pakistan becomes independent Bangladesh.

1972: A Historical Atlas of South Asia is produced by Joseph E. Schwartzberg, Siva
G. Bajpai, Raj B. Mathur, et al.

1972: Muslim dictator Idi Amin expels Indians from Uganda.

1973: Neem Karoli Baba, Hindu mystic and siddha, dies.

1974: India detonates a “nuclear device.”

1974: Watergate scandal. US President Nixon resigns.

1975: Netherlands gives independence to Dutch Guyana, which becomes Suriname;
one third of Hindus (descendants of Indian plantation workers) emigrate to
Netherlands for better social and economic conditions.

1977: One hundred thousand Tamil Hindu tea-pickers expatriated from Sri Lanka
are shipped to Madras, South India.

1979: Sivaya Subramuniyaswami founds Hinduism Today international newspaper
to promote Hindu solidarity.

1980: Grand South Indian counterpart to Kumbha Mela of Prayag, the
Mahamagham festival, held every 12 years in Kumbhakonam, on the river Kaveri,
two million attend.

1981: India has one-half world’s cattle: 8 cows for every 10 Indians.

1981: Deadly AIDS disease is conclusively identified.

1981: First bharata natyam dance in a temple since 1947 Christian-British ban on
Devadasis is arranged by Sivaya Subramuniyaswami at Chidambaram; 100,000

1983: Violence between Hindu Tamils and Buddhist Singhalese in Sri Lanka marks
beginning of Tamil rebellion by Tiger freedom fighters demanding an independent
nation called Eelam. Prolonged civil war results.

1984: Balasarasvati, eminent classical Karnatic singer and bharata natyam dancer of
worldwide acclaim, dies.

1984: Since 1980, Asians have made up 48% of immigrants to the US, with the
European portion shrinking to 12%.

1984: Indian soldiers under orders from Prime Minister Indira Gandhi storm Sikh
Golden Temple in Amritsar to crush rebellion. She is assassinated this year by her
Sikh bodyguards in retaliation. Her son Rajiv takes office.

1986: Swami Satchidananda dedicates Light of Truth Universal Shrine (LOTUS) at
Yogaville in Virginia, USA.

1986: Jiddha Krishnamurti, anti-guru guru, semi-existentialist philosophical Indian
lecturer and author, dies.

1986: World Religious Parliament in New Delhi bestows the title Jagadacharya,
“world teacher,” on five spiritual leaders outside India: Swami Chinmayananda of
Chinmaya Mission (Bombay, India); Satguru Sivaya Subramuniyaswami of Saiva
Siddhanta Church and Himalayan Academy (Hawaii-California, USA); Yogiraj
Amrit Desai of Kripalu Yoga Center (New York, USA); Pandit Tej Ramji Sharma
of Nepali Baba (Kathmandu, Nepal); Swami Jagpurnadas Maharaj (Port Louis,

1987: Colonel S. Rabuka, a Methodist, leads coup deposing Fiji’s Indian-dominated
government and instituting military rule. July, 1990, constitution guarantees political
majority to ethnic (mostly Christian) Fijians.

1988: General Ershad declares Islam state religion of Bangladesh, outraging
12-million (11%) Hindu population.

1988: US allows annual influx of 270,000 Asian immigrants.

1988: First Global Forum of Spiritual and Parliamentary Leaders on Human
Survival is held at Oxford University, England. Hindus discuss international
cooperation with 100 religious leaders and 100 parliamentarians.

1989: Christian missionaries are spending US%165 million per year to convert

1990: The Berlin Wall is taken down February 12. Germany is reunited over the
next year. Warsaw Pact is dissolved.

1990: Under its new democratic constitution, Nepal remains the world’s only Hindu

1990: Hindus flee Muslim persecution in Kashmir Valley.

1990: Foundation stones are laid in Ayodhya for new temple at the birthplace of
Lord Rama, as Hindu nationalism rises.

1990: Vatican condemns Eastern mysticism as false doctrine in letter by Cardinal
Ratzinger approved by Pope Paul II, to purge Catholic monasteries, convents and
clergy of involvement in Eastern meditation, yoga and Zen.

1990: Second Global Forum of Spiritual Leaders and Parliamentarians for Human
Survival, in Moscow, cosponsored by Supreme Soviet, gives stage for Hindu
thinking. Shringeri sannyasin Swami Paramananda Bharati concludes Forum with
Vedic peace prayer in Kremlin Hall, leading 2,500 world leaders in chanting Aum
three times.

1990: Communist leadership of USSR collapses, to be replaced by 12 independent
democratic nations.

1991: Hindu Renaissance Award is founded by Hinduism Today and declares
Swami Paramananda Bharati of Shringeri Matha “1990 Hindu of the Year.”

1991: Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi is assassinated in Tamil Nadu in May. India
blames Sri Lankan Tamil separatists.

1991: Indian tribals, adivasis, are 45 million strong.

1991: In Bangalore, India, Satguru Sivaya Subramuniyaswami authorizes renowned
architect V. Ganapati Sthapati to begin carving the Chola-style, white-granite,
moksha Iraivan Temple in a project guided by Shri Shri Trichy Swami, Shri Shri
Balagangadaranathaswami and Shri Sivapuriswami. Shipped to Hawaii’s Garden
Island of Kauai and erected on San Marga, Iraivan will be the Western
Hemisphere’s first all-stone Agamic temple.The world’s largest single-pointed,
six-sided crystal (700 lbs.), known as the Earthkeeper, will be enshrined as its

1992: Swami Chidananda Saraswati, spiritual head of Parmarth Niketan Trust, with
26 ashramas, is named Hinduism Today’s 1991 Hindu of the Year for founding
historic Encyclopedia of Hinduism Indian Heritage project.

1992: World population is 5.2 billion; 17% or 895 million, live in India. Of these,
85%, or 760 million, are Hindu.

1992: Third Global Forum of Spiritual Leaders and Parliamentarians for Human
Survival meets in Rio de Janeiro in conjunction with Earth Summit (UNCED).
Hindu views of nature, environment and traditional values help inform the 70,000
delegates planning global future.

1992: Hindu radicals demolish Babri Masjid built in 1548 on Rama’s birthplace in
Ayodhya by Muslim conqueror Babar after he destroyed a Hindu temple marking
the site. The monument was a central icon of Hindu resentment toward Muslim
destruction of 60,000 temples.

1993: Fourth Global Forum of Spiritual and Parliamentary Leaders on Human
Survival meets in Kyoto, Japan. Green Cross is founded for environmental

1993: Swami Chinmayananda is named 1992 Hindu of the Year, for lifetime of
dynamic service to Sanatana Dharma worldwide-attains mahasamadhi July 26, at
age 77.

1993: Swami Brahmananda Sarasvati, renowned yoga scholar, and Swami
Vishnu-devananda, author of world’s most popular manual on hatha yoga, reach

1993: Chicago’s historic centenary Parliament of the World’s Religions convenes in
September. Presidents’ Assembly, a core group of 25 men and women representing
the world’s faiths, is formed to perpetuate Parliament goals.

1994: Harvard University research identifies over 800 Hindu temples open for
worship in the United States.

1994: Mata Amritanandamayi (1953-) charismatic woman saint of Kerala, is named
1993 Hindu of the Year.

1994: All India pays homage to Kanchi’s beloved peripatetic tapasvin sage, Shri la
Shri Shankaracharya Chandrashekharendra, who passes away January 7, during his
100th year.

1994: Hindu Heritage Endowment, first Hindu international trust, founded by
Satguru Sivaya Subramuniyaswami.

2000: World population is 6.2 billion. India population is 1.2 billion: 20% of world
(projection by World Watch).

2050: British historian Arnold Toynbee (1889-1975) predicted that at the close of
the 20th century the world would still be dominated by the West, but during the
21st century India will conquer her conquerors, preempting the place formerly held
by technology. Religion worldwide will be restored to its earlier importance, and the
center of world happenings will wander back from the shores of the Atlantic to the
East where civilization originated.

2094: Bharat (formerly India) is world’s most populous nation. Sanatana Dharma,
finding new expressions through interactive electronic tools, guides humankind’s
future. Time flows on. Live long and prosper.

Aum. Shanti, Shanti, Shanti. Aum.


A less detailed timeline:

Source: https://history-of-hinduism.blogspot.nl/2010/10/hinduism-timeline.html

Hinduism Timeline

2500–1500 B.C.E. —The Indus River Valley civilization develops and flourishes. Evidence of early Hindu practice is archaeologically dated to this vanished culture.

1600–1400 B.C.E. —The Aryan warrior culture conquers the Indus River Valley, bringing with it the Sanskrit language and major influences in the development of Hinduism.

1500–1200 B.C.E. —The Vedic Age in which the Rig Veda is written, reflecting the influence of joining the Aryan and Indus River Valley cultures.

1000–300 B.C.E. —The Brahmanas and Upanishads are written and added to the original Vedas.

600–500 B.C.E. —The Age of Protest as Buddhism and Jainism break away from the main flow of Hinduism.

400 B.C.E.–800 C.E. —The Hindu response to Buddhism and Jainism results in further changes to the main teachings of Hinduism.

326 B.C.E. —Alexander the Great brings his army and the influence of Greek civilization into the northernmost regions of India. The Indian Mauryan Empire is created to counter this Greek invasion of culture and ideas.

250 B.C.E. —Ashoka becomes Emperor of the Mauryan Dynasty.

400–500 C.E. — Hinduism returns as the dominant religion of India. Temples and monuments are built to honor Hindu ideas, gods and beliefs. This is the era of the Hindu Renaissance.

800–1000 C.E. — Bhakti movements begin to develop in India.

900 C.E. — Shankara teaches the reality of One Brahman or One God, introducing significant monotheistic beliefs into Hinduism.

1100 C.E. — Muslims arrive in India and influence the evolution of the Hindu faith.

1400–1700 C.E. — Europeans arrive in India to pursue colonization and commercial goals within the Hindu world.

1919–1948 C.E. — The era of Mahatma Gandhi’s profound influence on Hinduism and India.

1948–1990 C.E. — India and Pakistan become independent countries and enter the modern era. Both possess nuclear weapons and suffer from religious tension among their Muslim and Hindu populations.

Most of them start at:2500–1500 B.C.E. —The Indus River Valley civilization develops and flourishes.”
Not many sources describe a timeline for what happens before 2500 BC.
Also here tells the story of Vishnu helping Manu survive the flood:
Vishnu appears as another avatar in the form of the fish Matsya. Manu, the sage and son of Vivsavat-Sun, was washing in a river one day when a small fish suddenly jumped into his hand. About to throw the fish back into the water, he was stopped by the pleadings of the fish, who was afraid of the monsters that might eat him. Manu, therefore, kept the fish in a small bowl but, overnight, the fish grew bigger and so had to be moved to a jar. Still the fish kept growing and so Manu threw it into a lake. However, the fish continued to grow and reached such a prodigious size that Manu was obliged to put it into the sea. The fish then made a prophecy that in seven days there would be a great flood but Manu was not to worry about this catastrophe as the fish would send him a large boat so that he might escape unharmed. The fish instructed Manu to fill the boat with pairs of all the creatures of the world and seeds of all the plants and, during the flood, to tie his boat to the fish by using a giant snake – Vasuki. After some time, just as the fish had predicted, the ocean slowly and relentlessly rose up and flooded the world. Vishnu then reappeared on the scene as the gigantic fish, this time with golden scales and a single horn, and carrying the promised ship for Manu. The sage promptly boarded with his vast collection of animals and so, by surviving the flood, became the founder of the human race.
So, after all, this proof, a “Flood” did happen, actually by some sources, more than one Flood. It is possible that Noah’s Flood happened at the time of  the Great Flood of China, at around 2300-2200BC during Emperor Yao.


Now, for a timeline for islam:

Source: http://www.religionfacts.com/islam/timeline

Timeline of Islam

c. 570 CE Birth of Muhammad.
c. 610 CE Muhammad receives first vision in a cave near Mecca.
c. 610-22 CE Muhammad preaches in Mecca.
622 CE Hijira – Muhammad and followers flee to Medina.
Islamic calendar (AH, Anno Hegirae) begins.
624 CE Muslims successfully attack Meccan caravans at Badr.
625 Muslims are defeated by Meccans at Uhud.
630 Muslims capture Mecca. Ka’ba is cleansed, pilgrimage rites are Islamicized, tribes of Arabia vow allegiance to Muhammad
632 Death of Muhammad. Abu Bakr chosen as caliph.
632-33 Wars of ridda (apostasy) restore allegiance to Islam
633 Muslim conquests (Futuhat) begin.
633-42 Muslim armies take the Fertile Crescent (Egypt, Syria, Palestine, Mesopotamia), North African coast, parts of Persian and Byzantine Empires
c. 650 Caliph Uthman has the Qur’an written down.
656 Uthman is murdered; Ali becomes fourth caliph.
657 Battle of Siffin. Mu’awiya, governor of Syria, claims the caliphate.
659 Arbitration at Adruh is opposed by Ali’s supporters.
661 Ali is murdered; Mu’awiya becomes caliph. Beginning of Umayyad Caliphate (661-750).
680 Death of Husayn marks beginning of the Shi’at Ali (“party of Ali”) or Shi’a sect.
685-705 Reign of Abd al-Malik. Centralization of administration – Arabic becomes official written language (instead of Greek and Persian) and Arab coinage is established.
late 600s Ruling classes in East and West Africa convert to Islam.
700-800s Groups of ascetics and mystics begin to form
710 Arab armies enter Spain from North Africa.
732 Muslim empire reaches its furthes extent. Battle of Tours prevents further advance northwards.
747 Revolt defeats the Umayyads.
750 Abu l’Abbas becomes caliph in Iraq
754 Baghdad (Madinat al-Salam, “city of peace”) becomes the new capital of the Abbasid empire.
755 Abd ar-Rahman founds an Umayyad Dynasty in Cordoba, Spain.
765 Division within Shi’ites – majority are the modern Imamiyya (Twelvers) who co-exist with Abbasid caliphs; minority are more extreme Isma’iliyaa (Seveners).
786-809 Reign of Harun ar-Rashid, best known through the stories of The Thousand and One Nights.
800s Written collections of Hadith (sayings of the Prophet) are compiled. Sicily comes under Muslim rule.
813-33 Reign of Ma’mun. Theological controversy over whether the Qur’an is created or uncreated and eternal. Center for translation of texts from Greek to Arabic founded in Baghdad.
869-883 Uprisings of black slaves (Zanj) are eventually defeated.
908 First Fatimid caliph in Tunisia.
928 Umayyad Abd ar-Rahman III declares himself caliph in Cordoba.
940 Muhammad al-Mahdi, the twelfth imam, disappears. Twelvers still await the future return of the “Hidden Imam.”
945 The Buyids (Persian) invade Baghdad and take power from caliph.
969 Fatimids gain power in Egypt and attack Palestine, Syria, and Arabia. Cairo (Al-Qahira, “the victorious city”) is founded.
980-1037 Life of Avicenna, Iranian physician and Aristotelian philosopher.
996-1021 Reign of Fatimid al-Hakim. Hamza ibn Ali forms basis of esoteric Druze religion.
late 900s West Africa begins to convert to Islam
1030 Umayyad caliphate in Cordoba defeated by the Christian Reconquista.
1055 Seljuk Turks take Baghdad; Abbasids now only nominal rulers.
1000s Reconquista takes more of Spain, Sicily falls to the Normans, Crusader kingdoms are briefly established in Palestine and Syria.
1071 Seljuk Turks defeat Byzantines at Battle of Manzikert.
1090 Hasan-i Sabbah takes Alamut in the Persian mountains, the Assassin sect forms around him.
1099 Christian Crusaders take Jerusalem.
1100-1200s Sufi orders (turuq) are founded.
1126-98 Life of Averroës, Muslim philosopher from Cordoba who sought to integrate Islam with Greek thought.
1171 Fatimid power ends in Egypt with the conquests of Saladin.
1174 Saladin declares himself sultan of Egypt and Syria.
1193 Death of Saladin; most of Crusader states have returned to Islam.
1200s Assassins wipes out by the Mongols. Indian rulers in Delhi take title of Sultan. Spanish mystic Muhyi al-Din ibn al-Arabi (1165-1240) flourishes.
1221 Genghis Khan and the Mongols enter Persia.
1241 Mongols take the Punjab.
1258 Mongols capture Baghdad; city is sacked and caliph is killed. End of Abbasid caliphate.
1281-1324 Reign of Uthman (Osman), who founds the Ottoman Empire. Muslim merchants and missionary Sufis settle in SE Asia.
mid-1300s Ottomans capture Bursa and Iznik and move into Europe.
1366 Capital of Ottoman Empire moved from Bursa to Adrianople.
late 1300s Ottomas take control of the Balkans.
1400s Islam reaches the Philippines.
1453 Mehmet Fatih (rules 1451-81) conquers Constantinople. The two halves of the Ottoman Empire are united and the sultan becomes Byzantine emperor.
1492 Castile and Aragon capture Granada. All Muslims (and Jews) expelled from Spain.
1501 Isma’il (1487-1524) claims to be the Hidden Imam and is proclaimed Shah (king) of Persia. Twelver Shi’ism becomes official religion of Persia.
1516 Ottomans conquer Syria and Egypt.
1517 Ottomans control Mecca and Medina.
1520-66 Reign of Suleyman the Magnificent; Ottoman Empire reaches its zenith. Hungary and coastlands of Algeria and Tunisia come under Ottoman rule.
1526 Babur (Mongolian) seizes the Delhi sultanate and takes control of northern India.
1556 Akbar founds the Mughal dynasty in northern India.
1600-1700s Venetians, Habsburgs, and Russians divide European Ottoman lands between them.
1625 Java comes under rule of Muslim kingdom of Mataram.
1699 Treaty of Karlowitz confirms first substantial losses of Ottoman Empire in Europe.
1700s Muhammad Abd al-Wahhab rejects Sufism and all innovation (bid’a). Founds what becomes the Saudi Arabian kingdom. Hindus regain power from Mughals in northern India.
1738 Mughal empire invaded by the Afghans.
1779 Afghans ousted by Qajar dynasty, which rules Persia until 1925.
1798 Napoleon’s expedition to Egypt.
1805 Muhammad Ali becomes governor of Egypt, which becomes independent of the Ottomans, gains control of western Arabia and extends into the Sudan.
1807-76 Tanzimat period. Ottoman Empire undergoes extensive program of modernization in government, law, and medicine.
1830 Greece regains independence from Ottomans.
1850s Non-Muslim Ottoman citizens granted equality with Muslims.
1858 Last Mughal in India is deposed and India comes under British rule.
1876-1908 Reign of Abd al-Hamid II; autocratic and religiously conservative period in Ottoman rule.
1878 Congress of Berlin recognizes independence of Balkan states previously under Muslim rule.
1882-1952 Egypt occupied by the British.
1908-18 Last decade of Ottoman rule. Rise of nationalistic “Young Turks.” More liberal policies develop.
1912 Founding of Islamic Union (Sareket Islam), a modernizing movement in SE Asia.
1918 Fall of Ottoman Empire. League of Nations grants Britain mandatory status over Palestine and Iraq, and France over Lebanon and Syria.
1923 Republic of Turkey established. Mustafa Kemal (Ataturk) is first president.
1927 Tablighi Jamaat reform movement founded in India.
1928 Ikhwan al-Muslimun (Muslim Brothers) founded in Egypt.
1941 Jamaat-i Islami reform movement founded in Lahore, India.
1945 Indonesia becomes independent republic.
1945-60s Islam spreads to the West with mass migrations from Asia, Africa, and India.
1947 Pakistan founded as an Islamic nation. Islam becomes a minority religion in India.
1957 Independent Malayan state established with Islam as the official religion but guaranteed tolerance.
1960s Familes from SE Asia and North Africa emigrate to Europe and the Americas.
1979 Shah of Iran is overthrown by Ayatullah Ruhullah Khumayni, who establishes strict fundamentalist rule of Shi’a principles.
late 1990s Taliban come to power in Afghanistan.
2001 Muslim extremists attack the United States.
2003 Saddam Hussein ousted by Western forces.
8 Jun 632 Death of the Prophet Muhammad

Islam looks to be a religion more violent than other religions, a religion that generally had much more military conflict than other religions. There is one video that shows the amount of conflicts created by each religion over time:

For Islam:

A map that shows the spread of religions around the world:


And, The History of The World, a very detailed, good video!

Disclaimer: I don’t guarantee that the informations provided in the video above^(it’s not made by me) is 100% accurate. As all historical data, whether they are all 100% accurate. You(the reader) may have heard the quoute: “History is a Lie!”.

This has been a long post, which probably achieved it’s first purpose to review The Flood and the Timelines.

Now, for second purpose, it would be about the so called “Israel vs Palestine situation”.

Ideally, for this conflict to be solved, the best solution would be to have one state, one religion in that area. By default, the religion with ‘almost’ the best mentality and logic in the world, is Judaism. The ‘Kosher’ rules are correct, the Noahide Laws, the 10 Commandments are also correct, but somehow the 613 Commandments are contradictory with both the Noahide Laws and the Ten Commandments, in regard to the “Thou shalt not kill.”. One of the 613 commandments sometimes encourages the eliminating entire people and entire nations and they still apply capital punishments ( See commandment 596. Destroy the seven Canaanite nations,597. Not to let any of them remain alive, 544-548. The courts must carry out the death penalty of stoning, burning, strangulation, of the sword; 549.The courts must hang those stoned for blasphemy or idolatry; Which are against the “Thou shalt not kill” from the 10 commandments).

However, both Judaism and Islam apply capital punishments and thus their war will continue. The emphasis was that the religion with best logic would be Judaism, but the people of Palestine have suffered a lot, are less educated and lack the knowledge and the resources necessary and pretty much no one helps them. And there is a lot of ‘hatemongering’ fueling either the palestinian people and it’s citizens. And let’s not forget, palestinians and the people of israel are more than likely to share similar blood(palestinians to have been with israeli origins). The real problem is, still, lack of proper education and religion.

The Islam religion has one of the most practical, simple and efficient cleansing rituals, and that is Wudu(ablution), Ghusl and Tayammum(dry ablution). As for the rest…

Halal vs Kosher. Halal is good for prohibiting alcohol, while Kosher tells to consume in moderation. Kosher is better in terms of which animals should be eaten and also to not consume dairy products with meat. Kosher in general is better in many aspects.

Still, the ideal food would be vegetarian, something that is not suggested in either religion(as far as I am aware). In halal, the animal is sacrificed in front of the idol, which would count as sacrifice to idols, something that both jews and christians does not consider correct.

Jainism and Buddhism have the advantages of recommending a vegan diet, but who to follow?

Thus, Islam has the most to offer so far, the cleansing rituals.

The ideal solution to have a long term solving for palestine conflict, is for palestinians to be happy, thus being the underdog winner, by not killing, but by building good relations, it would be a good idea of a combined religion that accepts jewish tradition while adding the wudu/ghusl and tayammum to it, plus the prayers that the islam practices(like salat), to be not mandatory, only once a day, just like at Judaism.

So, for palestine to win, they have to accept jewish tradition and habits, recognise most/all of their writings, except those who encourage violence, killing and murder. They are encouraged to practice ablution(Wudu/Ghusl/Tayammum) and pray to either YHVH/Elah/Allah, from their religious texts.

The alternative would only further stretch conflict, which is not necessary.

In the long run, the practices of religions that encourage spiritual development and a clean diet(Like Buddhism, Jainism and sometimes Hinduism) will be the religions or schools of thought of the future!



Research into best types of food (pt2: testosterone vs estrogen foods, balanced food system)

For those who didn’t read, here is part I:

The subjects for the second part of the article are as follows:
-about foods that influence the way hormones are created in the body
-about balanced food systems

In this article, there will be information presented about which foods are best for testosterone increase. The foods that are non-vegetarian will be omitted. First, the article, with the name of the foods from it will be posted, then the foods themselves.

Article: https://www.bodybuilding.com/fun/the-6-best-testosterone-boosting-foods.html
Foods: Pumpkin Seeds, Coconut, Wheat Bran, Strawberries
Omitted(non-vegan): Shrimp, Ricotta Cheese


These jack-o’-lantern castoffs are a good source of zinc, a mineral that plays a role in thousands of different enzymatic reactions in the body, including those involved in testosterone production. It’s no major surprise, then, that a study published in “Nutrition” found that men with inadequate zinc intake had lower testosterone concentrations.3


Sneak more testosterone-boosting pumpkin seeds into your diet by adding them to oatmeal, yogurt, and salads, and even blitz them into your protein shakes.

Get more zinc: Oysters, crab, turkey, chicken, steak, wheat germ, sesame seeds, cashews, lentils


Paleo-worthy coconut can not only help your diet taste like a tropical vacation, it can also keep your T-score at healthy levels. That’s because the giant nut is a source of saturated fat, which plays a role in testosterone production.

In a study published in “The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism,” investigators found that healthy males who switched from their regular high-fat diet (13 percent saturated fat) to a low-fat diet (5 percent saturated fat) saw significant decreases in their testosterone levels.4

While you shouldn’t blend porterhouse steaks into your protein shakes, physique-minded individuals can obtain up to 10 percent of their calories from saturated fat to help keep testosterone at its peak without any major concern over increasing your risk of coronary woes.

Get more saturated fat: Butter, full-fat dairy, steak, lamb, red palm oil, chocolate


Who would have thought that low-brow wheat bran could help jack up your T-levels? But the fiber-rich bran of the wheat kernel is an excellent source of the mineral magnesium. A study conducted by scientists in Turkey found that subjects with higher intakes of magnesium had increased testosterone swirling around.5 Of note, the study found that magnesium was more effective at bolstering testosterone if paired with high-intensity exercise.


Magnesium is required for hundreds of biochemical reactions in the body, and testosterone production is likely one of them. You can sneak more wheat bran in your diet by mixing it into oatmeal, pancake batter, and protein shakes.

Get more magnesium: Cocoa powder, almonds, whole grains, oat bran, sunflower seeds, peanut butter, beans


These rosy berries are a leading source of vitamin C. This is good news for your fitness gains, since higher intakes of this potent antioxidant have been associated with lower testosterone-busting cortisol levels in response to hardcore workouts.7


Cortisol is a catabolic hormone released by the adrenal glands in response to stressful situations, including intense exercise. Unfortunately, cortisol competes with testosterone, so high levels can crowd out testosterone, thereby reducing its anabolic benefits.

Get more vitamin C: Kiwi, oranges, grapefruit, pineapple, red bell peppers, kale, tomatoes, broccoli

Article: http://www.eatthis.com/7-testosterone-boosting-foods/
Foods: Spinach, Hot Sauce, Garlic, Brazil Nuts, Broccoli
Ommited(non-vegan): Oysters, Eggs


spinach healthier than kale
There’s a reason why Olive Oyl was totally smitten with Popeye, and it may not have been his bicep muscles (wink!). Spinach is one of the best dietary sources of magnesium, a mineral involved in muscle development that’s essential for reproductive function in men both young and old, active and sedentary. One study that compared athletes to non-active individuals found that supplementing with 22 mg magnesium per pound of body weight of the course of four weeks raised testosterone levels in both groups. And two separate studies, one on a group of men over the age of 65 and a second on a younger 18-30 year old cohort, present the same conclusion: levels of testosterone (and muscle strength) are directly correlated to the levels of magnesium in the body.

T-Boosting Tip: Take a cue from the sailor man and load up on leafy greens. Just one cup of cooked spinach provides nearly 160 milligrams of magnesium—half your recommended daily intake of 420 mg, and twice what you’ll find in the equivalent serving of kale!


hot sauce
How alpha are you? Well, how many shakes of hot sauce can you handle? A recent study from France found men who have a taste for spicy foods tend to have higher testosterone levels than those who can’t handle the heat. Of the 114 male participants surveyed, researchers saw a clear correlation between frequent hot-sauce usage and higher T-levels. Study authors suggest the findings may be due in part to capsaicin—the fiery compound in chili pepper that previous studies have associated with increased testosterone levels. In animal studies, capsaicin has also shown to increase the size of sex organs, while simultaneously decreasing belly fat. Yowza!

T-Boosting Tip: Make it hot! Fresh chilis contain the most capsaicin, but hot chili pepper sauces, like Tabasco, are another good option. The hotter the sauce (or pepper), the more T-boosting compounds.


A side of garlic knots or onion bread can boost your sex drive … just make sure your date has a slice, too! Studies suggest a compound in the stinking rose triggers the release of luteinizing hormone, which regulates production of testosterone. One study showed supplementing with garlic as part of a high-protein diet could substantially boost testosterone levels. And a recent animal study found just 1 gram of onion per kg of body weight could boost T-levels by over 300 percent in just 20 days. Garlic and onions both contain the chemical diallyl disulfide, which stimulates the release of a hormone that spurs the production of testosterone.

T-Boosting Tip: Fresh garlic and onion contain more nutrients than the powdered stuff, and slicing into the bulbs releases the phytochemicals. Consider buying fresh, minced garlic packed in oil, which preserves all the nutrition. And don’t forget breath mints!


brazil nuts
Bikinis, models, nuts … Is there anything Brazilian that’s not

sexy? Selenium is a trace mineral found in Brazil nuts that plays an important role in hormone health. You only need a tiny bit for healthy sperm, but a tiny deficiency can be catastrophic for reproductive health. In one study, men who had lower testosterone and were infertile also had significantly lower selenium levels than the fertile group. Supplementing with the mineral improved chances of successful conception by 56 percent. And a second study that included 69 infertile men with low levels of the mineral, found selenium supplementation could significantly improve sub-par sperm motility associated with testosterone deficiency. Moreover, 11 percent of the men successfully impregnated their partners during the trial!

T-Boosting Tip: Bust a Brazil nut! Men need at least 55 micrograms of selenium a day, and you’ll get 68 to 91 mcg in just one creamy Brazil nut. So don’t go too nuts. The upper limit for daily selenium intake is 400 mcg and could cause selenium toxicity.


Cruciferous vegetables like broccoli are rich in indoles, anti-cancer compounds that indirectly boost testosterone production by breaking down and flushing the system of excess estrogen, which inhibits the production of male sex hormones. As men age, their estrogen levels gradually rise, while testosterone levels fall. Indoles can help strike the balance. In one study, supplementing with indole-3-carbinol from cruciferous vegetables for just 7 days cut the estrogen hormone estradiol in half for men. Another study found indole supplementation significant increased urinary excretion of estrogens among men.

T-Boosting Tip: Indulge in indoles! Show estrogen who’s boss with a big bowl of microwave-steamed broccoli (or cauliflower, cabbage or brussel sprouts). New research suggests the convenient cooking method may also increase the veggie’s antioxidant content.

Article: https://www.anabolicmen.com/foods-that-boost-testosterone-naturally/

Foods: All Kinds of Potatoes, Macadamia Nuts, Coffee, Brazil Nuts, Extra Virgin Olive Oil, Raisins, Parsley, Ginger, Raw Cacao Products, Real Salt, Argan Oil, Avocados, White Button Mushrooms, Baking Soda, Pomegranates, Dark Berries, Sorghum, Coconut Oil, Onions, Garlic

Omitted(non-vegan): Epic Bar, Beef Gelatin, Eggs, Yogurt, Grass-Fed Beef Jerky, Minced Meat, Blue Cheese, Grass-Fed Butter, Organic Bacon ,Oysters

All Kinds of Potatoes

Potatoes are a great food that boost testosteroneIf you’re a frequent reader here in AM, you already know that carbohydrates are hugely important for healthy testosterone production.

You also know that grains are not the preferred source of carbs, mainly due to problems with gluten, which can significantly increase prolactin levels, effectively messing up T production.

Simple sugars are also not the preferred carbohydrate sources on a high T diet, since they have been linked to lowered testosterone levels in multiple studies.

Ruling out grains and simple sugars, may make it look like you can’t eat any carbs, except for salad, but that’s not the case.

You can – and should eat – potatoes as part of a testosterone boosting diet!

Sweet potatoes, white potatoes, russets, red potatoes, purple potatoes, etc. If it’s a potato, you should be eating it. Potatoes are excellent no-gluten source of testosterone boosting carbohydrates, and also very dense in nutrients. Stock pile your pantry full of them, and make potatoes your main carbohydrate source.

Macadamia Nuts

macadamia nuts for healthy testosterone productionDietary fat, in general, is known for its testosterone increasing effect, and nuts in general, are very high in fats. So one could easily assume that all nuts are pro-testosterone. However, that’s not the case.

The kinds of fats that have been linked to increased T production are saturated fatty-acids (SFAs) and monounsaturated fatty-acids (MUFAs). Polyunsaturated fatty-acids (PUFAs) on the other hand tend to lower testosterone levels.

Most nuts are – unfortunately – loaded with PUFAs.

Not macadamia nuts though. 100 grams of these wonderful little fat balls contain ~75 grams of dietary fat, out of which 60 grams are MUFAs, 13 grams are SFAs, and less than 2 grams are PUFAs.

Did someone say perfect for testosterone production? 😉.


Coffee is a great drink to boost testosterone levelsWho doesn’t love a cup – or five – of strong coffee?

Coffee is great. It gives you the caffeine which stimulates the nervous system and jolts you up, while also boosting cAMP levels, leading to increased testosterone production.

Sure coffee can also increase cortisol levels (which is a stress hormone notorious for lowering testosterone), but it’s crucial to understand that the cortisol boost from caffeine is very short in duration, not like the T suppressing long-term (usually stress-related) cortisol elevation.

Oh, and coffee is also loaded with antioxidants. So again, there’s no need to start avoiding coffee, just don’t drink it 15 cups a day for every hour of your time awake.

Brazil Nuts

Brazil nuts are an essential part of a testosterone boosting food listBrazil nuts are shelled in a thick cone, so technically they’re seeds, but due to their nut-like taste and structure, people have always called them nuts.

They do not have as good fat ratios for testosterone production as the macadamia’s do (100 grams of brazil nuts has 15g SFAs, 25g MUFAs, and 19g PUFAs), but their true testosterone boosting potential is not in the fat ratio…

…It’s in the ridiculously high selenium content. 100 grams of Brazil nuts contains 1917 mcg’s of selenium, which is 2739% of the RDA%!

Selenium – mostly due to its glutathione stimulating effects – is directly linked to increased testosterone production (studystudy), and just a handful of Brazil nuts a day is easily enough to cover your selenium needs, naturally.

NOTE: Most of the selenium is in the skin of the nut, so don’t buy your Brazil nuts unshelled.

Extra Virgin Olive Oil

Extra virgin olive oil is great as a testosterone booster foodExtra virgin olive oil can be straight on labeled as a testosterone booster.

Since there’s literally a study where young Moroccan men changed to extra virgin olive oil as their main source of fat, and in 2 weeks their testosterone levels increased by 17%.

This could have been caused by the fact that olive oil has a pretty darn great fat ratios for T production (73% MUFAs, 14% SFAs, 13% PUFAs), or it could also be the fact that olive oil is anti-inflammatory, or that it’s ridiculously high in antioxidants. It also contains the possibly testosterone boosting bitter glycoside; oleuropein.

Just make sure your olive oil is the real deal. Organic. Extra Virgin. And from a trusted brand. Many cheaper olive oils have been heated, processed, and adulterated with cheaper oils (usually high PUFA ones too).


raisins are a food that boost testosterone production in menRaisins are a great food that boost testosterone levels for multiple reasons.

Firstly, they’re anti-inflammatory and chock-full of antioxidants, such as resveratrol, which has been linked to increased testosterone and lowered estrogen levels in few studies (studystudy).

Secondly, 100 grams of raisins contain ~3 mg’s of boron, which is a not too popular mineral that has increased testosterone levels quite significantly in few scientific studies (studystudy).

So, it’s not a bad idea to make your own testosterone boosting snack trail mix with raisins, macadamia nuts, and brazil nuts.


parsley increases testosterone levelsParsley is a great little plant. That’s because of a compound in it called apigening.

The researcher at Texas tech found out that apigening increases the amount StAR(steroidogenic acute regulatory protein) inside the testicular leydig cells.

Why is this great you might ask? Well, StaR is the binding protein that transports cholesterol into the mitochondria inside your ballsack, essentially converting it to free testosterone.

So, more parsley -> more StaR -> better conversion from cholesterol to free testosterone -> more free testosterone.

Bottom line: You better be consuming parsley.


ginger as a high testosterone foodGinger is a common household spice, but it can be used to many other things than just to add flavor to foods.

Ginger contains the active ingredient, gingerol, which is a potent anti-inflammatory agent in the body.

Not only that, but several animal studies have identified ginger as an androgenic compound (studystudy), while one Iraqian human study noted a 17% increase in testosterone levels after ginger supplementation.

So not a common household spice alone, but also a powerful androgenic anti-inflammatory agent. And cheap as fuck.

Raw Cacao Products

raw cacao products are natural testosterone boosting superfoodsRaw cacao, cocoa, or chocolate products are nutritionally dense testosterone boosting superfoods.

However, I’m not talking about the chocolate or cacao that most people identify as chocolate. Real chocolate is not heated (this destroys the antioxidants and many vitamins), it’s not processed, and it’s definitely not refined.

It’s this unheated, minimally processed, and essentially RAW version of chocolate that maintains the antioxidants, enzymes, and friendly gut bacteria. It’s also the RAW chocolate that is linked to increased cardiovascular healthlowered blood pressure, and lowered blood glucose levels. Not the junk on the candy shelves.

But why are raw chocolate and cacao products an awesome food that boosts testosterone production?

First of, they’re loaded with antioxidants and jam-packed with minerals, such as magnesiumzincmanganese, iron, and copper

…and not only that but raw cacao products have pretty much perfect fat ratios for testosterone production too. For example, out of the dietary fat in raw chocolate ~61% is saturated fats, ~37% is monounsaturated fats, and only ~2% is polyunsaturated (depending bit on the manufacturer).

So, chock-full of antioxidants, live bacteria, and enzymes. Full of testosterone boosting minerals. It also has perfect fat ratios, making raw cacao products a powerhouse food that boosts testosterone levels.

Real Salt

Real salt is great as part of a testosterone boosting foods listThere’s a huge difference between real crystal, sea, or rock salt when compared to the usual “table salt”.

That is, real unrefined and unaltered salts are bit clumpy and they have about 60+ trace minerals in them.

The basic table salt on the other hand? It’s usually got 2. Sodium and chloride. Rest is stripped away.

What more? Well, the processed table salts can have up to 3% anti-caking agents, which are often unhealthy heavy metals like aluminum silicate or sodium ferrocyanide.

This is all done because of increased profits, aka. longer shelf-life. When salt is stripped from its natural minerals, it’s no longer salt. It’s processed shit.

So, would you rather consume the shitty purified table salt that has mere 2 minerals and heavy-metal caking agents, or the real deal that contains 100% real salt and 0% caking agents, with a taste that explodes in your mouth? Your call.

Argan Oil

Argan oil is a great addition to a testosterone boosting dietArgan oil is the oil pressed from the argan tree kernel. It’s heavily used in the Mediterranean diet.

Previously in this article, I mentioned a study where olive oil, a main source of fat for 2 weeks, was able to increase testosterone levels by 17% in healthy young Moroccan men.

Well, in that same study there was another group too. A group that used virgin argan oil as their main source of dietary fat for 2 weeks. Their testosterone levels increased by ~20%.

Much like olive oil, argan oil is anti-inflammatory and has a lot of antioxidants. It also has pretty good fatty-acid ratios for T production (not as good as olive oil does, though).

Anyhow, there’s clinical evidence showing how it boosts testosterone by 20%, so you better be eating this 


Avocados are a food that boost testosterone naturallyThese fatty fruits are often deemed “bad” by the low-fat idiots. And this is because unlike many other fruits, 77% of the calories in an avocado come from fats.

If you’re a frequent reader here in AM, you already know that increased dietary fat intake is directly correlated with increased testosterone production. And not only that, but the types of fat that increase T seem to be saturated fats (SFAs) and monounsaturated fats (MUFAs), while polyunsaturated (PUFAs) actually tend to lower testosterone (more here).

In the view of the above, we can see that avocados are a great food that boosts testosterone naturally. Since they contain a lot of dietary fat, from which 16% is SFAs, 71% is MUFAs, and only 13% is PUFAs.

Avocados are also loaded with fat-soluble vitamins, many of which are crucially important for healthy testosterone production.

White Button Mushrooms

White button mushrooms increase testosterone levelsI used to eat these only as a pizza topping, and since they are mostly water, I was under the notion that white button mushrooms probably won’t do Jack-shit health wise.

As usual, I was wrong.

White button mushrooms are loaded with polysaccharides, and in multiple studies, they have been found to exert anti-estrogenic effects, since they seem to naturally block the aromatase enzyme which converts testosterone to estrogen (studystudystudy).

Similar anti-estrogenic effects have been noted with other mushroom varieties too, but white button mushrooms seem to be the strongest shroomy aromatase inhibitors identified so far.

Baking Soda

baking soda is a great addition to a high testosterone pantryI use baking soda (sodium bicarbonate) more as a supplement (pre-workout, and for increased T) than a grocery item, but since it can be bought at any supermarket, it fits perfectly to this list.

Why baking soda you might ask? Well, firstly because it is a great ergogenic aid that can dramatically improve your squat and bench press performancecellular adaptation to HIIT, and can be used to supercharge your creatine supplements.

And then there’s also the fact that sodium bicarbonate tends to act as a molecular switch for the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). And increased cAMP levels – as you might already know – correlate with increased T production since cAMP activates protein kinase A and serves as a secondary messenger between cells and hormones (studystudystudystudystudystudystudystudystudy).

It’s also about $7 per lb.


pomegranates are a great food that boost testosterone naturallyThere have been some very interesting study results about pomegranates as of late.

In this human study, daily pomegranate juice consumption for 2 weeks increased salivary testosterone levels by 24%, while also dropping diastolic and systolic blood pressure.

Another human study associated long-term (1-3 years) pomegranate juice consumption to -35% reduction in arterial plague. Pomegranate juice also protected LDL cholesterol from oxidative damage and dropped blood pressure as seen in the above study.

In test-tubes, few compounds extracted from pomegranates have found to be anti-estrogenic.

On top of that, pomegranates and the juice of them tastes like heaven. 😉

Dark Berries

Berries are great for testosterone productionDark berries like blueberries, blackberries, acai berries, and so forth have always been identified as healthy.

And why wouldn’t they be? The darker the berry, the higher the antioxidant content, and the more antioxidants you consume, the less inflammation and oxidative damage takes place in your body.

The result of that should be significantly increased testosterone production and testosterone molecule preservation.

Not only the antioxidants but berries are quite low in calories while being chock-full of nutrients.

They also contain the unique fiber called Calcium-D-Glucarate, which can potentially help your body to remove excess estrogen.


Sorghum is used to boost DHTEver since I started seeing evidence of gluten being a potential prolactin booster and thyroid suppressant, I have been limiting my intake of grains and focusing more on potatoes as my main carbohydrate source.

I’ve seen nothing but good results health-wise from limiting grain consumption, but sometimes I just yearn for some floury grains, bread and the like.

I’m not completely anal about not eating grains, but since I discovered sorghum (a gluten-free androgenic grain), I have been substituting some of the more gluten heavy grains with it.

Coconut Oil

Coconut oil is a testosterone boosterLook no further than the alternative medicine community, and you will see NOTHING but praises about coconut oil. And even though I don’t always agree with their ideologies, coconut oil really is kind of damn healthy.

It has been shown to improve cognitive abilitiesincrease testosterone productionincrease thyroid hormonesboost metabolic rate, and so forth.

Being mostly saturated fat, it also fits well to the optimal testosterone boosting fatty-acid ratios.

NOTE: Despite being high in saturated fat, coconut oil doesn’t cause any cardiovascular problems (studystudystudy). Does anyone even believe anymore that saturated fat would be the culprit anyway?


onions are a food that boost testosterone levelsPretty much all kinds of onions are loaded with anti-inflammatory phytochemicals and antioxidants. Some of which are potentially testosterone boosting, like apigening and quercetin.

It’s not a big surprise that in several rodent studies, onions have increased testosterone and produced androgenic effects (studystudystudy).

Possibly the sickest result so far comes from this study where onion juice added to male rodents feed, increased testosterone levels by ~300% on average. Hard to say if the results are skewed or if this applies to humans at all, but it’s still quite fascinating.

I have never seen any human data on the hormonal effects of onions, but there’s potential and onions can add great punch to many foods, so why not?


garlic benefits testosterone levelsDespite the fact that garlic can give you a foul breath, it’s also capable of increasing your nitric oxide levels by ~200% when taken in combination with vitamin C. Making it a stupidly cheap pre-workout booster.

There’s also a rat study where rodents on a high-protein diet, saw significant increases in testosterone and drops in cortisol after garlic supplementation.

I have no idea what would cause this rise in testosterone after garlic consumption, but it could be caused by quercetin, anti-inflammatory effects, high amount of antioxidants, or its vasodilating effects.

Whatever it is, garlic is a food that boosts testosterone levels and is definitely worth the money.


Foods: Cabbage, Ginseng, Avocados(mentioned in other articles)


Eating cabbage is like putting Al Bundy in charge of the bloodstream, intent on kicking out the females — in this case, the steroid hormone estrogen. According to Men’s Health, “cabbage is full of a chemical called indole-3-carbinol, which rids your blood of girly hormones. … making testosterone more effective.”


Drink some ginseng tea for Low-T. According to at least one study, ginseng was linked to “significantly increased blood testosterone levels.” In the July 2013 issue of Spermatogenesis, Chinese researchers Kar Wah Leung and Alice Wong published the results of their study that showed ginseng’s impact on sexual efficacy.

“Data from animal studies have shown a positive correlation among ginseng, libido, and copulatory performances, and these effects have been confirmed in case-control studies in humans,” they concluded.

Ginseng is commonly available in varieties of teas, bottled, bagged, or loose leaf.


According to Livestrong.com, “Avocados are rich in testosterone-friendly vitamin B6 and folic acid.” Assuming the avocado supply from California doesn’t dry up, dip your chips in guacamole instead. Or, grill some salmon, make a citrus vinaigrette dressing, and mix together with an avocado and some baby spinach leaves to make a powerhouse salad.

Article: https://www.testboostersreview.com/foods-increase-testosterone/

Foods: Bananas, Garlic, Broccoli / Vegetables, Nuts


Bananas have the enzyme bromelain that has proven to increase a man’s libido, which is one of the activities that is closely tied to the amount of testosterone you have in your body.

In addition, these fruits are high in B vitamins like riboflavin that are very essential for the production of testosterone.

Another fruit, which is rich in bromelain, is pineapple.

Bananas increase testosterone


Garlic has also found to be among the best testosterone boosting foods, especially when used together with a diet rich in protein.

It contains a chemical known as diallyl disulfide that stimulates your body to release a key releasing hormone, which in turn stimulates the production of testosterone.

Garlic increases testosterone

Broccoli / Vegetables

Including more cruciferous vegetables in your daily diet like cabbage, cauliflower and broccoli, rids the excess estrogen in your body, hence increasing testosterone.

Also, crucifers are high in fiber that can help with losing weight and weight control.

They also help in increasing the body’s testosterone production by lowering the levels of estrogen.

Broccoli increases testosterone


Almonds, Brazil nuts, walnuts, and peanuts increase the production of testosterone.

Studies have found that men who eat a diet high in monounsaturated fats, the kind found in nuts, have the highest levels of testosterone

boost testosterone with nuts
From this article:
Foods: Grapes, Venison, Honey


A bunch of red grapes a day can help in giving your T-levels a boost. The skin of this fruit contains Resveratrol, which gives you more action and hardier sperm. It has been claimed that 500mg of Resveratrol – which is approximately the amount found in 5 to 10g of grape skins – is effective in increasing the T-levels and improving sperm’s ability to swim (epididymal motility).


Did you know that a meat-free diet can lower your T-levels by 14%? When your body lacks protein, it boosts the production of other hormones that deactivate testosterone. However, on the other hand, it has been found that a diet that is excessively rich in saturated fats found in meats like beef and lamb can also lower T-levels. Venison is the middle ground and is also excellent for muscle growth.


If you want to create more buzz in the bedroom, go for honey. It contains boron, a mineral that has been linked to high testosterone. Honey is also packed with nitric oxide, which plays a major role in opening up blood vessels that help create erections. You can boost your body’s nitric oxide levels by 50% with 4 teaspoons of honey daily.

Also, from this article:
Despite all these articles, no one mentioned a specific plant that some Bodybuilders use.
That is, Tribulus.
But, studies have shown that it does not increase testosterone levels:
Nevertheless, it is an honorable mention, since it is used by some bodybuilders.
Now, for foods that increase estrogen.

1. Dried Fruits

Dried fruit, especially dried apricots, dates, and prunes, can help balance your estrogen levels in a big way. They are also a healthy snack that can keep you away from the vending machine with a sweet and satisfying chewiness, as well as added fiber.

These dried fruits contain phytoestrogens, which will mimic the way estrogen is used by the body, helping to fill any shortages you may have in estrogen, and producing the same effect as if you had generated more estrogen in the body.

When eating dried fruit, remember that the drying process concentrates all parts of the fruit, so you’ll generally be getting more vitamins and nutrients from them, but you’ll also be getting more sugar, so it may take less dried fruit to make a serving than if it were fresh.

Tips for eating more: Dried fruits are best eaten in the spring, and the best fruit for estrogen are apricots, dates, and prunes.

2. Flaxseed

Flaxseeds are the number one way to help get more estrogen into the body, and you can either eat them directly or add them to other foods, just be sure to add them to your diet if estrogen is a concern.

Flaxseeds are high in fiber, and will therefore help you feel full during and after a meal, and help a sluggish digestive system. They are often recommended for weight loss because of their fiber content, and can help lower cholesterol as well. That’s a lot of benefit from a little seed.

Flaxseeds are a fantastic source of omega-3s as well, but it’s the ALA form from plants, and not the same as you get from salmon and other animal sources. This form of omega-3 is helpful at keeping arteries from hardening, which can help prevent strokes and heart attacks and provide other heart healthy benefits.

Tips for eating more: Ground flaxseed is the best way to incorporate it into your cooking more. It basically disappears into soups and smoothies, and can be sprinkled onto a salad without noticing it’s there. Tip: Add the dressing to the salad first and the flaxseed will cling to it so you get some in each bite.

3. Sesame Seeds

Sesame seeds contain phytoestrogens, and you can also use sesame seed oil if that makes it easier, as they both contain lignans with possess the phytoestrogens.

Sesame seeds are loaded with fiber, and they are also a great source of minerals. Because of their small size you can easily add them to other foods that are lacking to help make up for some of that deficiency. For example, a tablespoon of sesame seeds is going to give you nearly a tenth of what you need each day for iron, magnesium, and calcium, as well as 4% of your total fiber.

Unfortunately the sesame seeds stuck to the bun of a Big Mac don’t qualify, you’ll want to sesame seeds by themselves or in conjunction with other healthy foods to reap their benefits.

Tips for eating more: Keep a supply of sesame seeds on hand for adding to soups or onto a salad. They also make a great crust for a chicken breast.

4. Chickpeas

Chickpeas are a natural source of phytoestrogen, which isn’t actually estrogen but does a good job of standing in for it.

The most common way chickpeas are prepared and eaten is in the form of hummus, but falafel is also a popular way to go. They don’t have much flavor of their own, so it’s important to mix them with other foods, spices, and seasonings to make them something you’ll enjoy eating.

Chickpeas are also high in fiber and protein, which makes them a great choice if you’re looking to reduce your meat consumption. They’ll help you feel full, and keep you feeling that way longer because of that combination of fiber and protein.

Tips for eating more: Hummus is perhaps the easiest way to eat more chickpeas, and is basically made from mashing up chickpeas and adding tahini and olive oil until the right consistency is achieved. Salt and pepper to taste.

5. Beans

Beans have long been considered a healthy food thanks to their high fiber content and ability to lower cholesterol. They’re also a food that is relatively high in phytoestrogen, although they seldom get attention for this feature.

Because of their high fiber and protein content you’ll often see beans in a meatless main dish. They have a texture to them that helps fill you up, and they are digested slowly by the body, making them a good carbohydrate choice for diabetics or anyone looking to maintain healthy blood glucose levels.

You can choose your favorite bean, and chances are it will have a respectable amount of phytoestrogens in it to help you in your quest to balance your hormone levels.

Tips for eating more: Beans make a great side dish and are a staple food for many types of cuisine. You can add them to soups to thicken things up and add texture.

6. Peas

Peas are the perfect side dish if you’re looking for an estrogen boost. That’s because they are a source of phytoestrogens, much like many of the other foods featured here.

And like many foods on our list of estrogen foods, peas bring more to the table than just phytoestrogens. They contain minerals like magnesium, iron, and potassium, even pack some protein.

Peas are full of fiber and are a surprising source of Vitamin C. This means that you’ll be helping to boost your immune system in addition to getting an increase in your phytoestrogen numbers. The overall result is that you’ll be healthy overall with fewer symptoms associated with menopause and postmenopause.

7. Tempeh

Tempeh is derived from soybeans and doesn’t lose its estrogen content during the process. It can be used to help treat menopausal symptoms if you’ve been told that you are not creating as much estrogen as you used to.

Tempeh is loaded with magnesium and iron, two important minerals that are sometimes hard to get enough of. This makes it a worthwhile food that you can feel good about eating, and that will help you feel satisfied long after the meal is finished.

Tempeh is a good source of protein and as such often stands in for meat in vegetarian and vegan dishes. It has a different texture than tofu, making it a better replacement depending on the meat you’re trying to do without.

Tips for eating more: Tempeh makes a great meat alternative, much the same as tofu only with a different texture and flavor. Sub this in for meat a few times a week and your estrogen level will benefit.

8. Alfalfa Sprouts

Alfalfa sprouts are one often overlooked way of improving your hormone levels because they contain phytonutrients, while being naturally low in calories and carbohydrates, making them an easy choice for an overall healthy diet.

One key to eating alfalfa sprouts is that they contain plant estrogens, which don’t have the side effects associated with other forms of estrogen supplementation.

You can help bring down cholesterol levels in your blood by eating alfalfa sprouts, and this is a great vegetable to eat during the spring months when everything is naturally sprouting in the world outside.

Tips for eating more: Alfalfa sprouts taste great as a salad topper, and also on a sandwich. Be sure to rinse off your sprouts in cold running water before eating, and eat them within a few days of purchase.

9. Bran Cereals

Bran is one source of phytoestrogens that comes with other health benefits which makes it worth adding to your diet.

Wheat bran has been documented as being a reliable way to increase the amount of phytoestrogens in the body, which can help balance hormones and reduce the symptoms associated with low estrogen levels.

You may already be familiar with bran as a health food due to the high amounts of fiber it contains. Bran muffins and bran cereals were part of the high fiber kick years ago and are still rather ubiquitous. You can benefit from the fiber they contain at the same time you’ll be upping your phytoestrogen levels.

Tips for eating more: Look for cereals made with bran. These will have bran in the title, like All-Bran, or will have a strong focus on fiber like with Fiber One.

10. Soy Milk

Soy milk is derived from soy of course, and therefore gives the same benefits as tofu, tempeh, and soybeans in regards to the phytoestrogen it contains. It just happens to be in an easily consumed form, which makes it a great way to increase your estrogen numbers quickly and easily.

Drinking soy milk can help curb some of the symptoms associated with postmenopause by helping to restore some of the estrogen with the phytoestrogen present.

Soy milk is also a good source of calcium, just like cow’s milk. Manufacturers try to make it as enticing as possible for those looking to switch from cow’s milk to other forms of milk, so they fortify it and make it more nutritious to attract new buyers.

Tips for eating more: Replace cow’s milk with soy milk in cereals or when you drink it directly. You can also use soy milk in place of regular milk in your cooking and baking.

11. Tofu

Tofu is also a very good way to help the body balance its estrogen levels because of the isoflavones it contains, and the way these interact with estrogen receptors.

The high protein and iron content of tofu is why it’s been been used as a meat replacement by vegans and vegetarians for decades, and you don’t have to follow these diets in order to borrow from them in an effort to be healthier and get more estrogen.

Many times when you replace meat you’ll end up avoiding fat and cholesterol, so it’s a combination of getting the good things that tofu provides and avoiding some of the bad things that come with some types of meat.

Tips for eating more: Get into the habit of replacing a meat with tofu at least a few times a week. Start by designating one day to be meatless, and when that feels natural add another day and see how that feels. Compared to chicken and beef, tofu provides far more in the way of estrogen.

12. Soybeans

It’s not a surprise to see soybeans on our list because many other list makers are derived from soybeans, including tofu, tempeh, and soy milk.

Soybeans are off the charts when it comes to fiber and protein, and even a modest serving of them means you’re getting a chunk of your daily value covered. This means you can add them to a meal to help balance it out, especially if it is low in either protein or fiber.

As far as additional vitamins and minerals go, look to soybeans for a jump in your iron and magnesium levels, as well as higher calcium and potassium levels. There’s a lot going on when it comes to soybeans, and they deserve your consideration.

Tips for eating more: Eat edamame as a raw form of soybean that can be used as a snack or appetizer. Add cooked soybeans to a salad or put them in a soup. They do not have a strong flavor on their own, so they will get lost in the flavors that surround them.

From this article:
Foods: Soybean Products, Flaxseeds, Seeds, Beans, Garlic, Dried Apricots, Dates & Prunes, Foods Rich in Vitamin C, Foods Rich in Complex B Vitamins, 100% Whole Grains, Coffee, Olives & Olive Oil, Beets, Yams, Dried or Fresh Herbs & Spices, Nuts

1. Soybean Products
Soy is one of the richest sources of phytoestrogens on the planet, and therefore one of the foods that increase estrogen. Reach for tofu, soymilk or edamame to get your fix.

Flaxseeds are said to provide three times more phytoestrogens than soybeans but your body will have trouble absorbing them unless they’re ground up prior to consumption. Also called linseed, you may find them added to cereals and breads or enjoy them sprinkled on your oatmeal or yogurt.

3. Seeds
Delicious, nutritious seeds are not just for the birds, they happen to be great foods to increase estrogen. Sesame seeds and sunflower seeds also help to boost estrogen levels in the body and they taste great as crunchy salad toppings.

4. Beans
Peas, pinto beans and limas all contain coumestan, another type of phytoestrogen. They’re also just really healthy so you should be eating them regularly anyway.

5. Garlic
Garlic is actually a member of the onion family and, like onions, is full of isoflavonoids. Plus, you’ll keep away vampires and ward off heart disease.

6. Dried Apricots, Dates & Prunes
Dried stone fruits and dates have a much higher concentration of than their fresh counterparts. If eating prunes is making you feel ancient, keep in mind that they’re just dried plums after all.

7. Foods Rich in Vitamin C
Tomatoes, kiwi, citrus fruits, cantaloupe, peaches, artichokes, bananas, asparagus, corn and cauliflower all boast great levels of vitamin C and they possess the phytoestrogen power you might be looking for to boost your estrogen.

8. Foods Rich in Complex B Vitamins
B vitamins are good for you regardless. They help with stress management and your metabolism so eat up on the beef, oats, Brazil nuts, potatoes, liver, tuna, turkey, avocados, bananas and kefir.

9. 100% Whole Grains
In case you hadn’t heard, white flour isn’t so good for you. Whole grains are much better for our overall health but can also help with your estrogen levels as an added bonus. And who doesn’t like a free bonus, right?

10. Drink Coffee
You don’t need to tell us twice, we’re all over the benefits of coffee consumption. From reduced risk of diabetes to a lower chance of Alzheimer’s, bottoms up!

11. Olives & Olive Oil
Olives and their lovely oil are healthy for your hair, skin, nails, heart and a million other things we’re sure but they’re also great for your hormone levels.

12. Beets
Beets are delicious and nutritious and, like many other root vegetables, have the compounds to support healthy estrogen levels in your body. Don’t like them? Grab the sliced ones in the can and call them cookies. It worked on us when we were in preschool, it might just work now.

13. Yams
Yams give us vitamin B6. Why do we love B6 specifically? It’s an essential vitamin that helps relieve premenstrual syndrome symptoms up to and including depression. And they’re yummy with marshmallows, right?

14. Dried or Fresh Herbs & Spices
Common herbs and spices that are also phytoestrogens include: parsley, anise seed, red clover, thyme, licorice, turmeric, hops and sage. Season liberally to raise estrogen levels in your body naturally.

15. Nuts
We hear pistachio nuts are richest but cashews, chestnuts, hazelnuts and walnuts all contain phytoestrogens which make them all great choices.

Foods: Flax, Soy, Other Legumes and Common Health Foods, Animal Products

1. Flax

Flax and especially flax meal has the image of being a healthy superfood. But when you look at a list of the top phytoestrogen-containing foods, flax and flax products are at the very top. A hundred grams of flax packs an astounding 379,380 micrograms of estrogen compared with 2.9 micrograms for a fruit like watermelon. Flax is now widely found in baked goods like bread, bagels and muffins, snack foods, cereals, pasta, drink mixes and used in poultry, swine, beef and dairy cow feed.

It became a popular alternative to fish oil which had been promoted to improve mood, the immune systems and to prevent heart attacks and strokes, especially as concerns about mercury risks in some fish surfaced. A tablespoon of flaxseed oil, which contains alpha-linolenic acid (also found in walnuts and some oils) is “worth” about 700 milligrams of the omega-3 found in fish oil says the Harvard Medical School Family Health Guide. Flax also provides fiber, a substance lacking in our over-processed diets. But there is another reason it may not be the superfood it appears besides its estrogen wallop. Like so many edible plants today, genetically modified versions of flax are rampant, spreading and rarely labeled. Buyer beware.

2. Soy

What is the second highest phytoestrogen-containing food in most lists? Soy, which packs 103,920 micrograms of estrogen per 100 grams. Low in calories and with no cholesterol, soy has been a mainstay protein of many cultures for centuries and is considered nature’s perfect alternative to meat by many vegetarians and vegans. It has been hailed as a “good” estrogen that could prevent breast cancer and serve as an alternative for hormone replacement therapy, traditionally made from pregnant mare urine.

Yet the bloom has partially fallen off soy’s rose. Its possible cancer prevention properties were called into question after some animal studies and groups like the American Cancer Society found themselves defending its moderate use. Like flax, unlabeled GMO soybeans dominate the market and have been linked to sterility and infant death in hamsters.

3. Other Legumes and Common Health Foods

Other “healthy” foods like flax and soy may have more estrogen than you think. Legumes like chickpeas (garbanzo beans) red beans, black-eyed peas, green peas and split peas are also estrogenic and black beans pack 5,330 micrograms of estrogen per 100 grams. Hummus (from chickpeas) has 993 micrograms of estrogen per 100 grams. How about the “healthful” seeds we think of as mingled in trailmix? Sesame and sunflower seeds are among the highest of all estrogenic foods. While their seeds are not a staple of most people’s diets, their oils are widely used in processed and prepared foods. A site for women suffering from the estrogen-linked endometriosis advises against sunflower oil as well as safflower, cottonseed and canola oils and recommends only olive or grapeseed oil.

Other ingredients that can amount to a side dish of estrogen are alfalfa sprouts, licorice and the flavorings red clover and fennel, sometimes found in teas. Food ingredients in personal care products can also have estrogenic effects. Tea tree oil found in some shampoos, soaps and lotions can enlarge the breasts of boys reported ABC news. And sore and tender breasts have also been reported from using a shampoo with pomegranate.

4. Animal Products

On most lists of products containing estrogen, animal products like milk and beef are at the very bottom. Milk, for example, is said to provide 1.2 micrograms of estrogen per 100 grams. Unfortunately, most “research” that assures the public that hormones used in meat production or milk production (like Monsanto’s  rBGH) result in less estrogen are funded by Big Ag. Two features betray the Big Ag-funded research —it claims there is no difference between hormones that occur “naturally” in the human body and synthetic hormones, and it claims there are no residues of the latter. If synthetic hormones are so safe, why would we mind residues? The European Union disagrees about the dangers and boycotts US beef, which is swimming in the hormones oestradiol-17, trenbolone acetate, zeranol and melengestrol.

As for “no residues,” a scientific paper called “Detection of Six Zeranol Residues in Animal-derived Food by HPLC-MS/MS,” disputes the claim. Zeranol, an estrogen-like drug widely used in US livestock production is especially controversial. “Our laboratory has reported that long-term exposure to either Z [zeranol] or E2 [estradiol-17β] can induce transformation of human breast epithelial MCF-10A cells,” says a 2009 paper in Anticancer Research.Translation: it can contribute to breast cancer: “The proper evaluation of the safety of Z [zeranol] is of both public health and economic  importance.”Another paper reports “breast irritation” in people exposed to nothing but the clothing of those working around zeranol. This is an ingredient used in US meat?

A paper which appeared in Science of the Total Environment examines the outbreak of precocious puberty and breast development of children in Italy and Puerto Rico in the late 1970s and 1980s and attributes the symptoms to zeranol-like “anabolic estrogens in animal foods.” In both occurrences, the symptoms disappeared when the hormone-laced food was removed. Zeranol is found in meat, eggs and dairy products “through deliberate introduction of zeranol into livestock to enhance meat production,” says the paper. It is “banned for use in animal husbandry in the European Union and other countries, but is still widely used in the US. Surprisingly, little is known about the health effects of these mycoestrogens, including their impact on puberty in girls, a period highly sensitive to estrogenic stimulation.”

Article: http://healthyeating.sfgate.com/estrogenboosting-foods-4911.html

Estrogen-Boosting Foods

Natural compounds found in some classes of plant foods, phytoestrogens act like the hormone estrogen in the body. Eating foods with phytoestrogens may boost your health by protecting against conditions associated with peri-menopause and menopause. Ask your doctor if increasing your intake of phytoestrogens would benefit you.

Soy and Isoflavones

Soy foods contain isoflavones, a type of phytoestrogen. Among your many choices for soy foods are:

  • Tofu
  • Edamame
  • Tempeh
  • Miso
  • Soy milk
  • Soy sauce
  • Soybeans
  • Soy nuts
  • Soy flour
  • Natto

Also known for their high content of plant-based protein, soy foods are versatile additions to your diet. Try using tofu or tempeh instead of meat in stir-fries, and snack on edamame or soy nuts for a boost when your energy flags. Some processed frozen varieties of soy foods, such as soy “hot dogs” and burgers, may be high in sodium and other additives, so look for soy products without added flavorings for the best health benefits.

You can find isoflavones in smaller amounts in other legumes, including chickpeas, fava beans and peanuts.

Foods With Lignans

Foods that supply compounds called lignans may also boost estrogen. Flaxseeds are by far the best source of these phytoestrogens, with 86 milligrams in an ounce. Sprinkle a tablespoon or two of ground flaxseeds on your breakfast cereal or mix into yogurt to get a daily boost of these powerful compounds.

In much smaller amounts, these foods also offer lignans:

  • Sesame seeds
  • Curly kale
  • Apricots
  • Cruciferous vegetables (broccoli, cabbage, Brussels sprouts)
  • Strawberries

Coumestans for Estrogen

Coumestans ‒ also called coumestrol ‒ constitute the third category of phytoestrogens. The richest sources of these compounds are clover and alfalfa sprouts and sprouted legumes like mung beans. Toss some sprouts onto your green salad to boost your coumestan intake.

Safety of Estrogen-Boosting Foods

Previous studies suggested that phytoestrogens, especially those in soy foods, could put women at risk for breast and endometrial cancer and men at risk for prostate cancer, casting a pall over these foods. However, a review of clinical studies, published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition in 2014, found that soy consumption reduced the recurrence of tumors among cancer survivors by 25 percent. The authors cited other potential benefits for menopausal women ‒ most importantly, protection from heart disease. A review published in the Journal of Midwifery and Women’s Health in 2017 re-enforced the safety of phytoestrogens. The authors underlined the ability of these compounds to ease menopausal symptoms, and they found their most common side effect to be nothing more serious than gastrointestinal discomfort.

As for prostate cancer, a review and meta-analysis published in BJU International in 2014 found a potential reduction in men’s risk for this cancer with soy consumption.

10 foods that increase estrogen level

If you happen to be experiencing symptoms of low estrogen, there are several estrogen-rich foods that may help boost your estrogen level. These foods contain phytoestrogen, which is a plant-based estrogen that mimics estrogen once it is processed by the body. The following is a list of foods that are known for containing excessive amounts of phytoestrogens. It is important to keep in mind that estrogen rich foods may have unwanted effects in men.

Soybean products: Soy is a rich source of phytoestrogen and comes in a variety of easy to consume forms like soy milk, tofu, or edamame. Soy products are the greatest source of isoflavones, a class of phytoestrogen that can be easily consumed in your diet. Soy is also a great source of protein, making it an ideal meat substitute for vegans and vegetarians.

Flaxseeds: These little seeds contain up to three times the phytoestrogens of soybeans, but your body will not reap their benefits unless they are cracked or ground prior to consumption. Also high in fiber, flaxseeds will make you feel full and may aid in weight loss and in the reduction of cholesterol.

Sesame seeds: Whole seeds—or even sesame oil—contain lignans (a chemical compound found in plants) that possess phytoestrogens. The seeds are also loaded with fiber and are a great source of minerals.

Beans: They are relativity high in phytoestrogens, but they don’t get much attention. Beans are known for having a high fiber content, which helps to control cholesterol levels. Types of beans include peas, pinto bean, and lima beans

Dried Fruit: Not only are they a healthy snack, but they also contain a modest amount of phytoestrogens. It is advised to limit how much you eat, as dried fruit does contain a lot of calories. Apricots, dates, and prunes are good sources.

Bran: Wheat bran is a reliable way get your dose of phytoestrogens. It can be found in muffins, bread, and cereals.

Nuts: Several types of nuts, including pistachios, chestnuts, hazelnuts, and walnuts, are great sources of phytoestrogens.

Alfalfa Sprouts: Naturally low in calories and carbohydrates, alfalfa sprouts are an excellent choice.

Chickpeas: A reliable source of phytoestrogens that are also high in fiber and protein.

Olives and olive oil: Having a bevy of healthy effects for your hair, skin, nail, and heart, they are also great for your hormone levels.

Foods to avoid:
1.) Soy
2.) Sugar
3.) Conventional meat
4.) Conventional dairy
5.) BPA plastic and Teflon Pans

If you want to start detoxing your body of estrogen, consume more cruciferous vegetables like broccoli, cauliflower, kale, collard greens, and brussels sprouts. Also milk thistle and dandelion supplements are great to support your body in the detox from estrogen as well.

Article: http://www.stylecraze.com/articles/estrogen-rich-foods/
Seeds: Flax seeds, Sesame seeds
Soy Products: Soy beans, Soy Milk, Soy Yogurt, Tofu
Fruits: Peaches, Strawberries
Vegetables: Alfalfa Sprouts, Mung Bean Sprouts, Green Beans
Legumes: White Beans, Black Beans
Nuts: Pistachios, Walnuts, Peanuts
Dried Fruits: Dried Apricots, Dates, Dried Prunes
Beverages: Red Wine
Herbs: Garlic
Grains: Multigrain Bread

Observation by writer of this article

It seems that some foods appear both in testosterone increase and estrogen increase categories. 
These are: Garlic, Coffee, Olive Oil, Cruciferous vegetables (broccoli, cabbage, Brussels sprouts), Strawberries, Nuts, Peanuts
Another notable thing, Foods to avoid:
1.) Soy
2.) Sugar
3.) Conventional meat
4.) Conventional dairy
5.) BPA plastic and Teflon Pans
So this means, due to “conventional meat” and “conventional dairy”, that those who are not vegan, by default, they consume higher levels of estrogen compared with vegans, who do not eat soy products or any other products that increase estrogen.
Now to continue with another article that says foods that increase both estrogen and testosterone levels.
  • Studies conducted by the Linus Pauling Institute of Oregon State University indicated that eating plant-based foods that contain phytoestrogens may help women raise estrogen levels. Examples of such foods include:
    • Seeds: flaxseeds and sesame seeds
    • Fruit: apricots, oranges, strawberries, peaches, many dried fruits
    • Vegetables: yams, carrots, alfalfa sprouts, kale, celery
    • Soy products: tofu, miso soup, soy yogurt
    • Dark rye bread
    • Legumes: lentils, peas, pinto beans
    • Olives and olive oil
    • Chickpeas
    • Culinary herbs: turmeric, thyme, sage
  • ​Results from research conducted by the University of Texas at Austin suggested that men can help raise their testosterone levels by eating foods high in monounsaturated fat and zinc. Also, a study published in Biological Trace Element Research concluded foods high in magnesium can help maintain testosterone levels. That said, consider including the following foods in your diet.
    • Oils: olive, canola and peanut (monounsaturated fat)
    • Avocados (monounsaturated fat and magnesium)
    • Olives (monounsaturated fat)
    • Nuts: almonds and cashews (monounsaturated fat, zinc and magnesium)
    • Oysters (zinc)
    • Wheat germ (zinc)
    • Shellfish: lobster and crab (zinc)
    • Chickpeas (zinc)
    • Oatmeal (zinc)
    • Kidney beans (zinc)
    • Raisins (magnesium)
    • Dark green leafy vegetables (magnesium)
    • Bananas (magnesium)
    • Low-fat yogurt (magnesium)


Author’s Note

The majority of foods that increase testosterone generally do that because they have monounsaturated fat and zinc. Those that increase estrogen generally do that because they have phytoestrogens. Depending on what does one want to increase, without the other, for males it is recommended to take foods that don’t have phytoestrogens but have zinc and monounsaturated fat.

About balanced food systems, is one that has an equal percentage of salads, soups, plant-based protein shakes and roasted food.
To make it simple, salads, soups, shakes and roasted.

Salads, because they are raw, fresh.(mostly leafs)
Soups, because they are boiled.
Protein Shakes, because they are raw, but yet concentrated protein form(from seeds).
Roasted Food, because, well, is roasted.

Examples of Salads range from Toscana, Greek, etc.
Examples for soups would be vegetable soup mostly, mushroom soup, sometimes lentils soup.
Protein shakes, from protein made from hemp seeds, which is only hard pressed thus no chemicals. Additions include almonds put into a blender, and alternatively nuts.
And roasted food, because if one is not boiled in water, then it can be roasted.
And for roasted, would be (french) fries, roasted mushrooms, roasted chickpeas(sometimes).

Why this article?

Because the previous article was not completed. It took a time delay because of work, but now it’s done.

What other reason? To complete and give an idea which foods are great and which are not. So that no one would complain that vegan diets would either lack protein or it would lack necessary foods to increase some hormones. As a matter of fact, we learned that actually meat and dairy products generally increase estrogen levels. Only fish may have a good advantage to increase testosterone levels, but plant based diets generally have enough resources to do that.

With this, the chapter of food should be complete.

As a matter of fact, for very ambitious individuals, this ‘food’ chapter is merely a precursor element to ensure proper diet and ease to keep specific food regimens. The more relevant information, is, fasting. Proper fasting can make the possibility that one could live without food, a real thing. For middle-class society, however, this is not really relevant (the fasting aspect). Only for explorers, fasting matters, and, actually it is a stage that would prepare for a more important one. The key word is continence. And if that is mastered too, then, probably, the most ‘ difficult challenge ‘, is sleep. Anything further than this would go into the realm of sci-fi, if it hasn’t already in this statement. It is probably impossible for humans to have achieved this, the key word here is breathing.

This last paragraph can be further explored into an article, if not, multiple articles that would form a book.

The year 2017 is passing by. Christmas has passed. The days to the New Year are approaching.

The main point for me this year, was to improve myself, both in diet and tai chi. The diet thing worked just fine this year, while the chi part would take probably years if not tens of them until there is not much to learn.

Besides the health part, there are articles focused on Justice and some relationship norms. A part of them have been written, while other were contemplated only in thought.

Next year can mean multiple things, but let’s just hope that, like the 7 in 2017, who was for introspection, thought and the concept of Justice, the 8 in 2018, will be the building block for the Road to Infinity!

Happy New Year!


Research into best types of food (pt.1: vegan debates, hemp can save the world)

First, the things that will be taken into consideration, is the amount of protein, which is essential for building muscle.

If you read this article, titled “Fasting vs eating less“(link made clickable), you would now that the body once it depletes the glucose resources, it starts burning fat. It goes into a state called ketosis. It seems that ketosis is a state that is somewhat better both for the brain and for the body, if the brain gets used to what scientists call ketones and with the Human growth hormone that has a higher output in the body when fasting. This is why, bodybuilders that are vegan and eat once a day, with a low calorie diet, but rich in protein, manage to build muscle properly. In the article, titled “Vegan Strongman Eats One Meal a Day“, which is only a link to the video with the vegan bodybuilder who eats around 1500 calories per day and set a world record of deadlifting of 305kg(672lbs). His diet consists of a soy protein blend, added with supplementation of spirulina and other natural substances. However the purpose of this article is to look into more types of food, in terms of protein.

Protein from Soy, for vegans, is one of the most popular. One of the things that people are biased about, is how soy protein contains components that mimic estrogen (phytoestrogens) thus making “man boobs”.

First, let’s start with a video from Elliot Hulse:

There is a strong message, from Paul Joseph Watson, about “Soy Boys”:


Also, Paul Joseph Watson criticized vegans. This is a mistake on his part:

The fact is, they are somewhat right. If someone eats a high percentage of food, daily, consisted of mainly soybean, one would find oneself eating a lot of protein and a lot of carbs and a lot of fat, per 100g. It is highly nutritious, this soybean. If you eat lots of it, you can gain easily, weight. However, there are people who are consuming soy protein and soybean products and are vegans and have no such thing as ‘man boobs’.

Here is this example:

As for why this happens, the answer is simple.

He works out at the gym. Others don’t.

So it’s this simple. You heat vegan soybean products? You have to go to the gym and workout. Else fat will accumulate and thus create certain bad results on your body.

As proof of that, there is the vegan strongman who deadlifts 300kgs, and other vegan bodybuilders who can handle this diet.

So, the truth is the following: Soybean products are not necessarily bad, if you workout.

There is another fact, that is heavily overlooked. Milk. Milk contains more estrogen (and that one is animalic), so a glass of milk has also enough, if not more hormones to create the same condition of ‘man boobs’. So this means, the main cause of those things called ‘man boobs’ which is nothing more than a form of fat storage in your body, is the result of lack of exercise and excess of consumption of food thus making your body store fat.

Here’s a video about how milk contains estrogen, and soy is less harmful for your health:

Another video I’d like to share:

Argument 10: “Environmental Footprint”.False and also Irrelevant. “Salad Lettuce produces more bad gas emissions than bacon”-False. It does not take into account how cows gas emissions are a bigger danger to CO2 than lettuce. Here is a good link about it: http://www.bibliotecapleyades.net/ciencia2/ciencia_industryfood45.htm  To quote: “There are approximately 1.5 billion cows on the planet, each and every one of them expelling upwards of 30 to 50 gallons of methane each day.”. The new report shows that methane accounted for approximately 16 percent of global greenhouse gas emissions in 2016.

Argument 9: “Crazy Hormones”.True but only relevant to only one case. Soy contains phytoestrogen.  It’s correct. Soy may need fermentation to be eaten properly. And eaten normally, only with a strong workout regimen.

Argument 8: “California Drought”. True but irrelevant. Almond milk. TrueWorld production comes from California. It makes Droughts. Irrelevant. Why? Simple. Almonds can grow in other places than just California, so it’s not much of an argument. It’s the business owners who produce almonds in that place and people from that state and neighboring states’s responsibility, first. Plus animal milk may contain estrogen and also other elements that may not be that suitable for the human body.

Argument 7: Blood Guacamole. Irrelevant. How bad people in mexico have avocado business is not relevant to other people who consume avocado from Europe. Again, it’s a local problem, that first would need to be solved by the locals, and if it’s not possible, then via international support from neighboring states. However this has very little relevance to the production of avocado, and who knows, maybe those corrupt people who are involved with business in avocado, are not vegans.(vegans don’t kill).

Argument 6: “Cancer and Heart disease”. Irrelevant and False in most cases. Vegan diet can actually cure cancer. It’s mostly irrelevant because it’s mostly about what foods you eat, and actually meat is more likely to produce cancer than vegetables. And to add, ‘cancer cures’, there is the THC from Cannabis and the B17 from Apricot seeds, which cures cancer, and as proof of that, there is a country with people who have a tradition of eating Apricot seeds and their average lifespan is 100+ years, with no one out there ever being diagnosed with cancer.

Argument 5: “Nutrient Defficiency”. False, but relevant topic. It likely applies to most vegans. But the assumption that vegans cannot get the right nutrients, is false. For B12, there is Alfalfa, though not commonly known. “Alfalfa: A rich source of naturally occurring Vitamin B12”. Also, though disputable, possibly Aloe vera; “Aloe Vera is one of the only known natural vegetarian sources of Vitamin B12, and it contains many minerals vital to the growth process and healthy function of all the body’s systems.” Another list of what could possibly contain B12: “Aloe Vera ,Angelica, Comfrey, Bladder wrack, Catnip, Chickweed, Dandelion, Dulse, Eyebright, Fenugreek, Ginseng, Hawthorn berries, Hops, Kelp, Mullein, Mustard, Red Clover, Thyme, White oak bark ; Strawberry, Alfalfa, Celery, Potato, Ginger, Burdock, Soya beans, Yeast extract.”

Argument 4: “Mental Health”. False. People who eat vegan properly don’t get “Alzheimer” compared to those who don’t eat vegan. And people who eat vegan properly live 100+ years. Also the ‘universities’ who made the studies, are somewhat biased in their research. Also, ‘depression, anxiety, eating disorders’ don’t apply much either in this category.

Argument 3: “Starving South America”. Irrelevant. Again this is mostly a local problem. But secondly, Quinoa is a plant that contains mostly carbs per 100g and less protein, and vegans who are focusing on protein, this plant is mostly irrelevant.

Argument 2: “Children’s Health”. False, but relevant. People who want to raise children, don’t have a vegan proper diet. As seen in above arguments, there are sources of protein, an vitamin b12 and zinc. For B12, there is Alfalfa and a lot of other elements mentioned in argument 5. For protein and zinc, I suggest Hemp based protein. It contains all the eseential amino-acids, that are not found in meat, and not to mention, it contains the most amount of protein per 100g, even more than soybean, in most cases, depending how it’s processed. And it also contains a lot of Zinc. So, if vegan, then hemp.

Argument 1: “Cashew Burn”. True, but Irrelevant. It’s very much irrelevant to the topic of how ‘vegans’ are ruining the world. Cashews first can be consumed by anyone, including non-vegans. And secondly, vegans don’t have a ‘cashew diet’. They either consume lentils, hemp, chickpeas or soy based products. Cashews have lots of fat, carbs and not as much protein as lentils, hemp, or soy based products. And that is also a local producer problem, that has not much to do with vegans.

Out of all the arguments, Argument 9, is True, but relevant to only one case, that is soybean, and even that can sometimes be disproved. The rest of the arguments are either “False and Irrelevant”, “False but Relevant”, and “True but irrelevant(off topic)”.

And a video, where PJW gets criticized by Vegan Gains:

Vegan Gains may promote a not much relevant topic, and that is, the one with “MMA cage fight”, but the ‘open debate’ topic is very much relevant. And it also reinforces the fact that, people who are working out at the gym seem to not suffer from any side-effects from consuming soy-based products.

The solution to the ‘soy problem’, is Hemp. Hemp seeds and hemp based protein is much better, and with no known side-effects so far.

Cannabis (THC) kills cancer cells. Though that is Cannabis, not Hemp. http://www.collective-evolution.com/2015/04/15/the-us-finally-admits-cannabis-kills-cancer-cells/


Hemp is the solution.

To all of our world problems.


Like HempCrete. The best material to build houses.

A very good documentary about Hemp, is here. A great movie done here:

The individual who made the movie “Overpriced” says the following about the “infowars”.

Which points out that… “infowars” is not so much “alternative media”, but nevertheless this individual gives a good point. Hemp is not promoted, and this individual has a point, the so called “alternate media” might not have it’s priorities straight.

For example, starting to put cigarettes and cheerots in your mouth in the below video is not much of a great revolution:

More like another bad club, trying to take another club. However they have a good point rising up against fascists and communists. But since, it is said they are supposedly suppressing “Hemp”(by Myles O’Howe) which is one of the many great things that could come up, says something about their anti-establishment stance. The reason could be, better technology to not so intelligent people would probably not be a good idea. But attacking vegans, like Paul Joseph Watson did, and these people promoting themselves as revolutionaries, with cigars in their mouths, it’s not gonna cut it for a revolution.

Also, being vegetarian is a necessary precursor if humanity ever want to go into space. You don’t want to be caught being accused the following way: “If you eat animals out there in your own planet, how do we know you won’t eat aliens in space, or hunt aliens for their meat?”. The only way the ‘trophic chain’ will ever be stopped is if everyone stops eating meat. And on the other hand, people who will be ‘meat-eaters’ will always be judged and justifiably manipulated by ‘aliens’ for the sole reason that they a danger to other species. So there will be no true revolution coming from current ‘meat-eaters’ or people smoking toxic cigars and who indulge themselves in pleasure. Those can be manipulated almost any time. And this situation in which humanity stands, with most being still, ‘non-vegan’ proves the justification as to how and why they are manipulated. People who cannot give up some simple habits, like ‘meat-eating’ are very likely to never receive a full disclosure, because they will almost always ignore it.

So this means, so far, infowars, fake revolution, fake news.

Here’s the car, Lotus Eco Elise, made from Hemp:

Or even this:

In regards to Hemp, from this individual, here is a link: https://ceawe.com/hemp

Hemp and Cannabis together, can build better houses, build the road towards an eco space program and cure cancer. If you think this doesn’t have a good chance, this saves the world, then,

I’ll leave this song for you:

Hemp can Save the World!