This article is more about revisiting facts and has a relevance to contemplate past history.
Here, it is mostly about the timelines of religions, such as Judaism, Hinduism, Christianity and Islam. Also the timelines of specific countries like China.
The first purpose, is to review and check how the Timelines compare with the Biblical timeline, whether the Flood of Noah occurred and to attempt to determine a more complete timeline.
For starters, the timeline from the Bible, narrated by the representatives of the religion of Judaism:
October 7, 3761 The beginning date of the Hebrew calendar, according to scholar Rabbi Yossi ben Halafta, a 2nd century Rabbi. Adam & Eve created (Year 1 of Jewish calendar). 3630 Seth born 3525 Enosh born ca. 3500 Chalcolithic Period, first settlement 3435 Kenan born 3365 Mehalalel born 3300 Yered born 3300 First confirmed settlement of Gaza at Tell as-Sakan 3138 Enoch born 3074 Methusaleh born 2886 Lemech born 2831 Adam dies ca. 2800 Early Dynastic period (Akkad) 2704 Noah born ca. 2700-2400 Old Kingdom period (Egypt) ca. 2500-2200 Ebla flourishes ca. 2500 First houses built in Jerusalem ca. 2300-2200 Priestess Enheduanna, first known author in the world 2203 Shem born 2150 The Flood 2100-1700 Middle Kingdom period (Egypt)
2000-1750 Old Babylonian period 2000-1700 Israel’s Patriarchal period ca. 1900-1400 Old Assyrian period 1882 Terach born 1813 Abraham born ca. 1850/1750/1700 Abraham & Sarah, Isaac & Ishmael, famine forces Israelites to migrate to Egypt 1800 First Jerusalem city wall built ca. 1792-1750 Hammurabi ca. 1750-1200 Hittite empire 1765 The Tower of Babel 1743 Origin of traditions of the “Abrahamic covenant” 1713 Isaac born; Abraham circumcises himself; Sodom & Gomorrah destroyed ca. 1700-1550 Hyksos in Egypt 1677 Isaac prepared as sacrifice; Sarah dies 1653 Jacob born 1638 Abraham dies ca. 1600-1150 Kassite period (Babylonia) 1590 Isaac blesses Jacob instead of Esau. ca. 1570-1085 New Kingdom period (Egypt) 1569 Jacob marries Leah 1565 Levi born 1562 Joseph born 1546 Joseph sold into slavery 1533 Isaac dies 1532 Joseph becomes viceroy of Egypt 1523 Jacob and his family join Joseph in Egypt ca. 1500-1200 Ugaritic texts 1452 Joseph dies 1429 Egyptian enslavement of the Hebrews begins ca. 1400-900 Middle Assyrian period ca. 1400-1300 Amarna period (Egypt) 1393 Moses born. 1355 Joshua born. 1314 Moses sees the burning bush. ca. 1300-1200 Mosaic period (Israel) 1280 Exodus from Egypt, Sinai Torah, Canaan Entry 1240 After setting up the Ark at Shiloh near Shechem (Nablus), Joshua launches foray into Jerusalem (Joshua 10:23, 15:63) ca. 1200 Sea Peoples invade Egypt and Syro-Palestine ca. 1200-1050/1000 Period of the Judges (Israel) ca. 1200-1000 Jerusalem is a Canaanite city ca. 1150-900 Middle Babylonian period: ca. 1106 Deborah judges Israel. ca. 1100 The Philistines take over Gaza. They called it Philistia (from which the modern name Palestine is derived), and made it one of their civilization’s most important cities. ca. 1050-450 Hebrew prophets (Samuel-Malachi) ca. 1000-587 Monarchical period in Israel ca. 1030-1010 Saul (transitional king) ca. 1010-970 David conquers the Jebusites and makes Jerusalem his capital ca. 970-931 Solomon builds the First Temple on Mount Moriah ca. 931 Secession of Northern Kingdom (Israel) from Southern Kingdom (Judah) 931-913 Rehoboam rules Judah 931-910 Jeroboam I rules Israel, choses Shechem as his first capital, later moves it to Tirzah 913-911 Abijah rules Judah 911-870 Asa rules Juda 910-909 Nadab (son of Jeroboam) rules Israel 909-886 Baasha kills Nadab and rules Israel 900-612 Neo-Assyrian period 886-885 Elah, son of Baasha, rules Israel 885 Zimri kills Elah, but reigns just seven days before committing suicide, Omri chosen as King of Israel 885-880(?) War between Omri and Tibni 885-874 Omri kills Tibni, rules Israel 879 Omri moves capital of Israel from Tirzah to Samaria 874-853 Ahab, Omri’s son, is killed in battle, Jezebel reigns as Queen. Athaliah, Ahab and Jezebel’s daughter, marries Jehoram, crown prince of Judah 870-848 Jehoshapha rules Judah 853-851 Ahaziah, son of Ahab, rules Israel, dies in accident 750-725 Israelite Prophets Amos, Hosea, Isaiah 722/721 Northern Kingdom (Israel) destroyed by Assyrians; 10 tribes exiled (10 lost tribes) 720 Ahaz, King of Judah dismantles Solomon’s bronze vessels and places a private Syrian altar in the Temple 716 Hezekiah, King of Jerusalem, with help of God and the prophet Isaiah resists Assyrian attempt to capture Jerusalem (2 Chronicles 32). Wells and springs leading to the city are stopped 701 Assyrian ruler Sennacherib beseiges Jerusalem 612-538 Neo-Babylonian (“Chaldean”) period 620 Josiah (Judean King) and “Deuteronomic Reforms” ca. 600-580 Judean Prophets Jeremiah and Ezekiel 587/586 Southern Kingdom (Judah) and First Temple destroyed-Babylonian exile ca. 550 Judean Prophet “Second Isaiah” 541 First Jews return from Babylon in small numbers to rebuild the city and its walls. Seventy years of exile terminated. (Daniel 9, Haggai 2:18-19) 539 Persian ruler Cyrus the Great conquers Babylonian Empire
538-333 B.C.E. Persian Period. 538 B.C.E. Edict of Cyrus (first return from Exile). 520-515 B.C.E. Jerusalem (“Second”) Temple rebuilt. 520 B.C.E. Judean Prophet Haggai. 500 B.C.E. The notion of a Messiah, a political/military-religious/moral leader, develops. 450-400 B.C.E. Reformation led by Ezra and Nehemiah. ca. 450 B.C.E. Torah (Pentateuch = first division of Jewish Scriptures) begins to gain recognition as Scripture. 438 B.C.E. Achashverosh becomes king of Persia. 426 B.C.E. First decrees by Haman; fast ordered by Esther, Haman’s downfall and execution. 425 B.C.E. Haman’s ten sons executed; Purim celebration. 424 B.C.E. Megillah recorded. 411 B.C.E. Bagoas, a Persian, is made governor of Jerusalem. 333-63 B.C.E. Hellenistic (Greek) period. 333/331 B.C.E. Alexander the Great conquers the Land of Israel. ca. 320-168 B.C.E. Judaism under Greek Ptolemies & Seleucids. ca. 250 B.C.E. “Septuagint” translation of Torah into Greek. ca. 230-146 B.C.E. Coming of Rome to the east Mediterranean. ca. 201 B.C.E. Prophets (second division of Jewish Scriptures) recognized by some as Scripture ca. 200 B.C.E.-135 C.E. Jewish Qumran community. 175 B.C.E. Selicid, king of Syria, plunders Jerusalem, murdering many. 166-160 B.C.E. Jewish Maccabean revolt against restrictions on practice of Judaism and desecration of the Temple. 142-129 B.C.E. Jewish autonomy under Hasmoneans. 63 B.C.E. Rome (Pompey) annexes the land of Israel. 66-73 C.E. First Jewish Revolt against Rome. 69 C.E. Vespasian gives Yochanan ben Zakkai permission to establish a Jewish center for study at Yavneh that will become the hub for rabbinic Judaism. 70 C.E. Destruction of Jerusalem and the second Temple.
ca. 230-146 B.C.E. Coming of Rome to the east Mediterranean. 142-129 B.C.E. Jewish autonomy under Hasmoneans. 63 B.C.E. Rome (Pompey) annexes the land of Israel. 37-4 B.C.E. Herod the Great (Jewish Roman ruler of the land of Israel). 34 B.C.E. Mark Antony deeds the city of Gaza to his lover, Queen Cleopatra. 37 B.C.E. Herod captures Jerusalem, has Antigonus II executed, and marries the Hasmonean princess Mariamne I. 20 B.C.E. Herod creates Temple Mount and begins to rebuild the Temple in Jerusalem. Project continues until 72 C.E.. ca. 4 B.C.E.-ca. 30 C.E. Joshua/Jesus “the Christ.”
Hillel & Shammai (Jewish sages). 6 C.E. Rome establishes direct rule of prefects in Judea. ca. 13 B.C.E.- 41 C.E. Philo Judaeus of Alexandria. ca. 30 C.E. Jesus is crucified. 36-64 C.E. Paul “the apostle” (Jewish “Christian”). ca. 37-100 C.E. Josephus (Jewish leader, historian). ca. 40 C.E. Gamliel/Gamaliel I (Jewish leader-scholar). ca. 50-125 C.E. Christian Testament (NT) writings. 66-73 C.E. First Jewish Revolt against Rome. 69 C.E. Vespasian gives Yochanan ben Zakkai permission to establish a Jewish center for study at Yavneh that will become the hub for rabbinic Judaism. 70 Destruction of Jerusalem and the second Temple. December 21, 72 Thomas the Apostle is murdered by Hindu priests of Kali. 73 Last stand of Jews at Masada. ca. 90-100 Gamaliel II excludes sectarians (including Christians) from the synagogues. ca. 90-150 Writings (third and last division of Jewish Scriptures) discussed and accepted as sacred scripture. 114-117 Jewish Revolts against Rome in Cyprus, Egypt and Cyrene. The Great Synagogue and the Great Library in Alexandria are destroyed as well as the entire Jeiwsh community of Cyprus. Afterwards, Jews were forbidden on Cyprus. 120-135 Rabbi Akiva active in consolidating Rabbinic Judaism. 132-135 Bar Kokhba rebellion (Second Jewish Revolt). Roman forces kill an estimated half a million Jews and destroy 985 villages and 50 fortresses. 136 Hadrian renames Jerusalem Aelia Capatolina and builds a Pagan temple over the the site of the Second Temple. He also forbids Jews to dwell there. Judea (the southern portion of what is now called the West Bank) was renamed Palaestina in an attempt to minimize Jewish identification with the land of Israel. 138-161 Antoninus Pius, Hadrian’s sucessor, repeals many of the previously instituted harsh policies towards Jews. 193-211 Roman emperor Lucious Septimus Severus treats Jews relatively well, allowing them to participate in public offices and be exempt from formalities contrary to Judaism. However, he did not allow the Jews to convert anyone ca. 200 Mishnah (Jewish oral law) compiled/edited under Judah the Prince. 200-254 Origen (Christian scholar, biblical interpreter). 203 Because of his health, Judah HaNasi relocates the center of Jewish learning from Beth Shearim to Sepphoris. 212 Roman Emperor Caracalla allows free Jews within the empire to become full Roman citizens. 220 Babylonian Jewish Academy founded at Sura by Rab. 220-470 222-235 Emperor Alexander Severus allowed for a revival of Jewish rights, including permission to visit Jerusalem. 240-276 Rise of Mani/Manichaean World Religion synthesis. ca. 250 Babylonian Jews flourish (as does Manichaeism) under Persian King Shapur I 250-330 Early development of Christian monasticism in Egypt. 263-339 Eusebius (Christian author, historian) 303 Violent persecution of Christians by Emperor Diocletian. To 311 Sporadic persecution of Christianity by Rome. 306 One of the first Christian councils, the Council of Elvira, forbids intermarriage and social interaction with Jews 312/313 Emperor Constantine embraces Christianity, announces Edict of Toleration 315 Code of Constantine limits rights of non-Christians, is Constantine’s first anti-Jewish act. 368 Jerusalem Talmud compiled.
66-73 First Jewish Revolt against Rome. 69 Vespasian gives Yochanan ben Zakkai permission to establish a Jewish center for study at Yavneh that will become the hub for rabbinic Judaism. 70 Destruction of Jerusalem and the second Temple, 73 Last stand of Jews at Masada. ca. 90-100 Gamaliel II excludes sectarians (including Christians) from the synagogues. ca. 90-150 Writings (third and last division of Jewish Scriptures) discussed and accepted as sacred scripture. 114-117 Jewish Revolts against Rome in Cyprus, Egypt and Cyrene. The Great Synagogue and the Great Library in Alexandria are destroyed as well as the entire Jeiwsh community of Cyprus. Afterwards, Jews were forbidden on Cyprus. 120-135 Rabbi Akiva active in consolidating Rabbinic Judaism. 132-135 Bar Kokhba rebellion (Second Jewish Revolt). Roman forces kill an estimated half a million Jews and destroy 985 villages and 50 fortresses. 136 Hadrian renames Jerusalem Aelia Capatolina and builds a Pagan temple over the the site of the Second Temple. He also forbids Jews to dwell there. Judea (the southern portion of what is now called the West Bank) was renamed Palaestina in an attempt to minimize Jewish identification with the land of Israel. 138-161 Antoninus Pius, Hadrian’s sucessor, repeals many of the previously instituted harsh policies towards Jews. 193-211 Roman emperor Lucious Septimus Severus treats Jews relatively well, allowing them to participate in public offices and be exempt from formalities contrary to Judaism. However, he did not allow the Jews to convert anyone ca. 200 Mishnah (Jewish oral law) compiled/edited under Judah the Prince. 203 Because of his health, Judah HaNasi relocates the center of Jewish learning from Beth Shearim to Sepphoris. 212 Roman Emperor Caracalla allows free Jews within the empire to become full Roman citizens. 220 Babylonian Jewish Academy founded at Sura by Rab. 220-470 Amoraim, or Mishna scholars, flourish. The Amoraim’s commentary, along with the Mishna, comprises the Talmud. 222-235 Emperor Alexander Severus allowed for a revival of Jewish rights, including permission to visit Jerusalem. ca. 250 Babylonian Jews flourish (as does Manichaeism) under Persian King Shapur I. 306 One of the first Christian councils, the Council of Elvira, forbids intermarriage and social interaction with Jews. 315 Code of Constantine limits rights of non-Christians, is Constantine’s first anti-Jewish act. 359 Hillel creates a new calendar based on the lunar year to replace the dispersed Sanhedrin, which previously announced the festivals. 368 Jerusalem Talmud compiled. 370-425 Hillel founds Beit Hillel, a school emphasizing tolerance and patience. Hillel, a descendant of King David, is one of the first scholars to devise rules to interpret the Torah. 410 Rome sacked by Visigoths. 425 Jewish office of Nasi/Prince abolished by Rome. 426 Babylonian Talmud compiled. 439 Theodosis enacts a code prohibiting Jews from holding important positions involving money. He also reenacts a law forbidding the building of new synagogues. 500 Babylonian Talmud recorded. After conquering Italy in 493, Ostrogoth king Theodoric issues an edict safeguarding the Jews and ensuring their right to determine civil disputes and freedom of worship.
325 Christian First Ecumenical Council, at Nicea (Asia Minor), changes the date of Easter from Passover and forbids Jews from owning Christian slaves or converting pagans to Judaism. 330 Jerusalem becomes part of Constantine’s Byzantine Empire. ca. 325-420 Jerome (Christian author, translator). 339 Constantine forbids intermarriage with Jews and the circumcision of heathen or Christian slaves, declaring death as the punishment. 354-430 Augustine (Christian author in North Africa). 359 Hillel creates a new calendar based on the lunar year to replace the dispersed Sanhedrin, which previously announced the festivals. 368 Jerusalem Talmud compiled. 370-425 Hillel founds Beit Hillel, a school emphasizing tolerance and patience. Hillel, a descendant of King David, is one of the first scholars to devise rules to interpret the Torah. 380/391 Christianity becomes THE religion of Roman Empire. 401 Christianity takes root in Gaza thanks to Bishop Porphyry. 410 Rome sacked by Visigoths. 415 St. Cyril, the Bishop of Alexandria, champions violence against the city’s Jews and incites the Greeks to kill or expel them. Some Jews return within a few years, but many return only after the Muslims conquer Egypt. 425 Jewish office of Nasi/Prince abolished by Rome. 426 Babylonian Talmud compiled. 439 Theodosis enacts a code prohibiting Jews from holding important positions involving money. He also reenacts a law forbidding the building of new synagogues. 451 Christian Ecumenical Council of Chalcedon. 500 After conquering Italy in 493, Ostrogoth king Theodoric issues an edict safeguarding the Jews and ensuring their right to determine civil disputes and freedom of worship. 501 An earthquake hits Israel, partially destroying Acre and incuring damage as far east as Jersusalem. 511 Rebellion leader Mar Zutra usurps power from Kobad the Zenduk, establishing an independant Jewish state in Babylon that would last for seven years, until Zutra’s forces defeated Zutra’s army, killing him and instituted a harsh policy toward the remaining Jews. 516 Southern Arabian king Ohu Nuwas adopts Judaism, possibly as a rampart against the spread of Christianity. King Eleboas of Abyssinia, with the help of Justin I, later defeated Nuwas. 519 After Ravenna residents burnt down local synagogues, Ostrogoth ruler Theodoric orders the Italian town to rebuild the synagogues at their own expense. 587 Recared of Spain adopts Catholicism, banning Jews from slave ownership, intermarriage and holding positions of authority. Recared also declares that children of mixed marriages be raised Christian. 570 Birth of Prophet Muhammad, Makkah. 590 Pope Gregory the Great formulates the official Papal policy towards Jews, objecting to forced baptism and tolerating them according to the previous council’s regulations.
ca. 570-632 Muhammad (“the Prophet” of Islam). ca. 610 Prophetic call and start of Quranic revelations. 614 Persian invasion, Jews allowed to controll Jerusalem. 617 Persians change policy toward Jews, forbid them from living within three miles of Jerusalem. 622 The hijra (emigration) from Mecca to Medina. 624-627 Muhammad attacks Jewish Arabian tribes for refusing to convert to Islam. Eventually the Southern Arabian tribes are destroyed. 626 While proselytizing Arabia, Muhammad captures the Banu Kurara tribe and forces the group of about 600 to chose between conversion and death. After spending all night praying, all but three or four Banu Kurarans are beheaded. 627-629 Emperor Heraclius breaks his promise of protection to Jews, massacring any he found and forbidding them from entering Jerusalem. Hundreds of Jews were killed and thousands exhiled to Egypt, ending the Jewish towns in the Galilee and Judea. Heraclius’ decree remained in effect until the Muslim conquest of Jerusalem. 630 Capitulation of Mecca, rededication of Kaba. 632 The Jewish tribe Kaibar defends itself against Muslim forces, negotiating a settlement in which half of their crops would go to Mohammed in exchange for peace. Other Jewish tribes, including Fadattr, Tedma and Magna reached similar deals. 590-604 Pope Gregory the Great. ca. 600-1300 Period of the Jewish Rabbinic Geonim. 632-661 Muhammad dies, creating the four “rightly guided caliphs” of Islam. 634 Gaza becomes the first city in Palestine to be captured by Muslims. Many Christians and Jews remained despite the Muslim takeover. 637 Muslim forces capture Caesarea, forcing the city’s estimated 100,000 Jews to follow the Pact of Omar, which meant they had to pray quietly, not build new synagogues and not prevent Jews from converting to Islam. The Jews were also forbidden from riding horses and holding judicial or civil posts, and were forced to wear a yellow patch for identification. 638 Caliph Umar conquers Jerusalem and Jews are permitted to return to the city under Islam. 661 Assassination of Ali (last of the four). 661-750 Umayyad Dynasty of Islam in Damascus (Syria). 669, 674 Muslim Attacks on Christian Constantinople. 680 Massacre of Ali’s son Husayn and Shiites (Iraq). 685 Muslims extend Jerusalem and rebuild walls and roads. 692 Dome of the Rock built on site of First and Second Temples by Caliph Abd el-Malik. November 9, 694 The 17th Council of Toledo convenes, passing a wide-ranging array of restrictions on the local Jewish community. 711 Muslim Forces Attack Spain Successfully. 715 Al-Aqsa Mosque built, Jerusalem. 732 Islam repulsed at Tours (France), gateway to Europe. 750 Abbasid caliphate founded. ca. 760 Karaism founded (Jewish reaction to Rabbinic Judaism). 762 Baghdad founded by Abbasids. 767 Anan Ben David, organizer of the Karaite sect that only believed in the literal Biblical writings and not the Oral law. 742-814 Charlemagne, French Holy Roman Emperor, protected and helped develop Jewish culture in his kingdom, seeing Jews as an asset. 740-1259 Jewish Kingdom of Khazar lasts over 500 years, defending itself from the Muslims, Byzantines and Russians, finally subdued by Mongols under Genghis Khan. 750-1258 Abbasid Dynasty of Islam in Baghdad (Iraq)—the “golden age” of Islamic culture. ?-767 Abu Hanifa (Muslim theologian and jurist in Iraq). 710-795 Malik ibn Anas (jurist, collector of hadiths, Medina). 800 Caliph Harun al-Rashid rules in “1001 Nights” style. ca. 800-950 Mutazilite rationalism developed and debated. 807 Harun Al Rashid, Caliph of the Abbasids forces Baghdad Jews to wear a yellow badge and Christians to wear a blue badge. 825 Caliph Mamun sponsors translations of Greek learning into Arabic (Arabic science flourishes). 814-840 Charlemagne’s son, Louis the Pius, who succeeded his father as king, expanded his father’s positive policies towards the Jews, like changing “market day” from Saturday (Shabbat) to Sunday. 855 Ibn Hanbal (jurist, collector of hadiths, Baghdad). 868 Palestine annexed to Egypt. 870, 875 Bukhari and Muslim (collectors of hadiths). 874 Shiite “twelvers” arise. ?-935 Al-Ashari (ex-Mutazilite Muslim scholar). 882-942 Saadia Gaon (Rabbinic Jewish sage). 942 Office of the Exilarch was abolished after seven centuries, primarily because of dissention with the Muslims. David ben-Zaccai held the postion. 922 Execution of Hallaj, radical Persian Muslim mystic/sufi. ca. 950-1150 “Golden Age” in Spain (Islamic Umayyad dynasty). 969 Founding of Cairo (and soon thereafter Azhar University) by the Islamic Shiite Fatimid dynasty in Egypt. 969 Caliph al-Aziz defeated the Turkish princes at Ramleh, marking the beginning of Fatamid rule over Eretz-Israel. 972 Al-Azhar University Founded, Cairo. ca. 1000 Rabbi Gershon of Mainz, Germany, publishes a ban on bigamy. This marks the beginning of Ashkenazi (Franco-German) halachic creativity. 1001 Ibn al-Bawwab produces earliest exist Qur’an copy on paper, Baghdad. 990-1055 Diplomat and poet, as well as vizier to King Habus of Granada and author of a Biblical Hebrew dictionary, Samuel Ibn Nagrela. 1008 Egyptian Caliph Hakkim, who claimed to be divine, pressured all non-Muslims to convert and forced all Jews to wear a “golden calf” around their necks. 1009 Oldest existing text of full Hebrew Bible is written. 1016 Earthquake causes structrual damage on Temple Mount. 1021-1069 Messianic poet and philosopher, Solomon Ibn Gabirol. 1027 Samuel Hanagid becomes vizier of Granada. He is the first of the poets of the Golden Age of Spain, and symbolic of both the political power and literary creativity of Jews in Spain at the time. 1032 Rebel Abul Kamal Tumin conquered Fez and decimated the Jewish community, killing 6,000 Jews. 1066 Final split (“schism”) between Latin (Roman) and Greek (Byzantine) Classical Christian Churches: 1053/54 William the Conqueror (Norman) takes England. 1056 Abraham Ibn Daud: On Saumuel Ha-Nagid, Vizier of Granada. 1040-1105 Rashi (Rabbi Solomon ben Isaac; Jewish sage): . 1058-1111 Ghazali (Persian Muslim scholar and mystic): . 1065-1173 Benjamin of Tudela, Jewish traveller and historian, who wrote a famous journal called Sefer Hamassa’ot (Book of Travels). 1070 Rashi, a French-Jewish thinker, completes his commentaries on most parts of the Bible. 1070-1139 Poet and philiospher Moses Ibn Ezra. 1071 Seljuk occupation of Jerusalem. 1099 First Crusade Begins rule in Jerusalem. 1100 The Crusaders seize Gaza from the Fatimid Caliphs, returning it to Christian rule. 1181 Philip expels Jews from France. 1187 Salah al-Din returns Jerusalem to Muslim rule. 1192 Philip expands his kingdom and allows Jews to return, for a fee and under strict conditions.
610 Visigothic ruler Sesbut prohibits Judaism after several anti-Jewish edicts are ignored. Exiled Jews return to Byzantine Spain under Sesbut’s successor, Swintilla. 614 Persian General Romizanes captures Jerusalem and allows Jews to run the city. At this time, aproximately 150,000 Jews are living in 43 settlements in Eretz-Israel. 617 The Persians renege on their promises and forbid Jews to settle within a three mile radius of Jerusalem. 638 Although Chintilla decrees that only Catholics are permitted to live in Visogoth Spain, many Jews continue to live there. 638 Islamic conquest of Jerusalem. 682 Visigoth King Erwig continues oppression of Jews, making it illegal to practice any Jewish rites and pressing for the conversion or emigration of the remaining Jews. 691 First account of Jews in England. 712 Jews help Muslim invaders capture Spain, ending Visogoth rule and beginning a 150 year period of relative peace, in which Jews were free to study and practice religion as they wished. 722 In the wake of a narrow military defeat over Muslim forces, Leo III of Constantinople decided his nation’s weakness lay in its heterogenious population, and began the forcible conversion of the Jews, as well as the “New Christians.” Most converted under Leo III clandestinely continued their Jewish practices. 1040 Birth of Rashi. 1066 In the wake of the Norman conquest of England, Jews left Normandy and settled in London and later in York, Norwich, Oxford, Bristol and Lincoln. 1078 Pope Gregory VII prohibited Jews from holding offices in Christendom. 1086-1145 The greatest Hebrew poet of his time, Judah Halevi. 1090 Iban Iashufin, King of the Almoravides, captured Granada and destroyed the Jewish community, the survivors fled to Toledo. 1095 Henry IV of Germany, who granted Jews favorable conditions whenever possible, issued a charter to the Jews and a decree against forced baptism. 1131 Birth of Rambam. 1171 In the town of Blois, southwest of Paris, Jews are falsely accused of committing ritual murder ((killing of a Christian child) and blood libel. The adult Jews of the city are arrested and most are executed after refusing to convert. Thirty-one or 32 of the Jews are killed. The Jewish children are forcibly baptized. 1210 Group of 300 French and English rabbis make aliyah and settle in Israel. 1215 The Church’s Fourth Lateran Council decrees that Jews be differentiated from others by their type of clothing to avoid intercourse between Jews and Christians. Jews are sometimes required to wear a badge; sometimes a pointed hat. 1227-1274 Christian theologian, who called for the slavery of all Jews, Saint Thomas Aquinas. 1229 King Henry III of England forced Jews to pay half the value of thier property in taxes. 1242 Burning of the Talmud in Paris. 1244 Tartars capture Jerusalem. 1253 King Henry III of England ordered Jewish worship in synagogue to be held quietly so that Christians passing by do not have to hear it. e also ordered that Jews may not employ Christian nurses or maids, nor may any Jew prevent another from converting to Christianity. 1254 French King Louis IX expelled the Jews from France, ending the Tosaphists period. Most Jews went to Germany and further east. 1255 Seeing himself as the “master of the Jews,” King Henry II of England transferred his rights to the Jews to his brother, Richard, for 5,000 marks. 1267 In a special session, the Vienna city council forced Jews to wear the Pileum cornutum, a cone-shaped headress prevelent in many medieval woodcuts illustrating Jews. This form of distinctive dress was an additon to badge Jews were forced to wear. 1267 Ramban (Nachmanides) arrives in Israel. 1275 King Edward of England banned usury and unsuccessfully encouraged Jews in agriculture, crafts and local trades. He also forced Jews over the age of seven to wear an indentifying badge. 1282 The Archbishop of Canterbury, John Pectin, ordered all London synagogues to closed and prohibited Jewish physicians from practicing on Christians. 1285 Blood libel in Munich, Germany results in the death of 68 Jews. An additional 180 Jews are burned alive at the synagogue. 1287 A mob in Oberwesel, Germany kills 40 Jewish men, women and children after a ritual murder accusation. 1290 Bowing political pressure, English King Edward I expels the Jews from England. They were only allowed to take what they could carry and most went to France, paying for thier passage only to be robbed and cast overboard by the ship captains. 1306 Philip IV orders all Jews expelled from France, with their property to be sold at public auction. Some 125,000 Jews are forced to leave. 1321 Similar to accusations made during the Black Plague, Jews were accused of encouraging lepers to poison Christian wells in France. An estimated five thousand Jews were killed before the king, Philip the Tall, admitted the Jews were innocent. 1321 Henry II of Castile forces Jews to wear yellow badges. 1322 Charles IV of France expels all French Jews without the one year period he had promised them. 1348-1349 Much of Europe blames the Black Plague on the Jews and tortured to confess that they poisoned the wells. Despite the pleas of innocence of Pope Clement VI, the accusations resulted in the destruction of over 60 large and 150 small Jewish communities. 1348 Basle burns 600 Jews at the stake and forcibly baptizes 140 children, expelling the city’s other Jews. The city’s Christian residents convert the synagogue into a church and destroy the Jewish cemetery. 1348 Pope Clement VI issues an edict repudiating the libel against Jews, saying that they too were suffering from the Plague. 1360 Samuel ben Meir Abulafia is arrested and tortured to death by King Pedro without any explination. The king also confiscated his great wealth. 1385-1386 German Emperor Wenceslaus arrests Jews living in the Swabian League, a group of free cities in S. Germany, and confiscates their books. Later, he expelled the Jews of Strassburg after a community debate. 1386 Emperor Wenceslaus expelles the Jews from Strassbourg and confiscate their property. 1389 After a priest was hit with some sand from a few small Jewish boys playing in the street, he insisted that the Jewish community was plotting against him and began a virulent campaign against the city’s Jews, resulting in the massacre of thousands and the destruction of the city’s synagogue and Jewish cemetery. King Wenceslaus refused to condemn the act, insisting that the responsibility lay with the Jews for going outside during the Holy Week. 1389 Pope Boniface continues the policy of Clement VI, forbidding the Christians to harm Jews, destroy their cemeteries or forcibly baptize them. 1391 Ferrand Martinez, archdeacon of Ecija, begins a campaign against Spanish Jewry, killing over 10,000 and destroying the Jewish quarter in Barcelona. The campaign quickly spreads throughout Spain, except for Granada, and destroys Jewish communities in Valencia and Palma De Majorca. 1391 King Pedro I orders Spain not to harm the remaining Jews and decrees that synagogues not be converted into churches. 1392 King Pedro I announces his compliance with the Bull of Pope Boniface IX, protecting Jews from baptism. He extends this edict to Spanish Jewish refugees. 1415 Benedict XIII bans the study of the Talmud in any form, institutes forced Christian sermons and tries to restrict Jewish life completely. 1420 Pope Martin V favorably reinstates old privleges of the Jews and orders that no child under the age of 12 can be forcibly baptized without parental consent. 1420 All Jews are expelled from Lyons, including the refugees from Paris who were expelled 20 years earliers. Jews now only remain in Provence (until 1500) and in the possessions of the Holy See. 1422 Pope Martin V issues a bull reminding Christians that Christianity was derived from Judaism and warns the Friars not to incite against the Jews. The Bull was withdrawn the following year, alleging that the Jews of Rome attained the Bull by fraud. 1480 Inquisition established in Spain.
1096 Participants in the First Crusade massacre Jews in several Central European cities, beginning centuries of pogroms linked to the Crusades. 1096 More than 5,000 Jews were murdered in Germany in several different attacks. May 3, 1096 Count Emico of Leiningen, on his way to join a Crusade, attacked the synagogue at Speyers and killed all the defenders. May 27, 1096 1,200 Jews commit suicide in Mayence to escape Count Emico, who tried to forcibly convert them. 1085-1140 Judah Halevi (Jewish author). 1099 Crusaders (European Christians) capture Jerusalem and massacre tens of thousands of the city’s Jews. 1100 Germans, including German Jews, migrate to Poland. It is seen as “the land of opportunity.” 1107 Moroccan Almoravid ruler Yoseph Ibn Tashfin orders all Moroccan Jews to convert or leave. 1109 Tiberias falls to the Crusaders. 1115 After reconquering Toledo, Spain from the Muslims, Alphonso I invited all Jews to return. 1120 Jews from Muslim countries begin to settle in Byzantium. 1124 Records of a Jewish gate in Kiev attest to the presence of a Jewish community there. 1135-1204 Maimonides (Rabbi Moses ben Maimon; Jewish scholar). 1139 Judah Halevi completes his influential philosophy of Judaism known as The Kuzari. He is a friend of commentator Abraham Ibn Ezra, who also left Spain for the life of a wandering Jewish scholar. 1143 150 Jews killed in Ham, France. 1144 Jews in Norwich, England, are accused of murdering a Christian child in what is believed to be the first ritual murder charge. The blood libel, as well as others in England that follow in the 12th century, incites anti-Jewish violence. 1160-1173 Benjamin of Toledo, The Itinerary of Benjamin of Toledo. 1163 Benjamin of Toledo writes of 40,000 Jews living in Baghdad, complete with 28 synagogues and 10 Torah academies. 1171 Saladin (1138-1193) overthrows Fatimid dynasty in Egypt. 1187 Saladin recaptures Jerusalem from Crusaders grants Jews permission to re-enter. March 16, 1190 Jews attacked, over 150 die after a six day standoff in York, England. 1190 Approximately 2,500 Jews live in England, enjoing more rights than Jews on the continent. 1191 French King Phillip starts the Third Crusade, cancels debts to Jews, drives many Jews out of France, confiscates their property. 1194-1270 Scholar and Jewish leader Moses Ben Nachman (Nachmanides). 1195 Moses Maimonides completes The Guide to the Perplexed, considered the most important work of medieval Jewish thought. 1211 A group of 300 rabbis from France and England settle in Palestine (Eretz Yisrael), beginning what might be interpreted as Zionist aliyah. 1198-1216 Pope Innocent III (Christian). 1204 First synagogue built in Vienna, a city where Jews enjoyed more freedom than in other areas of Austria. 1215 Fourth Lateran Council expands anti-Jewish decrees in Europe, forces Jews to wear the Yellow Patch, the “Badge of Shame. 1222 Deacon Robert of Reading, England, was burned for converting to Judaism, setting a precedent for the burning of “heretics”. 1222 Stephen Langton, Archbishop of Canterbury and a prime mover of the Lateran Council, forbids Jews from building new synagogues, owning slaves or mixing with Christians. ca. 13th cen. The Zohar (a Jewish kabbalistic book): . 1227 Death of Genghis Khan (roving Mongol conqueror). ca. 1230 Inquisition by Christians in Spain. 1232 The Jewish community of Marrakech, Morocco, is reestablished, leading to massacres of Jews caused by Islamic political revolt and grassroots hatred. 1239 Pope Gregory IX orders the kings of France, England, Spain and Portugal to confiscate Hebrew books, Following this edict, the Talmud is condemned and burned in France and Rome. 1225-1274 Thomas Aquinas (Christian scholar). 1240-1292 Spanish Kabbalist Abraham Abulafia. 1243 First accusation of desecration of the Host (the wafers used is Christian Mass) – the blood libel – in Berlitz, Germany. 1244-1517 Rule by Tartars, Mongols, Ayybids, and Mamelukes. 1247 Pope Innocent IV issued a Bull refuting blood libels and sent it throughout Germany and France. 1254-1517 Mamluk Islamic rule (new dynasty) in Egypt. 1258 Fall of Islamic Abbasid dynasty to Hulagu (Mongol).
1258 Mongols sack Baghdad. 1260 Mongols led by Hulagu Khan overrun Gaza, they are beaten back by Egyptian Mamluk General Baibars. Gaza becomes the capital of a Mamluk Province. 1278 The Edict of Pope Nicholas III requires compulsory attendance of Jews at conversion sermons. 1286 Moses de Leon of Spain completes a commentary of the Torah. The Zohar remains a central text of Jewish mysticism. 1290/1291 Expulsion of Jews from England. 1291 Expulsion of Christian Crusaders from Syria. 1348 Black Death reaches Europe. July 6, 1348 Pope Clement VI clarifies that the Jews are not behind the Black Death, tells Christians not to blame Jews for the disease sweeping Europe. 1445 Gutenberg prints Europe’s first book with movable type. 1453 Ottomans begin rule from Constantinople. 1492 The Alhambra Decree ordered the expulsion of the Jews from Castile and Aragon, Spain. The edict was not formally revoked until December 16, 1968. 1492 End of Muslim states in Spain. 1492 Columbus sets sail.
1300-1517 Italian Renaissance. 1306-1394 Expulsions of Jews from France. 1328-1384 John Wycliffe (Christian dissident leader). 14th century Rise of the Ottoman Muslim dynasty in Turkey. 1333 Casimir the Great takes power in Poland and brings with him a sympathetic attitude toward the Jews, who benfit as a result. September 30, 1338 The Deggendorf Massacre. Residents of Deggendorf, Germany, burned the homes of and massacred the town’s approximately 50 Jews. 1348 Black Death reaches Europe and Jews are accused of poisoning Christian wells. 1336-1405 Timurlane/Tamurlane, Turkic ruler in central Asia. 1360 King Pedro of Portugal arrests and tortures to death Samuel Ben Meir Abulafia. No charges were ever given and the King confiscated Abulafia’s lands and great wealth. 1400 Damascus sacked by Timurlane. 1424 Jewish physician, Y’en Ch’eng is given the surname “Chao” as an honor by the Emperor. This family, which probably originated in India and Babylon, became on of the leading Chinese Jewish families. 1437-1509 Philosopher, financier and scholar, Don Isaac Abarbanel intercedes many times on behalf of his fellow Jews, including trying to stop Ferdinand from expelling them. This time he was foiled by Torquemada and he followed them into exile. His commentaries cover the major and minor Prophets. Consistent with his belief that the Messiah would come in his lifetime, he also wrote three messianic texts called Migdal Yeshu’ot (Tower of Salvation). 1452-1454/55 Gutenberg prints Europe’s first book with movable type. 1447 Following a fire in Posen where the original charter (written by Casimir the Great) granted the Jews “privileges,” Casimir IV renews all their rights and makes his charter one of the most liberal in Europe. This charter lasted less than a decade before it was revoked. 1452-1515 Astronomer and historian, Abraham Zacuto creates tables used by Columbus. After the explusion of 1492, Zacuto went to Portugal where he developed the metal Astrolab used by Vasco Da Gama. In 1498 he was forced to flee or convert. He left and reached Tunis where he wrote a history of the Jews from creation until the sixteenth century. 1453 Fall of Constantinople (Istanbul) to Ottoman Muslims. 1454 Casimir IV of Poland revokes the Jewish charter, at the insistence of Bishop Zbignev. The Bishop had correctly predicted Casimir’s defeat by the Teutonic Knights backed by the Pope, and succeeded in convincing the King that it was due to the Jews. 1463 Pope Nicholas V authorized the establishment of the Inquisition to investigate heresy among the Marranos. 1479-15 Isabella’s severe anti-Jewish learnings influence Ferdinand and lead to the final expulsion of the Jews from Spain. 1486 First prayer book published in Soncino, Italy. 1488 The first complete edition of the Hebrew Bible is printed in Soncino, Italy. 1492 Christian expulsion of Muslim Moors from Spain. 1492 Columbus sets sail. 1492 Christian expulsion of Jews from Spain, sending over 200,000 Jews fleeing: 137,000 Jews forced to leave Sicily. 1494 Polish King Jan Olbracht’s orders Jews to leave to leave Crakow for Kazimierz after they are blamed for a large fire that destroyed part of the city. 1496 Manuel of Portugal expels Jews from Portugal. 1516 The closed Jewish Quarter in Venice, Italy, is dubbed the Geto Nuovo (New Foundry). “Geto” will later become the basis for the word “ghetto”. 1516 The Ottoman’s fight the Mamluks out of Gaza, Gaza is ruled for the next 100 years by the Ridwan family. 1505-1584 Kabbalist and author of “Lecha Dodi” (Come My Beloved), Solomon ben Moses Alkabetz.
1510 38 Jews were burned at the stake in Berlin. 1516 Jews in Venice are relegated to a ghetto, the most extreme segregation to which Jews had been submitted. Over time, Jews in many lands are similarly segregated. 1483-1546 Martin Luther. 1517 Luther posts “95 theses” in Wittenburg, Germany 1520-1579 Cracow Rosh Yeshiva whose major work was an adaptation of Caro’s Shulchan Aruch to Europoean Jewry, Moses Isserles. 1525-1609 Brilliant Talmudist, mathematician and astronomer, popular with Emperor Randolh II. Judah Loew Ben Bezalel, the Maharal of Prague also created the Golem, a man from clay who protected the Jewish community. 1534 First Yiddish book published in Cracow, Poland. 1534-1572 Talmud and Kabbalah scholar, Isaac Ben Solomon Luria, given the name “The Ari” (The Lion). 1543 Luther writes “About the Jews and Their Lies,” considered the first modern anti-Semitic tract. ca. 1500-1650 Protestant Christian Reformation. 1509-1564 John Calvin. 1516 Jewish ghetto instituted in Venice. 1526 The Prague Haggadah, which contains the oldest known printed Yiddush poem, is published. November 22, 1547 Jews in the small community of Asolo, Italy were victims of a massacre, leaving 10 of the 37 Jewish residents dead. 1547 Ivan the Terrible becomes ruler of Russia and refuses to allow Jews to live in his kingdon. 1555 Jewish ghetto instituted in Rome. 1559 Pope Paul IV allows the first printing of the Zohar, a Jewish mystical text. 1567/1571 Shulhan Arukh (code of Jewish law by Joseph Caro).published. 1569 Isaac Luria writes the Kabbalist in Safed. Luria’s ideas give rise to a new form of Jewish mysticism.
1517 Victory of (Muslim Ottoman Turk) Selim I over Egypt. Ottoman Muslim rulers (later) claim the title “caliph”. 1520-1566 Sulayman I, “the Magnificent,” rules. ca. 1500-1800 Dominance of Safavid Shiite Muslim dynasty in Iran. ca. 1500-1800 Dominance of Mughal Muslim dynasty in India. 1550-1619 Rabbi, preacher and biblical commentator known for his brilliant sermons calling for self improvement, Ephraim Solomon of Lunshits. 1550 Dr. Jospeh Hacohen was chased out of Genoa for practicing medicine, and soon after, all the Jews were expelled. 1553 Under the direction of Cardinal Caraffa, later Pope Paul IV, the Talmud was confiscated and publicaly burned in Rome on Rosh Hashanah, starting a wave of Talmud burning throughout Italy. 1554 Cornelio da Montalcino, a Franciscan Friar who converted to Judaism, is burned alive in Rome. 1555 In his Bull Cum Nimis Absurdum, Pope Paul IV renewed all anti-Jewish legislation and installed a ghetto in Rome. The Bull also forced Jews to wear a special cap, forbade them from owning real estate or practicing medicine on Christians. It also limited Jewish communities to only one synagogue. 1555-1631 Talmudic commentator, author of Chidushei Halachot, Samuel Eliezer Aidles, also known as “Maharsha.” . 1558 In Recanti, Italy, under the protection of Pope Paul IV, Joseph Paul More, a baptized Jew, entered a synagogue on Yom Kippur, the Day of Atonement, and tried to preach a conversion sermon. The congregation evicted him and a near massacre occured. Soon after, the Jews were expelled from Recanti. 1585 First known Jew to step on American soil, Joachim Gaunse (Ganz), lands on Roanoke Island. 1596-1650 Rene Descartes (scholar-philosopher): . 1564 In Brest Litovsk, the son of a wealthy Jewish tax collector, is accused of killing the family’s Christian servant for ritual purposes. He is tortured and killed. 1566 Three months into his reign, Pope Pius V rejects Pope Pius IV leniency towards Jews and reinstates the restrictions of Pope Paul IV which forced Jews to wear a special cap, forbade them from owning real estate or practicing medicine on Christians. It also limited Jewish communities to only one synagogue. 1569 Brest Litovsk welcomes Jewish settlement. In 80 years the Jewish population surges from 4,000 to more than 50,000. 1586 Pope Sixtus V rejects Pope Gregory XIII policies and forbids Jews from living in the Papal states and to print the Talmud. 1587-1643 The leading Jewish composer of the late Italian Renaissance and the musical director of court of Mantua, Salamone de Rossi. 1588 England defeats the Spanish Armada, weakening Spain and decreasing the reach of the Inquisition, espcially in the Netherlands. 1590 Built of wood, the entire Jewish quarter of Posen burned while then gentile population watched and pillaged. 15 people died and 80 Torah scrolls were burned. 1591 Rabbi, encyclopedist, physician and pupil of Galileo, Jose Solomon Delmedigo wrote over 30 works in math, geometry, chemistry, mechanics, philosophy and medicine. 1592 Esther Chiera, who held considerable influence in Sultan Murad III’s court, was executed because of jealousy and the Sultan’s desire for her assets. 1593 Pope Clement VIII expelled Jews from all Papal states except Rome and Ancona. 1596 Official Yom Kippur services are held for the first time in Amsterdam, though not without controversy. 1603 Frei Diogo Da Assumpacao, a partly Jewish friar who embraced Judaism, was burned alive in Lisbon. His arguments against Christianity were published and gained wide popularity. 1605 A Jesuit missionary in China meets with Al T’Ien, a Chinese Jewish teacher. Thier correspondence is the basis for most known information regarding the Kaifeng Jewish community. 1605-1657 Menasseh ben Israel (Jewish scholar-mystic). 1612 The Hamburg Senate decides to officially allow Jews to live in the city on the condition there is no public worship. 1614 Vincent Fettmilch, who called himself the “new Haman of the Jews,” led a raid on a Frankfurt synagogue that turned into an attack which destroyed the whole community. 1615 King Louis XIII of France decreed that all Jews must leave the country within one month on pain of death. 1615 The Guild, led by Dr. Chemnitz, “non-violently” forced the Jews from Worms. 1616 The Bishop of Speyer, with the backing of Frederick’s troops, readmitted the Jews to Worms. February 28, 1616 Vincenz Fettmilch, the leader of a popular uprising targetting Jews in Frankfurt, Germany, is executed along with six of his companions. 1616 Holland’s Prince Maurice of Orange allowed each each city to decide for itself whether to admit Jews. In the towns where Jews were admitted, they would not be required to wear a badge of any sort identifying them as Jews. 1616 Jesuits arrives in Grodno, Poland and accused the Jews of blood orgies and host desecrations. 1618-1638 Thity Years War between Catholics and Protestants centers around Germany, Austria, France and the Netherlands. 1619 Shah Abbasi of the Persian Sufi Dynasty increased persecution against the Jews forcing many to outwardly practice Islam. (Many secretly practiced Judaism.). 1620 Christian Puritans begin emigrations to America. 1621 Sir Henry Finch, legal advisor to King James I, makes the first English call to restore the Jews to their homeland in his treatise The World’s Great Restoration or Calling of the Jews. 1621-1663 Well-known commentator of the Shulchan Aruch and author of several other works, Shabbetai Ben Meir Hacohen. 1622-1629 Persian Jews are forced to convert to Islam. 1623-1662 Blaise Pascal (scholar). 1625 The Jews of Vienna were forced to move into a ghetto called Leopoldstadt. 1625 Pope Urban VIII forbids Roman Jews to erect gravestones. 1626-1676 Shabbatai Zvi (Jewish “messianic” leader). 1630-1703 Financier and founder of the Viennese Jewish community, Samuel Oppenheimer. 1632 Miguel and Isabel Rodreguese and five others were burned alive in front of the King and Queen of Spain after being discovered holding Jewish rites. 1632-1677 Baruch/Benedict Spinoza (scholar, converted Jew). 1636 Rhode Island grants religious liberty to Jews. 1639 More than 80 New Christians (Jews who converted to Christianity) were burned at the stake after the Inquisition caught them holding regular Jewish services in Lima, Peru. 1641-1718 Shabbtai Ben Joseph the Bass, Author of Seftai Yesharim, the first bibliography of Hebrew books and biblical commentator. He also built a printing house in 1689, despite being jailed several times, accused of printing anti-Christian material. The printing house lasted more than 150 years. 1642 The first Jewish colony in the New World is established in Recife, Brazil. 1642 Chao Ying-Cheng helped rebuild the synagogue in Kai Fen after the Yellow River flooded the area. He also served in the goverrnment and helped build schools and squashed marauding bandits. 1648 Bogdan Chmelnitzki massacres 100,000 Jews in Poland. 1648 The Treaty of Westphalia brings victory to the Protestants. 1649 In the largest Auto de Fe ever held in the New World, 109 crypto-Jews were accused of Judaizing, several were burned alive. 1649 John Casimir, upon ascending the Polish throne, negotiates a truce with Cosack leader and murderer of thousands of Jews, Bogdan Chmelnitzki. 1654 Arrival of 23 Jews from Brazil in New Amsterdam (New York, America). 1655 Dutch West India Company allows Jewish settlers to reside permanently in New Amsterdam. 1655 Jews readmitted to England by Oliver Cromwell. 1657 The first Jews gain the rights of citizens in America. 1670 Jews expelled from Vienna.
1700-1760 Israel Baal Shem Tov (founder of Jewish Hasidism). 1700 Jewish population in America numbers approximately 250. 1703-1758 Jonathan Edwards (American Christian preacher). 1703-1791 and 1707-1788 John and Charles Wesley (Christian). 1712 First public Jewish synagogue in Berlin. 1724 Death of Samson Wertheimer 1730 Jews build first North American synagogue in Lower Manhattan, Shearith Israel. 1740 England grants naturalization rights to Jews in the colonies. ca. 1750 Wahhabi “fundamentalist” movement arises in Islam. 1753 Parliament extends naturalization rights to Jews resident in England. 1761 First English prayer book for High Holidays is published in New York. 1763 The Jews of Newport, Rhode Island, dedicate a Sephardic synagogue, designed by leading Rhode Islandarchitect Peter Harrison. July 17, 1764 Poland’s Parliament centralizes power and aboloshes the Council of the Four Lands, a semi-autonomous Jewish governing body. 1768-1828 “Father of Reform [Judaism],” Israel Jacobson. 1775 Pius VI issues Editto sopra gli ebrei, “Edict over the Hebrew,” suppressing the Jewish religion. 1775 Frances Salomon elected to South Carolina Provisional Congress; the first Jew to hold elected office in America. 1776 United States Declaration of Independence. 1775-1854 America merchant and philanthropist Judah Touro, funded first New Orleans synagogue. 1729-1786 Moses Mendelssohn (Jewish “enlightenment” scholar). 1762 Although usually considered more liberal than other states, Rhode Island refuses to grant Jews Aaron Lopez and Isaac Eliezer citizenship stating “no person who is not of the Christian religion can be admitted free to this colony.” 1765 Portugal holds the last public Auto de Fe “Act of Faith,” a ceremony where the Inquisition announces its punishments, usually a death sentence of burning at the stake. 1769-1821 Napoleon (France). 1775-1781 American Revolution; religious freedom guaranteed. 1781 Joseph II of Austria recinds the 513-year old law requiring Jews to wear distinctive badges. 1781 Haym Solomon, a Polish Jew who arrived in New York in 1772, helps raise funds to finance the American cause in the Revolutionary War. 1781-1869 American philanthropist Rebecca Gratz. 1782 Austrian Emperor Joseph II issued his edict of tolerance, allowing Jews to practice their religion freely. 1783 The Sultan of Morocco expells the Jews for the third time in recent years after they failed to pay an exorbitant ransom. 1785-1851 Zionist author, journalist and and diplomat, Mordechai Manuel Noah. 1788 Ratification of the U.S. Constitution means Jews may hold any federal office. 1789 French Revolution. 1784-1885 Leading Jewish philanthropist, Sir Moses Montefiore, createed numerous agricultural settlements in Eretz Israel. 1789 Gershom Mendes Seixas, minister of New York’s Jewish congregation, is invited to Washington’s inaugural. 1790 Jews of Newport, Rhode Island welcome President George Washington. George Washington writes letter to Jewish community proclaiming religious liberty. September 27, 1791 French Jews granted full citizenship for the first time since the Roman Empire. 1791 Tsarist Russia confines Jews to Pale of Settlement, between the Black and Baltic Seas. 1795 First American Ashkenazi synagogue, Rodeph Shalom, is established in Philadelphia. 1796 The Netherlands grants citizenship to Jews. 1798 Napoleon, battle of the Pyramids in Islamic Egypt. 1799 Napoleon’s army moves from Egypt, capturing Gaza and Haifa and gets as far north as Akko which is successfully defended by the British. 1801-1804 Muslim Wahhabis capture Mecca & Medina, raid Karbala. 1801 The first American Jewish orphan care society established in Charleston, South Carolina. 1804-1881 English Statesman Benjamin Disraeli. 1808 Polonies Talmud Torah, the first Jewish school on record in the United States established in New York. 1811-1884 “Brains of the Confederacy,” Judah P. Benjamin. March 11, 1812 Prussia’s Edict of Emancipation grants citizenship to Jews. 1812-1875 Moses Hess, author, socialist and Zionist. 1813 President Madison appoints Mordechai Noah as consul to Tunis and then rescinds the appointment when the Tunisians object to dealing with a Jew. 1814 King Ferdinand VII of Portugal reestablishes the Inquisition six years after it was abolished by Joseph Boneparte March 29, 1814 Denmark grants citizenship to Jews. 1818-1883 Although born a Jew, he converted to Protestantism and later became the father of Communism, Karl Marx. mid-19th century Rise of the Jewish Reform movement in Europe (Abraham Geiger.) 1819 Rebecca Gratz establishes the first independent Jewish women’s charitable society in Philadelphia. 1819-1900 Head of the American Reform movement and founder of Hebrew Union College and the Union of American Hebrew Congregations, Isaac Mayer Wise. 1820 (ended in 1834) A royal decree officially abolished the Spanish Inquisition. 1821-1891 Well-known physician and early Zionist, Leon Pinsker. 1823 The Monroe Doctrine closes the American continent to foreign colonization. 1823 The first American Jewish periodical, The Jew, published in New York. 1824 Society of Reformed Israelites is established in Charleston. 1825 Mordechai Emmanual Lassalle led a failed movement to colonize New York’s Grand Island for Jewish refugees. 1826 In the last known Auto Da Fe, in Valencia, Spain, a poor school master was executed for adhering to Judaism. 1827 Reinterpretation of Russia’s Conscription Law mandates 31 years of military service for Jews, beginning at age 12. 1830 French occupation of Muslim Algiers. 1830 German Jews begin to immigrate to America in substantial numbers. November 30, 1830 Greece grants citizenship to Jews. 1830-1903 Jewish Impressionist painter, whose works focused on the streets of Paris and landscapes, Camille Pissarro. 1831 Louis Philippe of France grants state support to synagogues. 1831 Belgium grants citizenship to Jews. 1831 Although Jews had been living in Jamaica since 1655, they are finally given the right to vote. 1831-1896 Banker and philanthropist, who donated millions of dollars to Jewish organizations and attempted to resettle Eastern European and Russian Jews by estabishing the Jewish Colonial Association (JCA), Baron De Hirsch. 1832 Canada grants Jews political rights. 1833 The first book by an American Jewish woman, Penina Moise’s Fancy’s Sketch Book, published in South Carolina. 1837 An earthquake in Tzfat and Tiberias kills four thousand people and damages monuments and archeological sites. 1837 First Passover Haggadah printed in America. 1838 Rebecca Gratz establishes Hebrew Sunday School in Philadelphia. 1840 Jews are accused of murdering a Franciscan friar in the Damascus blood libel. 1840 First organized movement by American Jewry to protest false accusations of blood libel in Damascus, Syria. 1840 The first Hebrew printing press in India is established. 1840s The use of the word “Jew” as a verb comes into popular parlance in North America. “To Jew” means to strike a bargain or employ questionable business practices, according to this prejudicial usage. 1841 David Levy Yulee of Florida elected to the United States Senate, the first Jew in Congress. 1843 B’nai B’rith is organized, the first secular Jewish organization in the United States. 1844 Lewis Charles Levin was the first Jew elected to the U.S. House of Representatives. 1845 Isaac Leeser publishes his translation of the Pentateuch from the Hebrew into English. 1845-1934 Zionist leader Baron Edmond James de Rothschild. 1847 London elects its first Jewish member of Parliament, Baron Lionel Nathan Rothschild. However, he cannot be seated as a member of Parliament because he will not swear the oath of office, which affirms Christianity as the true faith. 1847-1915 Author, scholar and leader of the American Conservative movement, Solomon Schechter. 1848 In every part of Germany, excluding Bavaria, Jews had been granted granted civil rights, allowing Gabriel Riesser, a Jewish advocate, to be elected vice-president of the Frankfurt Vor Parliament and to become a member of the National Assembly. The civil rights, however, existed on paper only and were not enforced. 1849-1887 American poet whose “New Colossus” was inscribed on the Statue of Liberty: Emma Lazerus. 1852 Mount Sinai, the first Jewish Hospital in the United States is founded by a group of mostly German Jewish immigrants. September 1, 1852 An anti-Jewish riot erupts in Stockholm, Sweden. 1852 The Ghetto of Prague is officially abolished. 1852-1870 Reign of Napoleon III of France. 1853 Isaac Leeser publishes his translation of the Bible into English, the first complete Anglo-Jewish translation of the Pentateuch. 1855 First acknowledged non-Muslim visitor permitted to enter Temple Mount since 1187 CE. 1856 Sabato Morais, rabbi of Congregation Mikveh Israel in Philadelphia, denounces the evils of American slavery from his pulpit. 1858 Edgar Mortara, an Italian Jewish child, is abducted by Papal Guards and placed in a monastery. 1859-1916 “Yiddish Mark Twain,” famed novelist, Shalom Alechem Rabinowitz. 1859-1941 (Reign 1888-1918) Kaiser William II of Germany. 1860 First neighborhood, Mishkenot Sha’ananim, built outside Jerusalem’s walls. 1860 Frenchman Adolohe Cremieux launches the Alliance Israelite Universelle to defend Jewish rights and establish worldwide Jewish educational facilities. 1860-1904 Father of Zionism, Theodore Herzl. 1860-1911 Major modern Jewish composer of nine symphonies, Gustav Mahler. 1860-1945 Henrietta Szold, founder of Hadassah, the Amerian Woman’s Zionist Organization. 1860 Morris Raphall is the first rabbi to offer prayers at the opening session of Congress. 1861 Norway allows Jews to enter the country. 1861 Judah Benjamin becomes attorney general of the Confederacy, the first Jew to hold a cabinet-level office in any American government. 1861-1865 1,200 Jews fought for the Confederacy and 6,000 for the Union, including nine generals and 21 colonels in the American Civil War. 1861-1936 Essayist and publicist who headed the Jewish and Zionist Organization during the 1930s, was editor of He-Tsefriah and published a history of Zionism, Nahum Sokolow. 1862 Moses Hess writes Rome and Jerusalem. 1862 General Ulysses S. Grant expels Jewish civilians issues General Order No. 11 expelling the Jews “as a class” from the area under the jurisdiction of the Union army in his military department. 1862 Jacob Frankel is appointed first Jewish chaplain in the United States Army. 1864 Leon Pinsker writes Autoemancipation and argues for creation of a Jewish state. 1866 Jews become a majority in Jerusalem. 1866 Switzerland, a hotbed of anti-Jewish edicts grants Jews equal rights only after threats by the United States, France and Britain. 1867 First rabbinical school in America, Maimonides College, is founded in Philadelphia. 1867 The original Ku Klux Klan is organized to maintain “white supremacy”. 1867 Hungary passes legislation emancipating the Jews. 1867 German journalist Wilhelm Marr publishes a popular book, The Victory of Judaism over Germanism. He coins the word “antisemitism” so that Judenhass, or Jew-hatred, can be discussed in polite society. 1868 Benjamin Disraeli becomes prime minister of Great Britain — and the first prime minister of Jewish descent in Europe. 1869 Suez Canal opens. 1869 Italy grants emancipation to Jews. 1870 Sweden grants citizenship to Jews. 1870 Ghettos abolished in Italy. 1870 The Edict of Pope Nicholas III which required compulsory attendance of Jews at conversion sermons since 1278 is abolished. 1871 First Yiddish and Hebrew newspaper in America is published. 1871 The the first American kosher cookbook, Jewish Cookery Book, by Esther Jacobs Levy is published. 1871 Great Britain grants full emancipation to Jews. January 12, 1871 A new German constitution gives German Jews full legal equality. 1873 Reform Judaism in U.S. establishes Union of American Hebrew Congregations. 1873-1934 Poet laureate of the Jewish national movement, authored “In City of Slaughter,” “El Ha Tsippor-To the Bird” and “Metai Midbar-Dead of the Desert, Hayim Nahman Bialik. 1873-1956 Leading theologian of the Reform movement, refused to escape Nazi Germany and spent five years in Terezin (Theresienstadt) concentration camp, Leo Baeck. 1874 Jews in Switzerland receive full rights of citizenship under the new constitution. 1874-1926 Eric Weiss, better known as Harry Houdini, the master escape artist, was born into an orthodox home. 19th-20th centuries Young Men’s Hebrew Associations in New York and Philadelphia become prototypes for the more than 120 YMHAs established throughout the US in the next 15 years. In the 20th century, many of these evolve into Jewish Community Centers. 1874-1952 Statesman and scientist Chaim Weizmann. 1875 Isaac Mayer Wise founds Hebrew Union College, the rabbinical seminary of the Reform movement, in Cincinnati. 1877 New Hampshire becomes the last state to offer Jews political equality. 1878 Petah Tikvah (Gate of Hope) founded as agricultural colony by orthodox Jews. Although it was abandoned in 1881 after Arab attacks, it was reestablished in 1883 after the First Aliyah. 1878 The antisemitic German Christian Social Party is founded by Adolf Stoecker, a court chaplain. The party demands that Jews convert to Christianity. December 22, 1878 Birthdate of Myer Prinstein, a world-record setting, Olympic gold medal winning Jew from Poland. 1879-1955 Zionist, physicist, Nobel Prize winner and discoverer of the special and general theory of relativity Albert Einstein. March 28, 1880 Birthdate of Jewish actor Louis Wolheim. May 1, 1880 Albert Lasker, the “father of modern advertising,” is born in Freiburg, Prussia. 1880-1920 Zionist leader Joseph Trumpeldor. 1880-1939 Zionist leader, founder of the New Zionist Organization, Haganah, Jewish Legion, Irgun, Betar, Revisionist Party, Vladimir Jabotinsky. 1881 Ottoman government announces permission for foreign (non-Ottoman) Jews to settle throughout Ottoman Empire. 1881 Start of mass migrations of eastern European Jews. 1881 French occupation of Muslim Tunisia. 1881 Samuel Gompers founds the Federation of Unions, the forerunner of the American Federation of Labor. 1881 May Laws restricting the movements and conduct of Jews are enacted in Russia. 1881 The word “pogrom” enters the English language, as Russian mobs begin a series of violent attacks against Jews and their property. 1882 British occupation of Muslim Egypt. 1882 First halutz (pioneering) movement, Bilu, founded in Kharkov Russia. 1882 Ottoman government adopts policy to allow Jewish pilgrims and business-people to visit Palestine, but not settle. 1882 Hibbat Tzion societies founded. November 15, 1882 Associate Supreme Court Justice Felix Frankfurter is born. 1884 First Conference of Hovevei Zion Movement. 1884 Ottoman government closes Palestine to foreign (non-Ottoman) Jewish business, but not to Jewish pilgrims. 1885 Reform Jewish Pittsburgh Platform. 1885-1962 Scientist who developed the theory on the nature of the atom, rescued from Nazi Germany, Neils Bohr. 1885 Sir Nathaniel Meyer Rothschild becomes the first Jew in England’s in the House of Lords. The Christian oath was amended so that non-Christians could also serve in the House of Lords. 1886-1929 Philosopher, author, helped create the Free Jewish House of Study in Frankfurt, Franz Rosenweig. 1886 Etz Chaim, the first yeshiva for Talmudic studies in the United States, established in New York. 1886-1973 Statesman David Ben-Gurion. March 24, 1887 Oscar Straus is named the U.S. Minister to the Ottoman Empire, the second Jew in U.S. history to reach a position of that caliber. 1887 Jewish Theological Seminary opens in New York and, later, becomes the intellectual center of the Conservativemovement. 1887-1990 Famous artist Marc Chagall. 1888 Jewish Publication Society of America is founded to publish English books of Jewish interest. 1888 European powers press Ottoman government to allow foreign (non-Ottoman) Jews to settle in Palestine provided they do not do so en masse. 1888-1970 Hebrew novelist and Nobel prize winner, Samuel Joseph Agnon. 1889 The Educational Alliance founded on the Lower East Side to assist Eastern European immigrants. April 20, 1889 Adolf Hitler is born in Braunau am Inn, Austria. October 2, 1890 Jewish comedian Groucho Marx is born. Along with his brothers he formed the group “the Marx Brothers”, and performed in vaudeville stage acts. The brothers were also pioneers of modern cinema and television. February 10, 1890 Boris Pasternak, the man who would win the Nobel Prize in literature for his novel Dr. Zhivago, is born. . 1891 Grand Duke Segai orders the expulsion of 14,00 Jewish families living in Moscow. Those who refuse to convert or become prostitutes are sent to the Pale of Settlement. 1891 Christian Zionist William E. Blackstone and 413 prominent Americans petition President Benjamin Harrison to support resettlement of Russian Jews in Palestine. 1891 Baron de Hirsh donates 2 million pounds and establishes the Jewish Colonial Association in order to resettle 3 million Russian Jews in agricultural areas in other countries. 1892 Workmen’s Circle established to promote Yiddishist and socialist ideas among the masses of Jewish laborers. 1892 American Jewish Historical Society established. 1892 Ottoman government forbids sale of state land to foreign (non-Ottoman) Jews in Palestine. 1893 National Council of Jewish Women founded in Chicago. 1893 Kosher ritual slaughter banned in Switzerland. 1894 French general staff officer Alfred Dreyfus is sentenced to life on Devil’s Island in the Dreyfus Affair. 1894 Sholem Aleichem begins writing the first episode of the life of Tevye the Dairyman. 1894-1917 Last Russian Czar, commissioned what became the anti-Semitic “Protocols of the Elders of Zion,” Nicholas II. 1894-1943 Artist known for his passionate and often disturbing use of color and form, Chaim Soutine (Smiliouchi). 1895 Lillian Wald founds Henry Street Settlement. 1896 Theodor Herzl publishes Der Judenstaat, The Jewish State (Zionism): . August 29, 1897 First Jewish Zionist congress convened by Theodor Herzl in Basle, Switzerland, Zionist Organization Founded. 1897 Yiddish Socialist Labor party (the Bund) is founded in Russia. 1897 Abraham Cahan founds leading Yiddish newspaper, Jewish Daily Forward in New York. 1897 The Rabbi Isaac Elchanan Theological Seminary (RIETS), later part of Yeshiva University, begins training Orthodox rabbis. February 23, 1898 Emile Zola is convicted of libel for defending Dreyfus. 1898 Eastern European immigrants organize a Union of Orthodox Congregations, whose viewpoint clashes with that of the Reform movement’s Union of American Hebrew Congregations (UAHC). 1898-1936 Perhaps the greatest composer of the 20th century, whose works include “Rhapsody in Blue,” George Gershwin. 1898-1978 Fourth Prime Minister of Israel, Golda Meir. 1898 Acting on behalf of Col. Dreyfus, Emile Zola publishes J’Accuse. 1898 A section of the Old City Wall is removed to facilitate the entrance of Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany and his entourage on his visit to Jerusalem. 1899-1902 The term “concentration camp” is coined by the British during the Boer War to denote holding areas for potentially threatening Afrikaners (descendents of Dutch who immigrated to South Africa in the mid-1800s). 1899 Emile Zola wins a new trial for Alfred Dreyfus, and despite new charges, Dreyfus is aquitted and promoted to Major. 1899 Theodor Herzl establishes the Jewish Colonial Trust, the financial arm of the Zionist movement. 1900-1990 American composer and conductor best known for “Appalachian Spring,” “Billy the Kid” and “Rodeo,” Aaron Copland. early 20th century Founding of the Modern Jewish Orthodox movement. 1901 The Industrial Removal Office, organized by several Jewish organizations, relocate Jewish immigrants from the Lower East Side to communities across the United States. 1901 The Fifth Zionist Congress decides to establish Keren Kayemet LeIsrael (KKL) – The Jewish National Fund. 1902 Theodor Herzl publishes a romantic utopian novel, Altneuland, Old-New Land, a vision of the Jewish State. 1902 Russian Jews organize U.S.-based Hebrew Immigrant Aid Society to serve as counselors, interpreters, attorneys, etc. 1902-1979 Composer and partner of Oscar Hammerstein II (1895-1960), known for “Oklahoma!” and” South Pacific,” Richard Rogers. 1902 Solomon Schechter comes from England to America to head the Jewish Theological Seminary of America, Conservative Judaism’s rabbinical seminary. 1903 British Government proposes “Uganda Scheme,” rejected by the Sixth Zionist Congress. 1903 Kishinev massacre increases Jewish exodus from Russia. 1903 Oscar Straus is appointed Secretary of Commerce and Labor by President Roosevelt, the first Jew to serve in the U.S. Cabinet. August 26, 1903 Herzl proposes Kenya as a safe haven for Jews. 1903-1907 500,000 Jews flee Russia, 90% go to the United States. 1904-1914 Second Aliyah, mainly from Russia and Poland. 1905 Gimnazia Herzilia, the first Hebrew high school, opens in Tel Aviv. 1905 Zionist Labor Party (Poale Zion) formed in Minsk in an effort to combine Zionism and Socialism. 1906 American Jewish Committee is founded to safeguard Jewish rights internationally. early 20th century Sholem Aleichem comes to New York from Russia to write for the American Yiddish theater. The musical Fiddler on the Roof is based on his story Tevye’s Daughters. 1906 First Hebrew high school founded in Jaffa and Bezalel school founded in Jerusalem. 1907 Physicist Albert A. Michelson is first American Jew to win Nobel Prize. 1907 Adolf Hitler is rejected for study at the Vienna Academy of Art. 1908 Discovery of oil in Persia; leads to Anglo-Persian (later British Petroleum). 1908 Revolution by “young Turks” depose Sultan Abdul Hamid the Damned under Ottoman. 1908 Turkey grants Jews political rights. 1908 Hijaz Railway from Damascus to Medina. 1909 Julius Rosenwald, American merchant and philanthropist, converts Sears, Roebuck and Co. into the largest mail-order house in the world. 1908-1914 Second Yemenite Aliyah. 1909 First kibbutz, Degania, founded. 1909 Founding of Tel Aviv as Hebrew speaking Jewish city. 1909 Hashomer, the first Jewish self-defense organization is founded to replace Arab guards protecting Jewish settlements. 1911-1913 Russian neurologist Sikowsy testifies thet Jews use Christian blood for ritual purposes in the Beilis Trial (Russia). 1911-1986 Hall of Fame baseball player Hank Greenberg. 1911 A tragic fire in the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory in New York’s Lower East Side kills 146 women, mostly Jews. 1911 Palestinan journalist Najib Nasser publishes first book in Arabic on Zionism entitled, “Zionism: Its History, Objectives and Importance.” Palestinian newspaper Filastin begins addressing its readers as “Palestinians” and warns them about Zionism. 1913 In Russia, Menahem Mendel Beilis, a Jew, is put on trial for the ritual murder of a Christian boy. After two years followed by a “show trial,” Beilis is acquitted. 1912 United States abrogates treaty of 1832 with Russia because of Russia’s refusal to honor passports of Jewish Americans. 1912 Henrietta Szold founds Hadassah, the Women’s Zionist Organization. 1912 Haifa’s Technion is founded. 1912 Agudah (Agudat Israel) formed as the World Organization of Orthodox Jewry at Katowitz. 1912 12 of the 100 members of the Reichstag (German parliament) are Jewish. 1913 Trial of Leo Frank in Atlanta leads to the founding of the Anti-Defamation League of B’nai B’rith. 1913 Solomon Schechter, president of the Jewish Theological Seminary, founds the United Synagogue of America (later the United Synagogue of Conservative Judaism). 1913 First Arab Nationalist Congress meets in Paris. 1913-1993 Commander of the Etzel, statesman and Israeli prime minister, Menachem Begin. 1914 Joint Distribution Committee of American Funds for the Relief of Jewish War Sufferers is established. 1914-1919 World War I. 1914 Austrian Archduke Francis Ferdinand assassinated in Sarajevo prompting World War One. 1914 During First World War, Russian forces in retreat drive 600,000 Jews from their homes. 1914 American Jewish Relief Committee established to distribute funds to needy Jews; it later combined with other Jewish relief organizations to become the Joint Distribution Committee. 1914 The Ottoman empire enters the war on the side of Germany. 1915 Moses Alexander elected Governor of Idaho – the first Jew to win the governorship of an American state. 1915 MacMahon-Hussein correspondence. 1915 Zion Mule Corps established by Yosef Trumpeldor in British army. 1915 Avshalom Feinburg and Aaron Aaronsohn form NILI (Netzah Israel Lo Yeshaker), recruited to spy on the Turks for the British. 1915 The Anti-Defamation League (ADL) is created in the wake of the Leo Frank Affair. 1915-1981 Moshe Dayan, Haganah fighter, Israeli minister of Defense. 1915 Leo Frank, a southern American Jew falsely convicted of murdering a 14 year-old girl is hung by a lynch mob. October 30, 1915 Jewish television news pioneer Ferdinand “Fred” Friendly Wachenheimer is born. 1915-2005 Arthur Miller, American playwright whose works include, “Death of a Salesman,” The Crucible” and “A View From the Bridge.” . January 28, 1916 Louis D. Brandeis is nominated to the Supreme Court by Woodrow Wilson. At the time of his nomination, the Senate had never before held a public hearing on a President’s Supreme Court Nominee; they had all been confirmed on the day of their nomination. However, it took four months of Senate Judiciary Committee hearings until the Senate brought the nomination of Brandeis to a vote. Brandeis was confirmed as the first Jewish Supreme Court Justice in a Senate vote of 47 – 22 on June 1, 1916. 1916 Sykes-Picot Agreement divides Middle East into spheres of British and French influence. 1916 Start of Arab revolt against Ottoman Turkish rule. 1916 Louis Dembitz Brandeis is first Jew appointed to the Supreme Court. 1916 Germany accuses Jews of evading active service in WWI, despite 100,000 Jews serving, 12% higher than their population ratio. 1917 British capture Baghdad. 1917 Jewish Telegraphic Agency is founded. 1917 Four-hundred years of Ottoman rule ended by British conquest. 1917 The Balfour Declaration favors Jewish Palestinian State. 1917 As WWI comes closer to Tel-Aviv and Jaffa, the Turkish Governer of Jaffa orders all Jews to leave Tel-Aviv and Jaffa. 1917 Jews granted full rights in Russia. 1917 Russian Revolution breaks out, heavy fighting in the South and West, where over 3 million Jews live. Over 2000 pogroms took place, claiming the lives of up to 200,000 Jews in the next three years. 1917 The United States declared war on Germany. Appoximately 250,000 Jewish soldiers (20% of whom were volunteers) served in the U.S. Army, roughy 5.7% while Jews only made up 3.25% of the general American population. 1917 The Jewish Welfare Board is created and serves the social and religious requirements of Jewish soldiers; expands after the war. 1917 355,000 people chose representatives for the first American Jewish Congress. 1917 Over 2,700 men volunteer for the new Jewish Legion of the British Army which fought in Transjordan, among other places. 1917 Vladamir Ilyich Lenin and Leon Trotsky ousted Kerensky and took over the Russian government. 1917 Surrender of Ottoman forces in Jerusalem to Allied Forces under General Sir Edmund Allenby. 1917 British forces land on the beaches of Gaza during WW1.
1916 Sykes-Picot Agreement divides Middle East into spheres of British and French influence. 1916 Start of Arab revolt against Ottoman Turkish rule. 1917 British capture Baghdad. 1917 Jewish Telegraphic Agency is founded. 1917 Four-hundred years of Ottoman rule ended by British conquest. 1917 The Balfour Declaration favors Jewish Palestinian State. 1917 As WWI comes closer to Tel-Aviv and Jaffa, the Turkish Governer of Jaffa orders all Jews to leave Tel-Aviv and Jaffa. 1917 Jews granted full rights in Russia. 1917 Russian Revolution breaks out, heavy fighting in the South and West, where over 3 million Jews live. Over 2000 pogroms took place, claiming the lives of up to 200,000 Jews in the next three years. 1917 The United States declared war on Germany. Appoximately 250,000 Jewish soldiers (20% of whom were volunteers) served in the U.S. Army, roughy 5.7% while Jews only made up 3.25% of the general American population. 1917 The Jewish Welfare Board is created and serves the social and religious requirements of Jewish soldiers; expands after the war. 1917 355,000 people chose representatives for the first American Jewish Congress. 1917 Over 2,700 men volunteer for the new Jewish Legion of the British Army which fought in Transjordan, among other places. 1917 Vladamir Ilyich Lenin and Leon Trotsky ousted Kerensky and took over the Russian government. 1917 British General Allenby captured Jerusalem from the Turks, ending Ottoman rule. 1918 Damascus taken by T.E. Lawrence and Arabs.
.. ….. .
1918 Treaty of Versailles formally ends Word War I. Out of an estimated 1.5 million Jewish soldiers in all the armies, approximately 170,000 were killed and over 100,000 cited for valor. 1918 Damascus taken by T.E. Lawrence and Arabs. 1918 American Jewish Congress is founded. Nov. 1918 Germany’s Kaiser Wilhelm abdicates. 1918 Nahum Zemach founds the Moscow-based Habimah Theater which receives acclaim for “The Dybbuk.” Jan. 5, 1919 The German Workers’ Party (DAP) is founded in Munich; Adolf Hitler joins the Party nine months later. April 5, 1919 35 Jews participating in a community meeting to discuss relief distribution from the United States were rounded up and massacred, suspected of being “Bolshevik plotters.” They were executed without question, or trial. July 31, 1919 Holocaust surviror and author Primo Levi is born in Turin, Italy. 1919 Jewish educational summer camping is launched in the United States with what came to be known as the Cejwin Camps. 1919 Versailles Peace Conference decides that the conquered Arab provinces will not be restored to Ottoman rule. 1919 First Palestinian National Congress meeting in Jerusalem sends two memoranda to Versailles rejecting Balfour Declaration and demanding independence. 1919-1923 Romania grants citizenship to Jews. 1919 Egyptian revolution. 1919 1919-1923 1919 1919-1943 1919 League of Nations established in an effort to prevent further wars. 1920 1920 Vaad Leumi (National Council) set up by Jewish community (yishuv)to conduct its affairs. 1920 Keren Hayesod created for education, absorbtion and the development of rural settlements in Eretz-Israel. 1920 1920 Fall of Tel Hai to Arab attackers; Joseph Trumpeldor and five men under his command killed. 1920 Mandate for the Land of Israel given over to Britain on the condition that the Balfour Declaration be implemented, San Remo Conference. 1920 Sir Herbert Samuel, British statesman, appointed High Commissioner of Palestine. 1920 Feb. 24, 1920 The first mass meeting of the National Socialist Party (NSDAP) takes place at Munich’s Hofbräuhaus. April 1, 1920 Adolf Hitler is honorably discharged from the German Army. 1920 1920 Second and third Palestinan National Congress’ held. 1921 The Times of London pronounces the PProtocols of the Elders of Zion a forgery. 1921 U.S. immigration laws “reformed” to effectively exclude Eastern European Jews and other immigrants. Further restrictions imposed in 1924. 1921 1921 The Allied Reparations Committee assesses German liability for World War I at 132 billion gold marks (about $31 billion). 1921 1921 1921 Völkischer Beobachter (People’s Observer), the official National Socialist newspaper, begins publication. July 29, 1921 1921 Kingdom of Iraq established. 1921 First moshav, Nahalal, founded in the Jezreel Valley. 1921 Rabbi Abraham Isaac Kook and Rabbi Ya’akov Meir are elected the first two cheif Rabbis of Eretz-Israel. 1921-1944 Famous Hungarian Jewish poet and paratrooper who fought in WWII, Hannah Szenes (Senesh). 1922 Britain granted Mandate for Palestine (Land of Israel) by League of Nations. 1922 Transjordan set up on three-fourths of the British mandate area, forbidding Jewish immigration, leaving one-fourth for the Jewish national home. 1922 Jewish Agency representing Jewish community vis-à-vis Mandate authorities set up. 1922 1922 The United States Congress and President Harding approve the Balfour Declaration. 1922 Supreme Muslim Council created under the jurisdiction of the British government to centralize religious affairs and institutions, but is corrupted by the overzealous Husseini family who used it as an anti-Jewish platform. 1922 Lenin creates the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. 1922 1922 Harvard’s president proposes a quota on the number of Jews admitted. After a contentious debate, he withdrew the recommendation. 1922 League of Nations Council approves Mandate for Palestine. 1922 First British census of Palestine shows total population 757,182 (11% Jewish). 1922 Fifth Palestinian National Congress in Nablus, agrees to economic boycott of Zionists. 1922 Jungsturm Adolf Hitler (Adolf Hitler Boys Storm Troop) and Stosstrupp Adolf Hitler (Shock Troop Adolf Hitler) are established. The latter will form the nucleus of the Schutzstaffel (SS). June 24, 1922 Walther Rathenau, Jewish foreign minister of Germany, is assassinated by members of Organisation Consul, a clandestine, right-wing political organization led by Captain Hermann Ehrhardt. September 8, 1922 Jewish entertainer Sid Caeser is born. Jan.1923 March 1923 1923 Palestine constitution suspended by British because of Arab refusal to cooperate. 1923 Overthrow of Ottoman Muslim rule by “young Turks” (Kemal Ataturk) and establishment of secular state. 1923 Sixth Palestinian national Congress held in Jaffa. 1923 The first issue of the pro-Nazi, antisemitic newspaper Der Stürmer (The Attacker) is published in Nuremberg, Germany. Its slogan is “Die Juden sind unser Unglück” (“The Jews are our misfortune”), a phrase picked up from Heinrich von Treitschke. Nov. 8-11, 1923 Hitler’s so-called “Beer Hall Putsch” takeover attempt at Munich fails, temporarily rattling the National Socialist Party and leading to Hitler’s arrest in Bavaria, Germany. 1923 1924-1932 1924 Benjamin Frankel starts Hillel Foundation. The first Hillel House opens at the University of Illinois, offers religious and social services. 1924 Caliphate officially abolished. February 29, 1924 Jewish MLB star Al Rosen is born. March 8, 1924 Jewish sculptor Anthony Caro is born in England. May 11, 1924 May 14, 1924 Ultra-Orthodox Jews found an agricultural settlement between Ramat Gan and Petah Tikva: Bnei- Brak. 1924 The United States Congress passes the Immigration Restriction Act, which effectively bans immigration to the U.S. from Asia and Eastern Europe. July 1924 While in prison, Hitler begins work on Mein Kampf. September 16, 1924 Birthdate of Lauren Bacall. 1925-1979 Pahlevi dynasty in Persia (“Iran”: 1935). 1925 1925 1925 Edna Ferber is the first American Jew to win Pulitzer Prize in fiction. 1925 Palestinian National Congress meets in Jaffa. March 24, 1925 Publication of the pro-Nazi, anti-Semitic newspaper Der Stürmer resumes after being banned by the Weimar government in November 1923. April 26, 1925 Paul von Hindenburg is elected president of Germany. 1926 France proclaims Republic of Lebanon. October 6, 1927 Warner Brothers releases The Jazz Singer, about a cantor’s son who follows his dreams to Broadway against his father’s wishes. This was the first “talking” movie ever made, and it is also famous for it’s accurate portrayal of Jewish home life. 1928 Britain recognizes independence of Transjordan. 1928 Seventh Palestinian National Congress convened in Jerusalem; established a new forty-eight member executive committee. 1928 Yeshiva College is dedicated in New York. February 11, 1928 October 8, 1928 Jewish actor, producer, and director Larry Semon supposedly dies, but many believe he faked his own death to avoid creditors. 1929 1929 Hebron Jews massacred by Arab militants. 1929-1945 Anne Frank, Holocaust victim whose diary, written during the Nazi Occupation became famous. 1929-1939 Fifth Aliyah, from Germany. 1930 1930 Lord Passfield issues his White Paper banning further land acquisition by Jews and slowing Jewish immigration. 1930 Salo Wittmayer Baron joins the faculty of Columbia University, his is the first chair in Jewish history at a secular university in the United States. 1931 Etzel (the Irgun), Jewish underground organization, founded. 1930 Second British census of Palestine shows total population of 1,035,154 (16.9% Jewish). 1931 The Nahum Zemach-founded Moscow-based Habimah Theater which received acclaim for “The Dybbuk” moves to Eretz-Israel. 1932 ‘Abd al-Aziz Al Saud proclaims the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. 1932 British Mandate over Iraq terminated, Iraq gains independence. 1932 Discovery of oil in Bahrain. 1932 Herbert Lehman was elected New York’s first Jewish governor; from that time on, Jews formed a pact with the Democratic Party. 1932 First Maccabia athletic games take place with representatives from 14 countries. 1932 German Chancellor von Papen persuaded President von Hindenburg to offer Hitler the chancellorship. 1932 Formation of Istiqlal Party as first constituted Palestinian-Arab political party; Awni Abdul-Hadi elected president. April 21, 1933 Nazis outlaw Kosher slaughter of animals. 1933 Concession agreement signed between Saudi government and Standard Oil of California (SOCAL). Prospecting begins. SOCAL assigns concession to California Arabian Standard Oil Co. (CASOC). 1933 The American Jewish Congress declares a boycott on German goods to protest the Nazi persecution of Jews. 1933 Assassination of Chaim Arlozorov. 1933 Adolf Hitler becomes Chancellor of Germany. 1933 Germany begins anti-Jewish boycott. July 20, 1933 Cardinal Pacelli, who later became Pope Pius XII, signed the Hitler Concordat; whereby the Vatican accepted National Socialism. 1933 Albert Einstein, upon visiting the United States, learns that Hitler had been elected and decided not to return to Germany, takes up position at Princeton. 1933 Riots in Jaffa and Jerusalem to protest British “pro-Zionist” policies. 1934 In Afghanistan, two thousand Jews are expelled from towns and forced to live in the wilderness. 1934 American Jews cheer Detroit Tigers’ Hank Greenberg when he refuses to play ball on Yom Kippur. In 1938, with five games left to the season, Greenberg’s 58 home runs are two shy of Babe Ruth’s record. When several pitchers walk him rather than giving him a shot at the record, many believe major league baseball did not want a Jew to claim that place in America’s national sport. 1935 Jewish rights in Germany rescinded by Nuremberg laws. 1935 Hakibbutz Hadati, the religious kibbutz movement is founded. 1935 Regina Jonas was ordained by Liberal (Reform) Rabbi Max Dienemann in Germany, becoming the first woman rabbi. 1935 Ze’ev Jabotinsky founds the New Zionist Organization. 1935 1936-1939 Anti-Jewish riots instigated by Arab militants. 1936 Supported by the Axis powers, the Arab Higher Committee encourages raids on Jewish communities in Eretz-Israel. 1936 Texaco buys 50% interest in California Arabian Standard Oil Co.’s concession. 1936 Leon Blum becomes the first Jew elected premier of France, enacts many social reforms. 1936 The first of the Tower and Stockade Settlements (Tel Amel) Nir David is erected. 1936 Syria ratifies the Franco-Syrian treaty; France grants Syria and Lebanon independence. 1936 World Jewish Congress convened in Geneva. 1936 Peel Commission investigated Arab riots, concluded Arab claims were “baseless”. March 9, 1936 The Przytyk Pogrom, in which 3 Jews were killed and 60 wounded. October 4, 1936 The “Battle of Cable street” takes place in London. 1937 Reform Jewish Columbus Platform. 1937 1937 The Peel Commission recommends the partition of Palestine between Jews and Arabs. 1937 Chaim Weizmann and David Ben-Gurion accept partition plan, despite fierce opposition at the 20th Zionist Congress. 1937 John Woodhead declares partition unworkable after Arab riots. 1937 Central conference of American Rabbis reaffirm basic reform philosophies in the Colombus Platform. 1938 Dammam Well No. 7 discovers commercial quantities of oil. Barge exports to Bahrain. 1938 Oil discovered in Kuwait. Nov. 9, 1938 Kristallnacht — German Jewish synagogues burned down. 1938 Charles E. Coughlin, a Roman Catholic priest, launches media campaign in America against Jews. 1938 Sept. 29, 1938 Chamberlain declares “peace in our time” after allowing Hitler to annex the Sudetenland in the Munich Agreement. 1938 Catholic churches ring bells and fly Nazi flags to welcom Hitler’s troops in Austria. 1938 Hershel Grynszpan, 17, a German refugee, assassinates Ernst von Rath, the third secretary to the German embassy in Paris. 1938 More than 100,000 Jews march in an anti-Hitler parade in New York’s Madison Square Garden. 1939 First tanker-load of oil is exported aboard D.G. Scofield. 1939 President Roosevelt appoints Zionist and Jewish activist Felix Frankfurter to the Supreme Court. 1939 Jewish immigration severely limited by British White Paper. 1939 S.S. St. Louis, carrying 907 Jewish refugees from Germany, is turned back by Cuba and the United States. September 1, 1939 BBC News reports Germany has invaded Poland. September 3, 1939 British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain announces that Britain is at war with Germany. 1939 Jewish songwriter Irving Berlin introduces his song “God Bless America.” He also wrote “White Christmas”. October 14, 1939 Jewish fashion CEO and icon Ralph Lauren is born. 1940 Nazis establish ghettos in Poland. 1940 British government authorizes the Jewish Agency to recruit 10,000 Jews to form Jewish units in the British army. 1940 British refuse illegal immigrant ship, the Patria, permission to dock in Palestine. 1940 Chabad-Lubavitch purchases their iconic headquarters in New York City June 14, 1940 The first train of prisoners arrives at Auschwitz-Birkenau. Only 20 people of these initial 700+ were Jewish. September 24, 1940 The blatantly anti-Semitic Nazi propaganda film “Jud Suss” premieres in Berlin 1941 British and France guarantee Syrian independence. 1941 Lohamei Herut Yisrael (Lehi) or Stern Gang underground movement formed. February 25, 1941 May 15, 1941 May 20, 1941 Jewish commando David Raziel is killed by a German bomber while on a mission for the British in Iraq. September 29, 1941 March 2, 1942 Jewish rock musician Lou Reed is born. 1942 Rabbi Stephen S. Wise publicizes Riegner report confirming mass murder of European Jews. 1942 1942 1943 Warsaw Ghetto Uprising. 1943 Palmach parachutes into enemy lines in Europe. 1943 British deport illegal immigrants to Cyprus. 1943 Raphael Lemkin, an international lawyer who escaped from Poland to the U.S. in 1941, coins the term genocide to describe the Nazi extermination of European Jews. 1943 Zionist Biltmore Conference, held at Biltmore Hotel in New York, formulates new policy of creating a “Jewish Commonwealth” in Palestine and organizing a Jewish army. October 6, 1943 Two days before Yom Kippur 1943, over 400 Orthodox Rabbis marched from Union Station to the Capital Building and White House in Washington D.C., calling for elected officials to increase the quota of Jewish refugees from Europe allowed in the U.S. The Rabbis also demanded the creation of a special federal agency tasked with the rescue of European Jewry. November 18, 1943 The chief of the BBC orders his employees to downplay the attrocities of the Holocaust, warning them not to broadcast or publish anything that might try to “correct” anti-Semitic sentiments throughout Europe. January 13, 1944 U.S. Treasury Dept. memo rebukes State Dept. for relative inaction regarding Jewish refugees. 1944 CASOC renamed Arabian American Oil Co.(Aramco). 1944 Jewish Brigade formed as part of British forces. 1944 FDR establishes War Refugee Board. For most victims of Nazism, it comes too late. 1944 Camp for Jewish war refugees is opened at Oswego, New York. July 26, 1944 Russians arrive in the Lwow Ghetto, ridding the city of it’s German occupiers, only to find the Jewish population liquidated. November 1, 1944 Jewish singer/songwriter Richard “Kinky” Friedman is born. 1939/1942-1945 1945 International tribunal for war crimes is established at Nuremberg. 1945 Bess Myerson becomes the first Jewish woman to win the Miss America Pageant. 1945 Covenant of League of Arab States, emphasizing Arab character of Palestine, signed in Cairo by Egypt, Iraq, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Transjordan, and Yemen. 1945 United Nations established. 1945 President Truman asks Britain to allow 100,000 Jews into Palestine. 1945 Arab League Council decides to boycott goods produced by Zionist firms in Palestine. March 22, 1945 Two convicted members of the Stern Gang hanged for Murder of Lord Moyne in Cairo prison. November 3, 1945 Winningest Jewish MLB player in history, Ken Holtzman, is born. January 19, 1946 Member of Jewish underground destroyed a power station and a portion of the Central Jerusalem prison by explosives. Two persons were killed by the police.. January 20, 1946 Jewish underground members launched an attack against the British-controlled Givat Olga Coast Guard Station located between Tel Aviv and Haifa. Ten persons were injured and one was killed. Captured papers indicated that the purpose of this raid was to take revenge on the British for their seizure of the refugee ship on January 18. British military authorities in Jerusalem questioned 3,000 Jews and held 148 in custody.. April 25, 1946 Jewish underground attacked a British military installation near Tel Aviv. This group which contained a number of young girls, had as its goal the capture of British weapons. British authorities rounded up 1,200 suspects.. June 24, 1946 June 27, 1946 Thirty Irgun members are sentenced by a British military court to 15 years in prison. One, Benjamin Kaplan, was sentenced to life for carrying a firearm.. June 29, 1946 British military units and police raided Jewish settlements throughout Palestine searching for the leaders of Haganah. The Jewish Agency for Palestine was occupied and four top official arrested. . July 1, 1946 British officials announced the discovery of a large arms dump hidden underground at Meshek Yagur. 2659 men and 59 women were detained fo the three day operation in which 27 settlements were searched. Four were killed and 80 were injured.. July 3, 1946 Palestine High Commissioner, Lt. General Sir Alan Cunningham commuted to life imprisonment the death sentences of Josef Simkhon and lssac Ashbel, Irgun members. July 4, 1946 Tel Aviv. British officers, Captains K Spencer, C. Warburton and A. Taylor who had been kidnapped by Irgun on June 18 and held as hostages for the lives of Simkohn and Ashbel, were released in Tel Aviv unharmed. At this time, Irgun issued a declaration of war against the British claiming that they had no alternative but to fight. . July 22, 1946 The west wing of the King David Hotel in Jerusalem which housed British Military Headquarters and other governmental offices was destroyed at 12:57 PM by explosives planted in the cellar by members of the Irgunterrorist gang. By the 26 of July, the casualties were 76 persons killed, 46 injured and 29 still missing in the rubble. The dead included many British, Arabs and Jews. . July 24, 1946 July 28, 1946 The British Palestine Commander, Lt. General Sir Evelyn Barker, banned fraternization by British troops with Palestine Jews whom he stated “cannot be absolved of responsibility for terroristic acts.” The order states that this will punish “the race . . . by striking at their pockets and showing our contempt for them.” . July 29, 1946 Police in Tel Aviv raided a workshop making bombs.. July 30, 1946 Tel Aviv is placed under a 22hour-a-day curfew as 20,000 British troops began a house-to-house sweep for members of the Jewish underground. The city is sealed off and troops are ordered to shoot to kill any curfew violators. July 31, 1946 A large cache of weapons, extensive counterfeiting equipment and $1,000,000 in counterfeit Government bonds were discovered in Tel Aviv’s largest synagogue. Also, two ships have arrived at Haifa with a total of 3,200 illegal Jewish immigrants. . August 2, 1946 British military authorities ended the curfew in Tel Aviv after detaining 500 persons for further questioning.. August 12, 1946 The British Government announced that it will allow no more unscheduled immigration into Palestine and that those seeking entry into that country will be sent to Cyprus and other areas under detention. Declaring that such immigration threatens a civil war with the Arab population, it charges a “minority of Zionist extremists” with attempting to force an unacceptable solution of the Palestine problem.. August 12, 1946 Two ships carrying a total of 1,300 Jewish refugees arrived at Haifa. The port area was isolated on August 11 by British military and naval units. The first deportation ship sailed for Cyprus with 500 Jews on board. August 13, 1946 Three Jews were killed and seven wounded when British troops were compelled to fire on a crowd of about 1,000 persons trying to break into the port area of Haifa. Two Royal Navy ships with 1,300 illegal Jewish immigrants on board sailed for Cyprus. Another ship with 600 illegal immigrants was captured and confined in the Haifa harbor. . August 26, 1946 British military units searched the coastal villages of Casera and Sadoth Yarn for three Jews who bombed the transport “Empire Rival” last week. Eighty-five persons, including the entire male population of one of the villages were sent to the Rafa detention center.. August 29, 1946 Jerusalem. the British Government announced the commutation to life imprisonment of the death sentences imposed on 18 Jewish youths convicted of bombing the Haifa railroad shops.. August 30, 1946 British military units discovered arms and munitions dumps in the Jewish farming villages of Dorot and Ruhama. Sept. 8, 1946 Jewish underground members cut the Palestine railroad in 50 places.. Sept. 9, 1946 Tel Aviv. two British officers were killed in an explosion in a public building.. Sept. 10, 1946 British troops imposed a curfew and arrested 101 Jews and wounded two in a search for saboteurs in Tel Aviv and neighboring Ramat Gan. Irgun took the action against the railways on September 8, as a protest.. Sept. 14, 1946 Jewish underground members robbed three banks in Jaffa and Tel Aviv, killing three Arabs. Thirty-six Jews were arrested.. Sept. 15, 1946 Jewish underground attacks a police station on the coast near Tel Aviv but were driven off by gunfire. . October 2, 1946 British military units and police seized 50 Jews in a Tel Aviv cafe after a Jewish home was blown up. This home belonged to a Jewish woman who had refused to pay extortion money to the Irgun. . October 6, 1946 Jerusalem. An RAF man was killed by gunfire.. October 8, 1946 October 15, 1946 October 16, 1946 Executions of those convicted of war crimes and crimes against humanity at the Nuremberg Trials. October 23, 1946 October 25, 1946 October 31, 1946 The British Embassy in Rome was damaged by a bomb, believed to have been phased by Jewish underground members. Irgun took responsibility for the bombing on November 4.. November 3, 1946 Two Jews and two Arabs were killed in clashes between Arabs and a group of Jews attempting to establish a settlement at Lake Hula in northern Palestine. . November 5, 1946 British authorities released the following eight Jewish Agency leaders from the Latrun concentration camp where they had been held since June 29: Moshe Shertok, Dr. Issac Greenbaum, Dr. Bernard Joseph, David Remiz, David Hacohen, David Shingarevsky, Joseph Shoffman and Mordecai Shatter. A total of 2,550 Haganah suspects have also been released as well as 779 Jews arrested in the wake of the King David bombing. . November 7, 1946 Railroad traffic was suspended hr 24 hours throughout Palestine following a fourth Irgun attack on railway facilities in two days. November 9-13, 1946 Nineteen persons, eleven British soldiers and policemen and eight Arab constables, were killed in Palestine during this period as Jewish underground members, using land mines and suitcase bombs, increased their attacks on railroad stations, trains and even streetcars. . Nov. 14, 1946 London. The Board of Deputies of British Jews condemned Jewish underground groups who threatened to export their attacks to England. . Nov. 18, 1946 Police in Tel Aviv attacked Jews, assaulting many and firing into houses. Twenty Jews were injured in fights with British troops following the death on November 17 of three policemen and an RAF sergeant in a land mine explosion.. Nov. 20, 1946 Five persons were injured when a bomb exploded in the Jerusalem tax office. . Dec. 2-5, 1946 Ten persons, including six British soldiers, were killed in bomb and land-mine explosions. . Dec. 3, 1946 A member of the Stern Gang was killed in an aborted hold-up attempt. . Dec. 26, 1946 Armed Jewish underground members raided two diamond factories in Nathanya and Tel Aviv and escaped with nearly $107,000 in diamonds, cash and bonds. These raids signaled an end to a two-week truce during the World Zionist Congress.. 1947 January 1, 1947 Dov Gruner was sentenced to hang by a British military court for taking part in a raid on the Ramat Gan police headquarters in April of 1946. . January 2, 1947 Jewish underground staged bombings and machine gun attacks in five cities. Casualties were low. Pamphlets seized warned that the Irgun had again declared war against the British. . January 4, 1947 Jerusalem. British soldiers have been ordered to wear sidearms at all times and were forbidden to enter any cafe or restaurant. . January 5, 1947 Eleven British troops were injured in a hand grenade attack on a train carrying troops to Palestine. The attack took place near Benha, 25 miles from Cairo.. January 8, 1947 British police arrested 32 persons suspected of being members of the Irgun’s “Black Squad” in raids on Rishomel Zion and Rehoboth. . January 12, 1947 One underground member drove a truck filled with high explosives into the central police station and exploded it, killing two British policemen and two Arab constables and injuring 140 others, and escaped. This action ended a 10-day lull in the violence and the Stern Gang took the credit for it. . January 14, 1947 Yehudi Katz is sentenced to life in prison by a Jerusalem court for robbing a bank in Jaffa in September of 1946 to obtain funds for the underground.. January 22, 1947 Sir Harry Gumey, Chief Secretary, stated that the British administration was taxing Palestine $2,400,000 to pay for sabotage by the Jewish underground groups. . January 22, 1947 Colonial Secretary Arthur Creech Jones informed the House of Commons 73 British subjects were murdered by underground members in 1946 and “no culprits have been convicted.” . January 27, 1947 London. Britain’s conference on Palestine, boycotted by the Jews, reconvened. Jamal el Husseini, Palestine Arab leader, declared that the Arab world was unalterably opposed to partition as a solution to the problem. The session then adjourned.. January 29, 1947 London. It was officially announced that the British Cabinet decided to partition Palestine. . January 29, 1947 Irgun forces released former Maj. H. Collins, a British banker, who they kidnaped on January 26 from his home. He had been badly beaten. On January 28, the Irgun released Judge Ralph Windham, who had been kidnapped in Tel Aviv on January 27 while trying a case. These men had been taken as hostages for Dov Bela Gruner, an Irgunmember under death sentence. The British High Commissioner, Lt. Gen. Sir Alan Cunningham, had threatened martial law unless the two men were returned unharmed. . January 31, 1947 General Cunningham ordered the wives and children of all British civilians to leave Palestine at once. About 2,000 are involved. This order did not apply to the 5,000 Americans in the country.. February 3, 1947 The Palestine Govemment issued a 7-day ultimatum to the Jewish Agency demanding that it state “categorically and at once” whether it and the supreme Jewish Council in Palestine will call on the Jewish community by February 10 for “cooperation with the police and armed forces in bringing to justice the members of the terrorist groups.” This request was publicly rejected by Mrs. Goldie Meyerson, head of the Jewish Agency’s political department. . February 4, 1947 British Oistrict Commissioner James Pollock disclosed a plan for military occupation of three sectors of Jerusalem and orders nearly 1,000 Jews to evacuate the Rehavia, Schneler and German quarters by noon, February 6. February 5, 1947
The Vaad Leumi rejected the British ultimatum while the Irgun passed out leaflets that it was prepared to fight to the death against the British authority.
The first 700 of some 1,500 British women and children ordered to evacuate Palestine leave by plane and train for Egypt. British authorities, preparing for military action, order other families from sections of Tel Aviv and Haifa which will be turned into fortified military areas.
February 9, 1947 British troops removed 650 illegal Jewish immigranS from the schooner “Negev” at Haifa and after a struggle forced them aboard the ferry “Emperor Haywood” for deportation to Cyprus. . February 14, 1947 The British administration revealed that Lt. Gen. Sir Evelyn Barker, retiring British commander in Palestine, had confirmed the death sentences of three Irgun members on February 12 before leaving for England. The three men, Dov Ben Rosenbaum, Eliezer Ben Kashani and Mordecai Ben Alhachi, had been sentenced on February 10 to be hanged for carrying firearms. A fourth, Haim Gorovetzky, received a life sentence because of his youth. Lt. Gen. G. MacMillian arrived in Jerusalem on February 13 to succeed Gen. Barker. . February 15, 1947 The Sabbath was the setting for sporadic outbreaks of violence which included the murder of an Arab in Jaffa and of a Jew in B’nai B’rak, the kidnapping of a Jew in Petah Tikvah and the burning of a Jewish club in Haifa. March 9, 1947 Hadera. A British army camp was attacked.. March 10, 1947 Haifa. A Jew, suspected of being an informer, was murdered by Jewish underground members.. March 12, 1947 The British Army pay corps was dynamited in Jerusalem and one soldier killed. . March 12, 1947 British military units captured most of the 800 Jews whose motor ship “Susanne” ran the British blockade and was beached north of Gaza on this date. A British naval escort brought the “Ben Hecht,” the Hebrew Committee of National Liberation’s first known immigrant ship, into Haifa, and its 599 passengers were shipped to Cyprus. The British arrested the crew, which included 18 US. seamen.. March 13, 1947 British authorities announced 78 arrests as a result of unofficial Jewish cooperation, but two railroads were attacked, resulting in two deaths, and eight armed men robbed a Tel Aviv bank of $65,000. . March 14, 1947 Jewish underground members blew up part of an oil pipeline in Haifa and a section of the rail line near Beer Yakou . March 17, 1947 British authorities ended marshal law which had kept 300,000 Jews under house arrest for 16 days and tied up most economic activity.. March 17, 1947 A military court sentenced Moshe Barazani to be hanged for possessing a hand grenade. . March 18, 1947 Underground leaflets admitted the murder of Michael Shnell on Mount Carmel as an informer. . March 22, 1947 British officials announced the arrest of five known underground members, and the discovery near Petah Tikvah of the body of Leon Meshiah, a Jew presumably slain as a suspected informer. . March 28, 1947 The Irgun blew up the Iraq Petroleum Co. pipeline in Haifa.. March 29, 1947 A British army officer was killed by Jewish underground membesr when they ambushed a party of horsemen near the Ramle camp. A raid on a Tel Aviv bank yielded $109,000. . March 30, 1947 Units of the British Royal Navy, answering an SOS, took the disabled ” Moledeth” with 1,600 illegal Jewish refugees on board under tow some 50 miles outside Palestinian waters. . March 31, 1947 Jewish underground members dynamited the British-owned Shell-Mex oil tanks in Haifa, starting a fire that destroyed a quarter-mile of the waterfront. The damage was set at more than $1,000,000, and the British government in Palestine has stated that the Jewish community will have to pay for it. . April 2, 1947 The “Ocean Vigour” was damaged by a bomb in Famagusta Harbor, Cyprus. The Haganah admitted the bombing. . April 3, 1947 April 3, 1947 The transport “Empire Rival” was damaged by a time bomb while en route from Haifa to Port Said in Egypt. . April 7, 1947 The High Court denied a new appeal against the death sentence of Dov Bela Gruner, and a British patrol killed Moshe Cohen. . April 8, 1947 Jewish undergroud members killed a British constable in revenge for the Cohen death.. April 10, 1947 London. The British Government requested France and Italy to prevent Jews from embarking for Palestine. . April 11, 1947 Jerusalem. Asher Eskovitch, a Jew, was beaten to death by Muslims when he entered the forbidden Mosque of Omar. . April 13, 1947 Guela Cohen, Stern Gang illegal broadcaster, escaped from a British military hospital.. April 14, 1947 A British naval unit boarded the refugee ship “Guardian” and seized it along with 2,700 passengers after a gun battle in which two immigrants were killed and 14 wounded.. April 16, 1947 In spite of threats of reprisal from the Irgun, the British hanged Dov Bela Gruner and three other Irgun members at Acre Prison on Haifa Bay. Jewish communities were kept under strict curfew for several hours. Soon after the deaths were announced, a time bomb was found in the Colonial Office in London but was defused.. April 17, 1947 Lt. Gen. G. Macmillan confirmed death sentences for two more convicted underground members, Meier Ben Feinstein and Moshe Ben Barazani, but reduced Daniel Azulai’s sentence to life imprisonment. . April 18, 1947 Irgun’s reprisals for the Gruner execution were an attack on a field dressing station near Nethanaya where one sentry was killed, an attack on an armored car in Tel Aviv where one bystander was killed and harmless shots at British troops in Haifa. . April 20, 1947 A series of bombings by Jewish underground members in retaliation for the hanging of Gruner injured 12 British soldiers.. April 21, 1947 Meir Feinstein and Moshe Barazani killed themselves in prison a few hours before they were scheduled to be hanged. They blew themselves up with bombs smuggled to them in hollowed-out oranges. . April 22, 1947 A troop train arriving from Cairo was bombed outside Rehovoth with five soldiers and three civilians killed and 39 persons injured. April 23, 1947 The British First Lord of the Admiralty, Viscount Hall, defended the Labor Government’s policy in Palestine and he acknowledged in the House of Lords that Britain would not “carry out a policy of which it did not approve” despite any UN action. He blamed contributions from American Jews to the Jewish Palestinians as aiding the underground groups there and cited the toll since August 1, 1945: 113 killed, 249 wounded, 168 Jews convicted, 28 sentenced to death, four executed, 33 slain in battles. Viscount Samuel urged increased immigration. . April 23, 1947 The Irgun proclaimed its own “military courts” to “try” British troops and policemen who resisted them. . April 25, 1947 A Stern Gang squad drove a stolen post office truck loaded with explosives into the Sarona police compound and detonated it, killing five British policemen. . April 26, 1947 Haifa. The murder of Deputy Police Superintendent A. Conquest climaxed a week of bloodshed. . May 4, 1947 The walls of Acre prison were blasted open by an Irgun bomb squad and 251 Jewish and Arab prisoners escaped after a gun battle in which 15 Jews and 1 Arab were killed, 32 (including six British guards) were injured and 23 escapists were recaptured. The Palestine Govemment promised no extra punishment if the 189 escapees still at large will surrender. . May 4, 1947 The Political Action Committee for Palestine ran a series of advertisements in New York newspapers seeking funds to buy parachutes for young European Jews planning to crash the Palestine irnmigration barrier by air. . May 8, 1947 A Jew was ambushed and shot to death by an Arab group near Tel Aviv, and three Jewish owned Tel Aviv shops whose owners refused to contribute money to Jewish underground groups were burned down. . May 12, 1947 Jewish underground members killed two British policemen.. May 12, 1947 The British authorities announced that 312 Jewish political prisoners were held in Kenya, East Africa, 20 in Latrun and 34 in Bethlehem.. May 15, 1947 The Stern Gang killed two British lieutenants and injured seven other persons with two derailments and three badge demolitions.. May 16, 1947 Haifa Assistant Police Superintendent, Robert Schindler, a German Jew, was killed by the Stern gang, and a British constable was killed on the Mt Carmel-Haifa road near Jerusalem.. May 17, 1947 The 1,200 ton Haganah freighter “Trade Winds” was seized by the Royal Navy off the Lebanon coast and escorted into Haifa, and over 1,000 illegal immigrants were disembarked pending transfer to Cyprus. . May 19, 1947 The British government protested to the United States government against American fund-raising drives for Jewish underground groups. The complaint referred to a “Letter to the Terrorists of Palestine” by playwright Ben Hecht, American League for a Free Palestine co chairman, first published in the New York “Post” on May 15. The ad said, “We are out to raise millions for you.”. May 22, 1947 Arabs attacked a Jewish labor camp in the south, retaliating for a Haganah raid on the Arabs near Tel Aviv May 20. Some 40,000 Arab and Jewish workers united the same day in a one day strike against all establishments operated by the British War Ministry.. May 23, 1947 A British naval party boarded the immigrant ship “Mordei Haghettoath” off South Palestine and took control of its 1,500 passengers. Two British soldiers were convicted in Jerusalem of abandoning a jeep and army mail under attack.. May 28, 1947 Syria. Fawzi el-Kawukji who spent the war years in Germany after leading the 1936-39 Arab revolt in Palestine, told reporters in Damascus that an unfavorable decision by the UN inquiry group would be the signal for war against the Jews in Palestine. “We must prove that in case” of an Anglo-American war with Russia, “we can be more dangerous or useful to them than the Jews,” he added. . May 28, 1947 Jewish underground members blew up a water main and a shed in the Haifa oil dock areas and made three attacks on railway lines in the Lydda and Haifa areas.. May 31, 1947 The Haganah ship “Yehuda Halevy” arrived under British naval escort with 399 illegal Jewish immigrants; they were immediately transferred to Cyprus.. June 4, 1947 The Stern Gang sent letter bombs to high British governmental officials. Eight letter bombs containing powdered explosives were discovered in London. Recipients included Ernest Bevin, Anthony Eden, Prime Minister Attlee and Winston Churchill.. June 5, 1947 Washington. President Truman asked all persons in the US to refrain from helping Jewish underground groups. The American Jewish Committee and Jewish Labor Committee condemned Ben Hecht’s campaign.. June 6, 1947 New York Secretary General of the UN, Trygve Lie has forwarded a request to all countries a request by the British that they guard their fronties against departure of illegal immigrants bound for Palestine. June 18, 1947 June 28, 1947 The Stern Gang opened fire on British soldiers waiting in line outside a Tel Aviv theater, killing three and wounding two. Another Briton is killed and several wounded in a Haifa hotel. This action was claimed by Jewish underground members to be in retaliation for British brutality and the alleged slaying of a missing 16 year old Jew, Alexander Rubowitz while he was being held in an Army barracks on May 6. . June 29, 1947 New York. The UN Committee votes 9-0 to condemn the acts as “flagrant disregard” of the UN appeal for an interim truce as Stern Gang wounded four more Bdtish soldiers on a beach at Herzlia. Major Roy Alexander Farran surrendered voluntarily after his escape from custody in Jerusalem on June 19. He had been arrested in connection with the Rubowitz case. . June 30, 1947 The Palestine goverrunent permitted oil companies to raise paces of benzine nearly 10% to pay for $1 million damage suffered when Jewish underground members blew up oil installations at Haifa on March 31. . July 2, 1947 lrgun members robbed a Haifa bank of $3,200 while both the Stem gang and the Irgun warned the British that their provocative acts in Palestine must end before a truce can be effected. The Guaternalan and Czech members of the UN Commission visited two Jewish convicts in Acre Prison.. July 12, 1947 Dr. Adem Altman, president of the United Zionist Revisionists, told a party rally in Jerusalem that the Revisionists would settle for nothing less than an unpartitioned free Jewish state in Palestine and Trans-Jordan. Irgun announced in Jerusalem that two British sergeants kidnaped in Nathanaya are being held in Tel Aviv and have been sentenced to death by Irgun courtmartial. . July 14, 1947 Netanya. The British imposed mastial law and placed the 15,000 inhabitants of Netanya under house arrest. They made 68 arrests and sentenced 21 persons to 6 months each in the Latrun detention camp. . July 17, 1947 Netanya. The Irgun in five mine operations against military traffic to and from Nathanya killed one Briton and injured 16. . July 18, 1947 Steamer Exodus repelled by forces from shores of Palestine, (formerly the “President Warfield”) was escorted into Haifa by British naval units after a battle, William Bernstein and two immigrants were killed and more than 30 injured.
The blockade runner itself was badly damaged. The remainder of the 4,554 passengers, the largest group of illegal immigrants to sail for Palestine in a sister ship, were put aboard British prison ships for removal to Cyprus. The American captain, Bernard Marks, and his crew were arrested. The ship sailed from France.
July 19, 1947 Haifa. Rioting, quickly suppressed, broke out among the passengess of the “Exodus 1947” when they learned they were to be resumed to France. . July 19, 1947 The Palestine Government charges that a Jewish “campaign of lawlessness, murder and sabotage” has cost 70 lives and $6 million in damage since 1940. . July 21, 1947 Before officially admitting that 4,529 passengers of the “Exodus 1947” who had been transferred to three British ships, were being sent not to Cyprus but back to France, the Palestine Government took the precaution of first placing Jesusalem’s 90,000 Jews under nightly house arrest. . July 23, 1947 Haganah sank the British tansport “Empire Lifeguard” in Haifa harbor as it was discharging 300 Jewish immigrants who had officiallyy been admitted to Palestine under quota. Sixty-five immigrants were killed and 40 were wounded. The British were able to refloat the ship.. July 26, 1947 Jewish underground members blew up the Iraqi Petroleum Co. pipeline 12 miles east of Haifa and destroyed a Mt. Carmel radar station.. July 27, 1947 An ambush and mines cost the British seven more casualties, all wounded.. July 28, 1947 Two small Haganah ships loaded with 1,174 Jews from North Africa were intercepted by British naval units off Palestine and brought into Haifa. The illegal immigrants were transshipped aboard British transports and taken to Cyprus.. July 29, 1947 The British authorities hanged three Irgunists in Acre prison despite appeals from Jewish leaders. The condemned, Myer Nakar, Absalom Habib and Jacob Weiss, had fought in the Czech underground during the war. They were convicted of blowing up Acre Prison on May 4 and liberating 200 Arabs and Jews. . July 29, 1947 The 4,429 Exodus 1947 illegal immigrants who sailed from Sete, France, July 11 for Palestine only to be shipped back by the British aboard three transports, refused to debark as the vessels anchored off Port de Douc, France. Only a few who were aboard went ashore. The French government informed the refugees that they do not have to debark but will be welcomed if they do. The transports are the “Runnymede Park,” “Ocean Vigour” and “Empire Valour.”. July 30, 1947 Irgun members announced that they have handed two British sergeants, Marvyn Paice and Clifford Martin, whom they had held as hostages since duly 12, for “crimes against the Jewish community.” The two were seized when death sentences on the three Irgun members were confirmed by the British authorities. Two more British soldiers were killed by a land mine near Hadera. British troops attacked the Jewish colony of Pardes Hanna in revenge for the murders.. July 31, 1947 The bodies of the two murdered Bdtish sergeants were found hanging from eucalyptus trees one and a half miles from Netanya about 5:30 AM. A booby trap blew Martin’s body to bits when it was cut down. Enraged British troops stormed into Tel Aviv, wrecked shops, attacked pedestrians and sprayed a bus with gunfire killing five Jews: two men, two women and a boy.. August 1, 1947 Thirty-three Jews are injured in an anti-British riot at Tel Aviv during the funeral procession of five civilians killed by British soldiers on July 31. In Jerusalem a Jewish underground attack on the British security zone in Rehavia was repulsed with one attacker killed and two captured.. August 2, 1947 The body of an unidentified Jew was found on a road near Tel Aviv. He was believed to have been kidnapped by men in British uniforms two weeks ago. Total casualties in Palestine since mid-July: 25 persons slain, 144 wounded. The dead include 15 Britons, two Jewish underground membmers, eight civilians. Anti-British slogans, swastikas and dollar signs are painted onto British consulates in New York, Baltimore, Philadelphia, Chicago and Los Angeles. August 3, 1947 The Bank of Sharon in Ramat Gan was robbed by Jewish underground, $8,000 stolen.. August 4, 1947 An Irgun leader in Paris states that his organization has sentenced high British military and civilian offficials in Palestine to death “in absentia” and will hang them upon capture.. August 5, 1947
Striking at dawn, British security forces arrested 35 leading Zionists and sent them to the Latrun detention camp in an attempt to wipe out the Irgun leadership.In reprisal, Irgunists blew up the Department of Labor in Jerusalem, killing three British constables. Those arrested included Mayor Israel Rokach of Tel Aviv; Mayor Oved Ben Ami of Nathanya; Mayor Abraham Kdnitzki of Ramat Gan; Adeh Altman, president of the radical Revisionist Party; Menahem Arber, leader of the Revisionist youth organization, B’rith Trumpeldor, which is outlawed; Max Kritzman, Dov Bela Gruner’s attomey, and David Stem, brother of the late founder of the Stern Gang. All those arrested except the three mayors were Revisionists. Among many papers confiscated was correspondence from Soviet Russian agents in Italy and Bulgaria and extensive plans to poison the water supply of the non-Jewish parts of Jerusalem with botulism and other bacteria. Bacteria was supplied by Soviet sources through Bulgaria.
August 15, 1947 A mine derailed a Cairo-Haifa troop train north of Lydda, killing the engineer, and Irgunist claimed the incident was part of its campaign to disrupt all the Palestine rail traffic. . August 16, 1947 Arab-Jewish clashes have brought death to 12 Arabs and 13 Jews and heavy property destruction this week in the regions of Jewish Tel Aviv and Arab Jaffa. Strife was renewed on august 10 when Arabs killed four Jews in a Tel Aviv cafe, in reprisal for the deaths of two Arabs in a Haganah raid in Fega two months ago. Haganahresponded to the Arab actions by bombing a house in an Arab orange grove near Tel Aviv, killing eleven Arabs, including a woman and four children. . August 18, 1947 The shops of five Jewish merchants in Tel Aviv were destroyed by the Irgun because the owners refused to give money to that organization. . Sept. 9, 1947 Hamburg, Germany. In a bitter three hour fight aboard the “Runnymede Park,” 350 British troops completed a two-day forced debarkation of 4,300 “Exodus 1947” illegal Jewish refugees from three ships in Hamburg, Germany. First ashore yesterday were the “Ocean Vigour’s” 1,406; a few put up token resistance and five passengers sustained minor injuries. Early today, the “Empire Rival’s” 1,420 passengers debarked peaceably after a home made bomb was found in the ship’s hold. . Sept. 10, 1947 Washington D.C. Secretary of State George C. Marshall disclosed that the US had urged Britain to reconsider sending the “Exodus” group to Germany, but Britain replied tht there were no facilities for housing them elsewhere because the French did not want them and there were a number of vacant detention camps in Germany. . Sept. 11, 1947 Paris. The French government has now announced tht it would admit the ‘`Exodus” refugees if they were not forcibly deported from Germany and on the understanding that they will be admitted eventually to Palestine. . October 13, 1947 A terrorist bomb damaged the US. consulate general in Jerusalem, injuring two employees slightly. Similar bombings occurred at the Polish consulate general last night and at the Swedish consulate on September 27. . Nov. 14, 1947 Jewish underground members killed two British policemen in Jerusalem and two soldiers in Tel Aviv to raise the total casualties in three days of violence to 10 Britons and five Jews killed, and 33 Britons and five Jews wounded. The outbreaks began after British troops killed three girls and two boys in a raid on a farmhouse arsenal near Raanana on November 12. The underground retaliated yesterday by throwing hand grenades and firing a machine gun into the Ritz Cafe in Jerusalem. . Nov. 16, 1947 About 185 European Jews landed near Netanya from a small schooner and escaped before the British could intercept them. A larger vessel, the “Kadimah,” was seized and brought to Haifa where 794 Jews were transshipped to a British transport for Cyprus.. Nov. 17, 1947 The British administration disclosed that it will sell state owned real estate along the Haifa waterfront, from which it expects to make $8 million. It will also invest in England about $16 million from bonds that had been sold to Palestinians. Zionists strongly protested this as they said it would denude Palestine of its assets. There was no comment from the administration to these charges. . Nov. 22, 1947 An Arab was killed in Haifa by the Stern Gang following the killings of four other Arabs near Raanana on November 20.. Dec. 1, 1947 The Arab League announced on December 1 that premiers and foreign ministers of seven Arab states would meet in Cairo next week to plan strategy against partition. In Palestine: Jerusalem and the Jaffa Tel Aviv boundary zone were centers of week-long strife which began when seven Jews were killed throughout Palestine on November 30 and the mayor of Nablus, Arab nationalist center, proclaimed jihad or a holy war. British High Commissioner Sir Alan Cunningham warned the Arab Higher Command on December 1 that Britain was determined to keep order so long as it held its mandate, and police stopped Arab agitators from raising crowds in Jerusalem.. Dec. 2, 1947 Arabs looted and burned a three block Jewish business district in Jerusalem on December 2, the first day of a three day Arab general strike during which 20 Jews and 15 Arabs were killed. When British troops failed to intervene, Haganah came into the open for the first time in eight years to restrain large scale Jewish retaliation and also guard Jewish districts. Some Haganah men were arrested for possessing weapons. The day’s strife caused $1 million worth of damage and resulted in a 21 hour curfew being applied to Arab Jerusalem for the rest of the week. The curfew was extended to outlying roads on December 3 to stop stonings of Jewish traffic and keep rural Arabs out of the capital. Max Pinn, head of the Jewish Agency’s Trade and Transfer Deparunent was killed on December 2 when Arabs stoned his auto near Ramleh On this day dews stoned Arab buses in Jerusalem. On December 2, Haganah claimed to have mobilized 10,000 men in the intercity trouble zone, and the Arab Legion of Trans-Jordan reported on this date that it had reinforced Jaffa. Seven Jews were killed in Jaffa-Tel Aviv on this date. There were lesser attacks in Haifa this week. Also, the Syrian Parliament enacted a draft law and voted $860,000 for the relief of Palestinian Arabs. On the same day Arabs attacked the Jewish part of Aleppo. . Dec. 3, 1947 On the Jaffa-Tel Aviv boundary, which also is under around-the clock curfew, the week’s heaviest battle was a six-hour clash between Haganah and Arabs on December 3 in which seven Jews and five Arabs were killed and 75 persons injured. . Dec. 5, 1947 The United States Department of State announced on December 5,1947 that they were placing an embargo on all American arms shipments to the Middle East. On December 5, British military reinforcements were sent to Aden after four days of Arab-Jewish fighting in which 50 Jews and 25 Arabs were killed. . Dec. 13, 1947 On December 13, bombings by the Irgun killed at least 16 Arabs and injured 67 more in Jerusalem and Jaffa and burned down a hundred Arab houses in Jaffa. In Syria, an anti-Jewish attack in rebaliation for the Irgun actions burned down a 2,750-year old synagogue in Aleppo and destroyed the priceless Ben-Asher Codex, a 10th century Hebrew Bible of original Old Testament manuscripts. . Dec. 14, 1947 Regular troops of the Arab Legion of the Trans-Jordan Army killed 14 Jews and wounded nine Jews, two British soldiers and one Arab when they atbcked a bus convoy approaching their camp near Lydda. The Arabs said the Jews attacked them first. . Dec. 17, 1947 British troops came to the aid of police sending off a raid by 100 Arabs on the Jewish settlement of Nevatim, seven miles west of Beersheba.. Dec. 18, 1947 Haganah killed 10 Arabs in a reprisal raid on Khisas in the north of the country.. Dec. 19, 1947 Reliable reports from Damascus state that Arab guerrillas are massing there in preparation to launching an attack into Palestine before the first of the year. . Dec. 20, 1947 Haganah carried out another said on Arabs by atbcking the village of Qazasa near Rehovoth. One Arab was killed and two were wounded. . Dec. 25, 1947 Emir Mohammed Zeinati, an Arab landowner, was killed in Haifa for selling land to the Jews. Stern gang members machine-gunned two British soldiers in a Tel Aviv cafe. . Dec. 26, 1947 Armed Jewish underground members raided two diamond factories in Netanya and Tel Aviv and escaped with $107,000 in diamonds, cash and bonds. The Stern gang distributed leaflets reporting that Israel Levin, a member, was killed in Tel Aviv on December 24 for trying to betray a Stern Gang member. . Dec. 29, 1947 Irgun members kidnaped and flogged a Briitish major and thzee sergeans in rebliation for the flogging of Benjamin Kimkhim who was also sentenced to 18 years in prison on December 27 for robbing a bank. The major, E. Brett, was seized in Netanya and the sergeants in Tel Aviv and Rishon el Siyon. Each got 18 lashes, the same number Kimkhim seceived. An Irgun bombing at the Damascus Gate in Jesusalem killed 11 Arabs and two Britons. . Dec. 30, 1947 The Dollis Hill Synagogue in London was set on fire and 12 sacred scrolls wese destroyed by argry British citizens.. 1947 UN proposes the establishment of Arab and Jewish states in the Land. 1947 Arab Higher Committee for Palestine rejects UN Partition Plan. 1947 Three Jews are hanged for involvement in Acre Prison break and two British sergeants are executed in reprisal. 1947 1947 Construction begins on Tapline for Saudi oil. January 4, 1948 A series of bombings inflicted heavy Arab casualties.14 were killed and 100 injured when the Stern gangdestroyed the Arab National Committee headquarters in Jaffa. . January 5, 1948 January 7, 1948 14 Arabs were killed by two Irgun bombs at Jerusalem’s Jaffa gate. January 12, 1948 Stem gang members looted Barclay’s Bank in Tel Aviv of $37,000. January 13, 1948 The U.S. War Assets Administration received orders from Army Secretary Kenneth Royal to cancel its sale of 199 tons of M-3 explosive to a purchasing agent of the Jewish Agency, which got 73 tons out of the country before the rest was seized Jan. 14-15, 1948 The FBI arrested six New York men on charges of trying to ship Haganah 60,000 pounds of TNT, which was seized in Jersey Gty after having been bought from the Letterkenny Arsenal Ordnance Depot in Chambersburg, Pennsylvania. January 25, 1948 Following the deaths of ten Jews and two Arabs killed in a battle outside Jerusalem, British authorities stated that 721 Arabs, 408 Jews, 19 civilians and 12 British policemen (a total of 1,160) had been killed in an eight-week period that 1,171 Arabs, 749 Jews, 13 civilians and 37 British officers had been wounded. 1948 Standard Oil of New Jersey and Socony-Vacuum (both now ExxonMobil) buy interest in Aramco; company headquarters moved from San Francisco to New York.
|Jewish Date||Jewish Events||World Events||Common Dates|
|1-2000||2000 years of tohu vavohu – null and void||Creation, Flood, Babel|
|1948||Birth of Abraham in Ur Chasdim, or Ur of the ChaldeasCenter of Sumerian culture.||Early Bronze AgeNoachide Laws, Chaldean and Sumerian Culture||1812|
|1951||Abraham begins to doubt idols, and search for truth||Ziggurats of Ur|
|Jewish Date||Jewish Events||World Events||Common Dates|
|2000||Beginning of the 2000 years of Torah||1760|
|2000||Abraham and Sarah start teaching Torah. Beginnings of monotheism as a way of life||Code of Hammurabi||1760|
|20352048||Birth of Ishmael – son of Abraham and HagarBirth of Isaac. Circumcision of Abraham and his family||1712|
|2085||Akeidat Yitzchak. The Binding and Near Sacrifice of Isaac.Isaac and Rebecca. Jacob and Esau. Blessings and Birthright.|
|2108||Jacob, Rachel & Leah, 12 Sons = 12 Tribes. Transition from being a family to being a nation. Jacob fights with the angel and is given the name Israel, Yisrael||Hyksos, Shepherd kings, invade Egypt.||1652|
|2199||Joseph is sold by his brothers and is taken to Egypt.Eventually due to his dream interpretations he becomes the Viceroy of Egypt – Ztaphenat Phaneach||Hyksos driven out of Egypt.||1561 1567|
|2238||Entry into Egypt by the 70 members of the family of Jacob Settlement in the Land of Goshen – Shepherds||18th Dynasty||1522|
|2331||Enslavement begins with the death of the last of the 12 sons of Jacob, Levi. Birth of Miriam. Amram, Levi’s grandson marries Yocheved, Levi’s daughter. They have 3 children Miriam, Aaron and Moses (Batya, daughter of Pharaoh finds Moses in Nile and brings him up in Pharaoh’s palace)||Thutmose IV? Pitom (Tanis) & Ramses||1429|
|2368||Moses – Moshe – 5 levels of test before he is chosen as a prophet at the Burning Bush 1. Leaving palace to identify with brothers 2. Saving Jew from Egyptian oppression 3. Saving one Jew from another 4. Saving one stranger from another stranger. Justice, mercy and humility. 5. Brings water to sheep.||1392|
|2448||Exodus, Desert Plagues, Red Sea, Manna, Clouds of Glory, Well of Miriam.||Thutmose III?||1312|
|2448||Revelation at Mt. Sinai. Written & Oral Laws given to the entire Jewish people – 3,000,000 prophets.. Moses’ prophecy and authority confirmed by personal experience of every Jew; therefore no prophets or miracles etc. may challenge laws received at Sinai. – Bava Metzia 59a – “Not in heaven.” Golden calf (replacement of Moses, not G-d!) Yom Kippur – atonement, Teshuvah, 2nd tablets. 12 spies & lack of faith – decree – 9thof Av.||1312|
|2488||Moses write 13 scrolls of the complete Torah and gives one to each tribe, and puts one in the Holy Ark.Death of Moses outside of Israel – burial place unknown||1273|
|2489||Joshua – disciple of Moses becomes the leader of the Jewish people. First ordination – semichah – in history.Entry into Israel – 10th of Nissan. Battle of Jericho, Rachav & spies. (Biblical Archaeology Review – pottery, grain intact, no looting, burnt, collapsed walls, Egyptian relics) 7 years of conquest, 7 years of settlement. East bank and West bank of Jordan. 31 Canaanite city states. Altar at Gilgal, Blessings & curses on Mt. Gerizim and Mt. Eival. Condition of entry to Israel was acceptance of the Torah..||Middle Bronze Age Interchange Period –(MBI)
Canaanite and Phoenician culture
|2515||Death of Joshua – Beginning of Period of Judges- Tribes independent – but advised and ruled by Judges.||Philistines – Gaza||1245|
|Othniel, Ehud, Deborah, Gideon, Abimelech, Tola, Yair, Jeftah,Ibzan, Elon, Abdon, Samson, Eli. Pilegesh Begiva – Civil war!|
|2885||Samuel – Chose Jerusalem as capital. Anointed Saul as first king of Israel – Saul loses kingdom – Amalek.||Early Greek States founded||875|
|Natan the prophet anoints Solomon. (Samuel dies 28th Iyar – same day Temple Mount recaptured by Israel in 1967).|
|Kings – David, Solomon – philosopher kings. Davidic Lineage starts. Psalms.||Assyrian Empire|
|2892||David becomes King of Israel. Anointed in Hebron and rules from there for 7 years, then moves to Jerusalem. (In 2889 Avner appoints Ish Boshet as king of Israel, who rules for two years)||869|
|2924||Solomon becomes King of Israel. Author of Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Song of Songs. Peace and prosperity. Concubines- improper conversions, Messianic hope?||837|
|2928||First Temple started (pomegranate relic, mines, stables) 10 continuous miracles of First Temple, Urim Vetumim – Divine Presence||Rise of Assyrian Empire||832|
|2964||Division of Israel & Judea Rehovoam son of Solomon. Jeroboam. North-10 Tribes. South.- Judah, Benjamin, Priests & Levites. Elijah & prophets of Baal, Achaz & Jezebel||796|
|Jewish Date||Jewish Events||World Events||Common Dates|
|3150||Isaiah-prophecies of Messianic times||Homer||610|
|3199||Hezekiah – Chizkiyahu, becomes king of Judea. Potential Messiah – and considered one of the most righteous of kings.Under Hezekiah the kingdom became imbued with Torah learning||Shalmanazer – King of Assyria conquers Israel. Settles Samaritans in North.||562|
|3205||Assyrians Exile the 10 Tribes. The (good?!) Samaritans. Theories of lost tribes- probably assimilated. King of Assyria invades Judea, beseiges Jerusalem.||Senacherib – King of Assyria.Beginning of Rome||556|
|3298||Jeremiah begins his prophecies – predicts the destruction of the Temple.||Confucious|
|3320||Exile of Judah to Babylon in days of King Yehoyachin.||Rise of Babylon|
|3338||Babylonians destroy First Temple on the 9th of Av and exile the Jews to Babylon. Some flee to Europe. Walls breached on 7thof Tammuz, sacrifices stopped on 17th of Tammuz.Leave behind a remnant, ruled by Jewish governor, Gedaliah.
On 3rd of Tishrei, Gedaliah is assassinated by Jews.
|Nebuchadnezar (According to Greek historians – Temple destroyed in 587)||423|
|3340||Jeremiah, Ezekiel Prophecies of destruction and exile, prophecies of return.||Socrates, Plato||422|
|3340||Babylonian Exile, Daniel. Aramaic becomes Jewish language. Academies of Torah study. Autonomy of internal affairs.||421|
|3386||Proclamation of Cyrus, Return to Israel. Minority returns in Nissan – same month as Exodus from Egypt.||Persian Empire||372|
|3390||Second Temple started||Medean Empire||368|
|3393||Cambys, Achashverosh stops construction. Feast celebrating “extinction” of Jews. Scroll of Esther. 164 “missing” years.||365|
|3400||Purim, Mordechai, Ezra the Scribe Renewal of settlement in Israel in the Golan heights, on the West and East banks of the Jordan river. Peaceful conquest||Aristotle||358|
|3408||Second Temple completed. End of Prophecy. Joy and tears – no Ark, no Urim Vetumim, none of the 10 miracles. 70 years after destruction||Alexander the Great||353|
|3441 3515||Men of the Great Assembly establish the Liturgy. Shimon Hatzadik, the High Priest, meets Alexander of Macedon – transition – Prophets to sages. Transition changes confrontation, free-will requires equal & opposite Jewish prophets vs. pagans with supernatural powers – challenge Sages of the Oral Law vs. Greek philosophy (intellect vs. intellect) .Septuagint – Torah in Greek – Fast of 9thTevet||Ptomelaic Empire in Egypt. Seleucids in Syria.||313 246|
|3648||Maccabean Revolt (Strong into hands of weak!) Decrees, Stadiums, Hellenism. Chanuka. Jew vs. Jew Ptolemies, Seleucids – Antiochus. Maccabees (Priests) become kings, form alliance with Rome against Greeks. Beginnings of sectarianism.||164 -> 168|
|Jonathan brother of Judah becomes king. In-fighting, intrigues and hatred among Hasomonean kings and family.||Rise of Roman Empire||152|
|3696||Herod & Pompeii make deal – Israel joins Roman Empire||Pompeii||62|
|3724||Herod – Paranoiac, persecutes sages. Renovates Temple to win popularity, Masada, Herodion (Ref. Josephus)||34 BCE|
|3700||Romans in the Land of Israel (invited)||10|
|3710||Philo of Alexandria||20|
|3770||Essenes – Dead Sea Scrolls||Early Christians||10 CE|
|3728||Hillel and Shammai|
|3788||Exile of Sanhedrin, Rabbi Yochanan ben Zachai|
|3827||Rabban Gamliel. Yeshu Hanotzri? Roman Occupation Rome initially makes legal exceptions for Judaism, wants Jews as Roman allies not Seleucid allies. Era of Pairs. Roman taxes, decrees. End of great Sanhedrin.||67|
|The Great Revolt||Titus||66 -> 73|
|3828||Romans destroy 2nd Temple – 9th of Av About 2,000,000 killed. Cruelty, Exile, Slavery. Ramban – Ki Tavo Rabbi Yochanan Ben Zakai – “Yavneh and its Sages” Prophecies in Deuteronomy 28:42 – Nachmanides commentary||Vespasian||68|
|3830||Rabbi Akiva, Rabbi Meir (stam Mishnah R. Meir) 24,000 students. 4 into Pardes, Acher.|
|3833||Masada, the Zealots – Talmudic silence Mikveh||.||73|
|Josephus Flavius – Wars of the Jews, Antiquities, Contra-Appion.||38 -> 100|
|3893||Bar Kochba Revolt, Betar – 9th of Av. Rabbis support Bar Kochbah as Messiah until killed by Romans. Bar Kochba letters. Ten martyrs||Hadrian||133|
|3950||Mishnah, Judah the Prince – Rabenu Hakadosh Scholar, Davidic lineage, righteous, Hebrew, wealth. Universal agreement||Antonius||170 –190|
|3953||Pescennius Niger – “You ask me to relieve your lands of their taxes; would that I could tax the very air you breathe.”||193|
|Jewish Date||Jewish Events||World Events||Common Dates|
|4000||2000 years of Messiah||240|
|4000||Rabbi Shimon Bar Yochai – The Zohar|
|4073||Constantine forbids Jews in Jerusalem. Beginnings of theological anti-Semitism.Main focus of learning in the Jewish communities of Israel and Babylon becomes the Mishnah. Yarchei Kallah – communal study seminars convened regularly.||Constantine – becomes Christian Rome/Byzantium split. Nicean Council decides on Christian dogma||313|
|4110||Jerusalem Talmud – R. Muna ben Yonah, R.Yosi ben Bun||350|
|4140||Hillel II – calendar. Theodosius forbids Sanhedrin to assemble, reaction to Julian’s pro-Jewish stance. Calendar adopted at clandestine, & maybe last meeting.||Julian the Apostate||380|
|4260||Babylonian Talmud – Sof Horaah – End of Instruction||500|
|4360||Ravina and Rabbi Ashi. Rabanan Sevorai Last time that all Jewish scholars voted and discussed issues, thus equivalent authority of Sanhedrin. Geonic period begins||Beginnings of Islam – Mohammed||600|
|4384||Jews reject Islam, expulsions from Arabia. Rejection by Jews of Islam turns into hatred of Jews by Moslems||624-628|
|4397||Arabs invade Israel||637|
|4392||Emperor Heraclius decrees Jews of Byzantium to be forced into Christianity. 613-661 also in Spain, Gaul & Italy.||632|
|4471||90% of Jews under Moslems. (Yellow badge) Generally better off under Islam than under Christianity – closer philosophically (monotheism) & genetically. Dhimmis, tolerated minority under Islam vs. persecuted minority under Christians. Judaism is only problematic to Islam, but is an absolute contradiction to Christianity. “Fight those who do not practice the religion of truth from among those to whom the Book has been brought, until they pay the tribute by their hands, and they be reduced low.” Koran – Sura 9:2. Khazars convert to Judaism.||Moslem Arabs invade Spain||711|
|4527||Anan Ben David – Karaites – threat of schism. Opposition to Oral Law – Fire on Shabbat, cholent, pikuach nefesh||767|
|4650||Rabbi Saadya Gaon (the Geonate) First systematic work of Jewish philosophy, partially to combat the Karaite challenge to tradition. Letter of Rav Sherira Gaon.||Emperor Charlemagne-800||890|
|4715||Four captives – decentralization of Torah. Growth of European and Nth. African Torah centers. Rabeinu Gershom – Light of the Exile – decrees against forced divorce, polygamy, reading others’ mail. Decline of Babylonian Academies||955|
|4773||RIF – Rabbi Isaac Alfasi of Morocco creates first condensation and codification of Jewish Law – R. Zerachiah Halevi writes critique of code.||1013|
|4800||Rabbi Shlomo Yitzchaki – RaSHICommentaries on virtual all classic texts. Concise and deep. Systematic grammar, translations, elucidation of verses based on Midrash.Troyes, Mayence, Worms.||1040|
|Rabbi Avraham Ibn Ezra – Fight against Karaites using logic & grammar||1092|
|4856||9th of Av – Start of First Crusade resulting in widespread slaughter of Jewish communities in the Rhineland.||Crusades||1096|
|Godfrey de Boullion – Leader of a Crusade – “Kill the heretics amongst us before going to Holy Land.”Jerusalem captured by the Crusaders||1096
|4895||Maimonides – Rambam, R. Moses ben Maimon -student of the Spanish, Middle Eastern & Nth. African schools. Guide, Code, Book of the Commandments, 13 Principles of Faith, Commentary, Letters, Medical writings. Controversy, criticisms. Life in Egypt. Physician of Egyptian court.||Saladin – leads Moslems in fight against Crusaders.(Patient of Rambam)||1135|
|4906||Expulsion from parts of Germany. Desecrating “host”, blood libels. Rabenu Yaakov Tam – Baalei HaTosfot – French and German schools.|
|4909||Almohades bring Islamic intolerance to Spain fostering the spread of Spanish-Jewish culture outside the borders of Spain particularly in Provence, at the crossroads of Sefarad and Ashkenaz. The Orient and Europe||1149|
|4910||R. Yehudah Hachasid – Chasidei Ashkenaz. Era of the Pietists of Germany||Battle of Hastings1066||1150 – 1217|
|4920||Benjamin of Tudela – Travels of Benjamin||1160|
|4946||Expulsion from France||1186|
|4949||Third Crusade – Widespread massacres of Jews in England||Richard Lion Heart||1189|
|4950||R. Yehudah Halevi – Kuzari, poems, Hebrew York massacre||1190|
|4954||Nachmanides (1194 – 1270) Ramban, Rabbi Moses ben Nachman. Defender of earlier sages (inc. Rambam) against attacks, Alfasi against R. Zerachiah Halevi. Commentaries- Tanach and Talmud, Kabbalah.||Saladin in Jerusalem||1194|
|4992||Burning of Maimonides’ Guide in Provence (possibly causing – later book-burning by anti – Semitic authorities)||1232|
|5000||Aliyah of authors of Tosafot after disputation of R. Yechiel of Paris||1240|
|5002||Burning of Talmud in Paris – 24 cartloads. Fast day||1242|
|5023||Disputation of Ramban with Pablo Christiani in – Barcelona, 20th July, 1263. Rabbi Meir of Rottenburg (imprisonment) – refuses ransom. Rabenu Yona of Gerona – Gates of Repentance. Rabbi Levi ben Gershon – Astronomer, inventor of Jacob’s Staff Expulsion from England – 9th of Av. Bodlean Library – Oxford – stolen and abandoned Jewish books.||Edward I||1290|
|5064||Rashba – Cherem on study of philosophy for those under 25 years of age||1305|
|5065||Expulsion of Jews from most of France||1306|
|5116||Poisoning & conspiracy libels against Jews during Black Plague. Pogroms & expulsions. The Rashba of Barcelona, Spain. Rabenu Asher, the Rosh, fled from Germany to Toledo, Spain – nexus of Sephardi and Ashkenazi cultures enables son R. Yaakov combines scholarship of both in the Arbah Turim.||Black Plague||1357|
|5155||Expulsion from Provence – Meiri, Raavad, Radak, Ibn Tibbon||1395|
|Ibn Tibbons translators- Arabic to Hebrew Expulsion- Austria Continuous insecurity in Europe; discrimination, expulsions e.g. Speyer: Jews out 1405, in 1421, out 1430, in 1434, out 1435, in 1465||1395|
|5213||Ottoman Turks capture Israel from Moslems creating impetus to Jewish settlement in Israel- although numbers small.||Fall of Byzantium||1453|
|5235||First printing of Jewish books on printing press||1475|
|5252||Inquisition culminates with the expulsion from Spain on the 9th Av. Expulsions from Italy and Sicily Don Isaac Abarbanel – commentary on Tanach, advisor to Queen Isabella||Columbus – refuge||1492|
|5257||Portuguese expulsion, Auto-de-Fe, Marranos.||1497|
|5280||First printing of Talmud – Daniel Bomberg, Venice. Censorship. Pagination, commentary selection and layout of Bomberg still used today. “Rashi” script used for first time in printing.||Reformation. Luther – “The Jews & Their Lies.” Rejection leading to hatred||1520|
|5300||Kabbalists of Safed. Ari’Zal (1534-72) Rabbi Chaim VitalR. Shlomo Alkabetz – Lecha Dodi The Alsheich. Aliyah gradually increases.||1540|
|5325||Code of Jewish Law – Shulchan Aruch – Rabbi Yosef Karo (1488-1575) R. Moses Isserless (1525-1572) Israel – Sephardi Poland – Ashkenazi Universal acceptance, commentaries (Kitzur Shulchan Aruch – Condensed Code – Rabbi Shlomo Ganzfried – late 19th Century)||Shakespeare – “Merchant of Venice” – No Jews in England since||1565|
|5408||Chmielnicki Pogroms – unspeakable cruelty Jews dejected, searching for hope, feeling of immanent Messianic revelation Total Jewish Pop.- 3.5 million Eastern Europe – 1.3 million.100,000 murdered, 300 communities destroyed.||Russian – Polish WarBogdan Chmielnicki||1648|
|5411||Shabtai Zvi – False Messiah – charisma, asceticism mysticism||1651|
|5416||Spanish-Portuguese Jews, Touro – Rhode Island. First Jews in America. Peter Stuyvesent reluctant to admit Jews to New Amsterdam. Baruch Spinoza – forerunner of modern Bible criticism & perhaps unintentionally of modern anti-Semitism, excommunicated in Amsterdam.||1656|
|5423||Shabtai Tzvi meets Nathan of Gaza “Prophet” – Israel Misuse of Kabbalah. (Similarly Jacob Frank a century later)||1663|
|5426||S.T. Abolishes 9th of Av, declares march on Jerusalem to capture from Sultan. Imprisoned by Sultan, converts to Islam.||Great Fire -London||1666|
|5427||R. David Halevi Segal – Taz, dies. 2 sons killed in pogroms, exiled to Moravia. One of the greatest commentaries on Code of Jewish Law together with R. Shabtai Cohen – Shach.|
|5460||Rabbi Israel Baal Shem Tov – Chassidism – Galicia, Ukraine, Podolia. The Tzadik, songs, joy, popularization of Kabbalistic teachings, sincerity, fervor, prayer and spontaneity..||Frederick I||1700|
|5461||Moses Chaim Luzzatto – (RaMCHaL). Systematizing of Kabbalah into logical steps, accessibility to laymen (criticism!). Ethical classics – Path of the Just, The Way of G-d, plays, poetry.||Leibnitz||1701|
|5473||R.Yehezkel Landau- Responsa Noda Biyehudah- Opposition to Chassidism Opposition to Kabbalistic prayers prior to performance of Mitzvot.||1713-1793|
|5480||The Gaon (Genius), R. Elijah of Vilna -GRA. Supremacy of Torah study through intellectual efforts of man. Opposition to Chassidism – Excesses due to emphasis on joy and spontaneity, charismatic leadership, popularization of Kabbalah (fear of Shabtai Zvi phenomenon), new customs, changes in liturgy. Rabbi Shneur Zalman of Liadi – Tanya – Chabad -LubavitchR. Chaim of Volozhin – Nefesh Hachaim. Volozhin – “Mother of Yeshivot”||David Hume||1720|
|5516||Conflict of R. Yaakov Emden and R. Yonason Eybeshutz over accusations of Shabeteanism||1756|
|5536||Beginnings of liberalization in Western Europe – Some Jews allowed to live outside Ghettos||American Revolution ends. Declaration of Independence||1776|
|5543||Moses Mendelssohn -“Religion due to Reason” German Biur of Torah. Children assimilate – grandchildren baptized. Pseudo-scientific, racial anti-Semitism. Fully blown in late 19th Century developing ultimately into Nazism in 20th century.||Immanuel Kant Voltaire – “Religion of Reason”||1783|
|5549||The Emancipation – Emperor Franz-Josef grants citizenship to the Jews, entrance to universities and professions permission to leave ghettoes and enter society.Jacob Frank – false messiah in Poland died 1791||French Revolution||1789|
|5551||Equal rights for French Jews on condition. Napoleon – “For Jews as Jews nothing, for Jews as Frenchmen everything”“Sanhedrin.” Economic, social, intellectual and political pressure to assimilate. Four approaches – 1. Individual assimilation (Baptism, intermarriage) Heinrich Heine- “Baptism is the ticket of entry to European society” 2. Adaptation of Judaism to Zeitgeist (Reform, science of Judaism); S. Holdheim “we say merely this, anything which upon unbiased examination does not conform to the current religious spirit holds for us no authority.” 3. Isolation from emancipation and modernity (Chassidim, Chatam Sofer); 4. Involvement in modern world without compromising of Halachic standards (Rabbi S. R. Hirsch).||NapoleonFrench Constitution||1791|
|5575||Immigration to Israel, Chassidim & students of GRA – Safed, Tiberias, Hebron, Jerusalem. R. Israel of Shklov – Peat Hashulchan – Code of Jewish Law for Israel||Battle of Waterloo||1815|
|5578||Reform MovementHamburg Temple – bells, organ, German prayers and sermon||1818|
|5600||R. Samson Raphael Hirsch – Torah & Derech Eretz. Horeb, 19 Letters. Separate communities. German Kehillah. Jewish Day School. Damascus Blood Libel||1840|
|5614||R. Israel Salanter – the Mussar movement. Lithuania – Combating cold intellectualism, emphasis on ethics, self-improvement, general reinforcement of inner aspects of Judaism, Mussar, R. Israel Salanter – R. Isaac Blazer, R. Naftali Amsterdam, Alter of Kelm. Different approaches to self-improvement- Greatness of Man or lowliness of Man, self-criticism. Opposition to Mussar by many Yeshivot. e.g. Volozhin – “bitter medicine” only for the sick. Study of Torah provides ethics.||Crimean War||1854|
|5641||Pogroms in the Ukraine. Benjamin Disraeli (1804-1881) Prime Minister Baptized by father. Alexander II killed – by Jewish anarchist May Laws- Backlash||Emigration – USA, England,South Africa||1881|
|5645||Reform movement has open field in the USA||Pittsburgh Platform||1885|
|5646||Treif Banquet – Reaction – Jewish Theological Seminary –Solomon Morais – Beginnings of Conservative Movement||Rise of nationalism in Europe and Balkans.||1886|
|5654||Dreyfus Trial, Theodore Herzl, Max Nordau The Jewish State, conversion. Panama, Vatican Bank. Pales of settlement.||Nicholas II- Russia||1894|
|5657||1st Zionist Congress, Basle. Agudas Israel founded as political representative of non- or anti-Zionist Orthodox Jews.||1897|
|5663||Vote on Israel vs. Uganda, Madagascar Sir Moses Montefiore, Rothchilds – Continue tradition of shtadlanim. Mass Immigrations- USA (2 million Jews by 1924) No official anti-Semitism; but no work for Shomrei Shabbos, ignorance, no Jewish education, alternatives to total abandonment exist, difficult to keep kosher – many abandon Orthodoxy for economic reasons. Many came with intent to abandon Judaism. Yiddish newspapers, left-wing e.g. Jewish Daily Forward, socialist and assimilationist. (Judaism unsuitable)Kishinev Pogrom||1903|
|5664||Conservative Movement – Solomon Schechter||1904|
|5665||Protocols – Nilus “Kill the Jews & save Russia” Pogroms||1905|
|5673||Beilis Trial – blood libel. Leo Frank lynched by mob in Georgia, USA, accused of murder.||Bernard Malamud- The Fixer||1913|
|5674||First World War – Britain declares war on the 9th Av. Jews on both sides. 500,000 Jewish soldiers fought in War.||1st World War||1914|
|5677||The Balfour Declaration and Chaim Weizman. The Chafetz Chaim and the ethics of speech. Rabbi Chaim Soloveitchik of Brisk – Analysis vs. Pilpul. 3,250,000 Jews in the USA||Demonstration and riots against Czar Nicholas II||1917|
|5677||Britain Captures Palestine from Turks – General Allenby with assistance of Nili spy network. Jews organize units in Britisharmy. Jabotinsky and Trumpeldor
Sarah Schnirer starts Jewish school for girls, Beit Yaacov movement begins to grow.
|Bolshevik RevolutionLawrence of Arabia||1917|
|5679||60,000 Jews killed during Russian Revolution. Petlurya in Ukraine establishes independence pogroms begin, thousands of Jews brutally murdered.||Ukrainian independence||1919|
|5680||British Mandate, the Hagganah & the Irgun White Papers 1939, Aliyah Bet, restraint & revolt. Arabs attack Jewish settlements in Israel, Trumpeldor killed in Tel Chai..M. Kaplan – Reconstructionism||League of Nations||1920|
|5681||Arab riots in Jaffa, 47 Jews killed. 4 Jews killed defending Petach Tikvah||End of Russian civil war, Communists in power.||1921|
|5684||Rabbi Meir Shapiro of Lublin begins the Daf Yomi program||1923|
|5689||120,000 Jews in Israel. 4,000,000 Jews in USAArab riots against Jews in Israel, including pogrom in Hebron in which 67 Jews brutally murdered.
Franz Rosenzweig – Assimilated German-Jewish philosopher returns to Judaism after 15 year search.
|5696||18 Jews killed in Arab riots in Tel-Aviv-Jaffa, beginning of “Arab Revolt” that claimed the lives of 500 Jews over the next three years.||1936|
|5698||Kristallnacht pogrom in Germany, incited by Nazis, Jews attacked and killed,, businesses, homes and synagogues ransacked and burnt down. Tens of thousands sent to concentration camps.||United States introduces 5 day work week.||1938|
|5699||Britain introduces “White Papers” drastically reducing Jewish immigration to Israel. Interns Jewish refugees in Cyprus, and in camps in Israel. Sends many back to Europe.||Second World War begins with German invasion of Poland||1939|
|5699||The Holocaust – enthusiastic help of local population. Indifference of world – (While Six Million Died, Morse) Jewish spiritual heroism. (With G-d in Hell, Berkovitz)Warsaw Ghetto Revolt||1939 1943|
|5708||The State of Israel, War of Independence UN vote, partition, Jewish refugees – 600,000! Arabs – 400,000. Renewal of Yeshivot Assimilation and secularization of Sephardi Jewry.||Berlin Blockade||1948|
|5716||Sinai Campaign, War of Attrition||Russia in Hungary||1956|
|Fedayeen, hijackings, snipers, Katushyas, bombs||PLO Covenant||1964|
|5727||Six-Day War, Liberation of Jerusalem on 28th of Iyar. The Western Wall, Hebron in Jewish hands!. Russia breaks ties with Israel. Vatican calls for internationalization of Jerusalem||Vietnam War||1967|
|5727||The Baal-Teshuva Movement – Return to JudaismRefuseniks. Founding of Yeshivot for beginners||1967|
|Identity. Ethnic and national awareness. Pride. Ohr Somayach||1971|
|5733||The Yom-Kippur War. Two day’s ammunition left before US airlift. 2,500 Israeli soldiers killed. More Israeli baalei teshuvah than ’67. Profound demoralization, increased emigration from Israel, lack of idealism amongst secular Zionists grows.||WatergateArab Oil Embargo||1973|
|5737||Peace treaty with Egypt, Begin and Sadat Ethiopian Jews. Loss of Sinai peninsula. “Cold peace.”||Arabs alienate Egypt||1977|
|5741||Israel bombs Iraqi nuclear reactor-worldwide condemnation UN resolution condemning attack sponsored by Kuwait!||1981|
|5742||The Lebanon War. Katushyas, hostages, terrorism . PLO’s state within a state. Siege of Beirut. Diaspora Jews criticize Israel..||1982|
|5749||Start of Intifada – massive unrest and violent protest by Palestinians – Ultimately leading to Oslo Accords||1987|
|5750||Mass Immigration of Russian Jews to Israel||Glasnost-Perestroika||1990|
|5750||Iraqi missiles land in Israel- Population of Israel receives gas masks, seals rooms etc. Israel lauded for “restraint” 9th of Av- Iraq walks out of talks with Kuwait. Iraq invades Kuwait – US troops in Saudi Arabia – UN ultimatum January 15th – USA attacks Iraq 16th – Massive and continuous air bombardments. February 23 – Coalition forces enter Kuwait and Iraq – ground-war. Purim victory||1990|
|5751||Russian immigration continues. Albanian Jews make Aliyah. Rescue of Ethiopian Jewry..||Abandonment of Kurds. Syria in
|5753||Signing of the Oslo Accords – Rabin and Arafat||1993|
|5756||Assassination of Prime Minister Rabin – wave of anti-religious sentiment sweeps country. Elections follow in which right-wing government of Likud under Netanyahu is elected||1995|
|6000||Beginning of 1000 years – Sabbath of the world.||2239|
Also another notable article, that compares the calendars used by the babylonians versus those used by the jews: http://jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/3920-calendar-history-of#anchor1
In regards to the ‘Flood’, I posted an article some time ago:
There are some very different estimates from different sources about the number of people living in the times of Noah.
Now let’s see a source about ‘Timeline for the Flood’:
So when exactly was the Flood?
For an accurate chronology on the Bible, including the time of the Flood, I highly recommend The Annals of the World by James Ussher, Adam’s Chart of History, Newton’s Revised History of Ancient Kingdoms, and Chronology of the Old Testament by Floyd Nolen Jones.
There are two possible ways of calculating the date. The first is from creation, and the other is from the present. I will focus on the date from creation since the latter would be much more involved. So here we go.
|Event/Person||Passage||Total Time from Creation (years)|
|God created everything.||Genesis 1–2||0|
|Adam became the father of Seth at 130.||Genesis 5:3||0 + 130 = 130|
|Seth became the father of Enosh at 105.||Genesis 5:6||130 + 105 = 235|
|Enosh became the father of Kenan at 90.||Genesis 5:9||235 + 90 = 325|
|Cainan became the father of Mahalalel at 70.||Genesis 5:12||325 + 70 = 395|
|Mahalalel became the father of Jared at 65.||Genesis 5:15||395 + 65 = 460|
|Jared became the father of Enoch at 162.||Genesis 5:18||460 + 162 = 622|
|Enoch became the father of Methuselah at 65.||Genesis 5:21||622 + 65 = 687|
|Methuselah became the father of Lamech at 187.||Genesis 5:25||687 + 187 = 874|
|Lamech became the father of Noah at 182.||Genesis 5:28||874 + 182 = 1056|
|The Flood started when Noah was 600.||Genesis 7:6||1056 + 600 = 1656|
As you can see from Table 1, the year in which the Flood came was 1656 AM1 (Anno Mundi – “year of the world”). From the rest of the Old Testament and other well-documented historical events we understand that creation, as calculated by Ussher, was about 4004 BC. So with a little more math we can calculate the second date.
|Calculated BC date for creation:||4004|
|Calculated AM date for the Flood:||– 1656|
|Calculated BC date for the Flood:||2348|
|Current Year (minus one2):||+ 2011|
|Number of years since beginning of Flood:||4359|
Using the Bible, well-documented historical events, and some math, we find that the Flood began approximately 4,359 years ago in the year 1656 AM or 2348 BC. Some may look for an exact date (i.e., month and day), but we are not given that sort of precision in Scripture.
- Since the Bible does not provide the number of months in the age of each patriarch listed from Adam to Noah, then we could add about five more years to this number. For example, Adam may have been 130 years and 10 months old when Seth was born, and Seth may have been 105 years and four months. On average, there would likely be an additional six months for each generation. The same would be true for the genealogy in Genesis 10.
- We need to subtract one year from this calculation since there was not a “year zero.” The calendar we use jumps from 1 BC to AD 1.
Now, here’s one skeptical view about the flood, which is one of the main purposes of this article:
Did The Biblical Flood Happen?
Written by mfaber at iidb.org
The Biblical flood did not happen. This is a falsifiable date.The Bible gives the date of the flood as beginning 2345 BCE and ending in 2344 BCE If this were really the world-wide gig claimed by creationists then the civilizations of the world would all show a disruption in their history or at least take note of such an event, but does the rest of archeology/history corroborate the Biblical account===> NO!
- The city of Ur of the Chaldees (ancient Sumer, location of the “plains of Shinar”, hangout of Noah) was the leading city from about 2400 BCE until about 2,285 BCE and its history is not broken by any flood in this period.
- Babylon was rising to power from about 2,400 BCE on and reached a great height of civilization under the famous King Hammurabi, who would have been a contempory of Hebrew patriarch Abraham (about 2,250 BCE), and again there is no break in this history due to a flood.
- In Egypt, the 5th Dynasty, which began to reign about 2,465 BCE, was followed by the 6th Dynasty (2,323 BCE), which ruled to about 2000 BCE. This time-period is very well-documented and there was no disruption during the 5th Dynasty at the time of Noah’s flood, 2,345 BCE, with the nation remaining strong and powerful throughout these dynasties.
- The Harappan Civilization(2300 – 1900 BCE) in India shows no disruptions at the time of the Flood and, ironically, appears to have ended because of a region-wide drought! (some used to think that an invasion was the cause, but the evidence points away from this earlier scenario).
- Chinese history begins nearly 3,000 BCE. The Shu-King historic record of China, shows that King Yao came to the throne in 2356 BCE and ruled China for many years after the alleged flood. Incidentally, durring the reign of Yao, the Shu King reports that the Hwang Ho River flooded on a number of times, for three generations, again with NO break in history. Please consult the History of China or THIS timeline. The only place you find these early rulers listed are at Chinese sites (spelled Tangyao, Westerners shorten this to Yao).
- Ancient civilizations in India which predate the Bible entirely and shows no evidence that such an event ever happened ( appearance of the oldest book of the Hindu religion, the Rig Veda pre-dates the Bible considerably, according to astronomical dating provided by astronomical events listed in the Rig Veda)
[It has already been mentioned here that] The Biblical Flood story looks a lot like the Epic of Gilgamesh “The Chaldean Flood Tablets from the city of Ur in what is now Southern Iraq, describe how the Bablylonian God Ea had decided to eliminate humans and other land animals with a great flood which was to become ‘the end of all flesh'”.
Some Biblical literalists claim that the Babylonians borrowed their ideas fro the Epic of Gilgamesh from the Genesis, but here are some reasons why that is extremely unlikely:
- For the simple reason that the first copies of this legend are in were written down about 2000 BCE in the Sumerian language on clay tablets which still survive.The earliest possible date for the writing of the Hebrew version is given as around 1000 BCE (according to THIS).
- The Jews would have been well aware of this legend (as captives of the Babylonians, descendents of the Akkadian / Sumerians). It is quite probable that they (the Jews) simply incorporated elements of this legend into their theology. Who do one think copied whom? It is far more likely that the Jews copied from their conquerors as opposed to a conquering race coping from a slave population.
As for the real source of many flood stories, the most likely one is that detailed HERE in the article from the National Geographic, The Black Sea and the Search for Noah’s Flood. A catastrophic Black See flood is the most probable source of the story and it is no where near a world-wide flood as alleged in the Bible.
Also note that fewer than 50% of the world’s cultures have flood legends. In his book Die Flutsagen: Ehnthographisch Btrachtet(1891), Richard Andre collected a compendium of flood myths (~90 traditions) from around the world . Of these:
- 26 were “descendants” of the Babylonian story
- 43 are totally independent in time and place from the Babylonian story
- Most telling was the absence of flood stories from much of Europe, northern and central Asia, Africa, Arabia, and Japan (very strange IF there a world-wide deluge…that all these places should have NOT ONE story).
Andre reached the conclusion that IF everyone were the descendants of a small number of survivors from a single flood, THEN there would be a flood story in every culture and these stories would be consistent with each other.
The physics of Noah’s Ark are impossible. The flexibility of the wood being used opens gaps wide enough to dump hundreds of gallons of water a minute into the “ship.”
As a ship that large floats, there are tremendous strains and stresses over its length, and wood is flexible enough to make it impossible to keep the hull together. Wood is fairly flexible when subjected to large strains – trees caught in torrential floods bend and don’t break. It’s why wooden ships only reached certain sizes during real-life world history, bigger ships had to be made out of steel.
Even many of the largest wood ships (still mucho smaller than the ark! According to the Biblical description, it was a barge roughtly the size that would fit inside of one of our football stadiums!) built by master shipwrights at the peak of the shipbuilding art required numerous pumps and countermeasures to avoid sinking.
by RAFH at iidb.org:
Actually it is not the strength, as in pounds per square inch of tension or compression that makes steel better than wood. Fact is they built large ships out of concrete during WW1. A dozen of them. The remains of one is attached to a pier at Seabright Beach State Park on Monterey Bay of California. Concrete is an excellent shipbuilding material and its compressive strength is only about 2000 to 5000 psi (they do make concretes up to 10,000 psi plus). That’s roughly the same as wood. Steel, by the way, is about 36,000 psi to 50,000 psi (although again, higher strengths are made).
The big difference is stiffness. The modulus of elasticity of wood ranges from 1,000,000 to 2,000,000 psi. Concrete and steel moduli are 29,000,000 psi. Big difference.
Modulus of elasticity is what controls stiffness and that’s what limits spans as in the length of a ship.
Another aspect is steel can be made in large sheets and those welded together. Concrete is by nature homogeneous. Wood, by nature, comes in smaller pieces which means a lot more seams and joints. The connections of these is another issue, screws and such hold better in steel than in wood, especially in working joints. More joints in more flexible materials means more working of the joints and the faster they will fail.
Shear strength is another issue to consider, wood is 100 to 300 psi, steel is 36,000 to 50,000 psi. It is the steel in concrete that overcomes concrete’s low unreinforced shear strength.
The situation with boats is much the same as with tall buildings and long bridges.
And, no, it is not possible to build a wooden ship of the dimensions noted for the ark. OK, you could build it but it would fall apart almost immediately even in calm water. In any kind of storm, it wouldn’t last an hour.
Funniest thing about all the ark designs, they never show any means of propulsion and without propulsion there is no way to direct a ship to go anywhere. Ships in storms face huge forces and its absolutely necessary to keep the ship as perpendicular to the waves as possible unless you have the ship set up to ‘lay to’. If a ship is traveling downwind, with the waves, if it doesn’t keep up a given speed it will not have steerage and it will broach. Even aircraft carriers and supertankers can not survive major broaching. One of the Iowa class battleship, arguably the strongest ships ever built, would be hard pressed to survive a major broach.
Anyway, there is never any form of propulsion shown or discussed. Certainly 8 humans, even if they weren’t worked to death caring for thousands of wild animals, would never be able to propel even a small ship in calm waters. In a storm, even trying would likely be fatal.
Here’s one reason large wooden ships have a limit: Hogging.
From that site:
|“Until the 1920’s a large percentage of the world’s shipping consisted of large wooden ships and their plague, after plain old rot, was “hog”. A ship floating quietly in still water is subjected to external forces. These are the weight of the vessel on its cargo (downwards) and the buoyancy force (upwards). Archimedes showed us that for a floating vessel, these two forces must be equal in magnitude. For a floating rectangular piece of wood, they are also equal in distribution. For most normally shaped ships, the distribution is not equal. For example, when an empty ship has more weight (relatively heavy structure, engines and equipment) in the ends, and more buoyancy in the middle. This “excess” of buoyancy in the middle cause the middle to rise up and the ends to bend down — a hog in profile. The opposite condition is sagging. For old wooden ships, this resulted in a long term, plastic deformation. The total curvature could be a meter or more in larger vessels. Some vessels like the Wapama hogged so much that they nearly broke in two. Hogging is no longer the problem it was in the 1920’s when it threatened the nation’s merchant fleet — because those ships have sunk!“Wooden ships, even wooden warships like USS Constitution, are actually quite weak even when new. Although solid shot may have ricocheted from their sides, they are generally unable, over time, to resist the fairly small forces they are subjected to moored in still water. There is a false idea that amazingly still has some following, that wooden ships were strong because they would flex. In fact, relative movement between structural members allows fresh water to enter the hull structure, carrying rot fungus spores deep inside.
“Engineers have often attempted to analyze the structures of wooden ships as if they were homogeneous box girders. This is a common misapplication of beam theory. Actually, a wooden ship, especially as it ages, more closely resembles a rather weakly bound bundle of reeds. These reeds are free to slide past each other. If traditionally built wooden ships were box girders, then one would expect to see many tensile failures amidships in the upper deck of a severely hogged vessel; however, this is not the case. Failures in longitudinal structure are infrequent and tend to be scattered almost uniformly throughout the vessel. The idea of “strength decks” or “extreme fiber” is largely irrelevant to the meaningful analysis of old wooden ships. Microscopic investigation reveal a generally low level of stress in “hogged” structural members. There often is evidence of plastic behavior, creep, around fastenings. Large overall deflections in the hull can be achieved with a very small amount of creep around the fastenings.
“The bundle of reeds metaphor implies that the ship is comparatively poor at resisting longitudinal loads due to a weakness in shear. Wooden ships are generally stiffer in lateral loading since the transverse frames are like individual beams. As a vessel ages and softens, even these relatively stiff beams can suffer large creep deflections. USS Constellation is an extreme example of an old, soft wooden ship and probably has large lateral deflections as well as hog — behaving more like a wet wicker basket than a bundle of reeds. Pushing up on the bottom of the basket causes the sides to bulge out and the bilges to drop. This is evidently the case since the keel has deflected over two feet and there is much less curvature in the upper decks. The vessel is also soft transversely. That is apparent from the curvature of the gun deck which is hogged in several distinct undulations. The upward force on the bottom comes from an unequal distribution of the weight and buoyancy forces on the vessel. In a newer, stiffer vessel it is possible to minimize this net force by the judicious placement of ballast both longitudinally and transversely in the bottom of the vessel. Here’s a link to a TCM paper on hogging”
As for the affect the downpour would have on the Earth:
written by Gawen at iidb.org
First- the global flood supposedly (Scripturally) covered the planet, […]and Mount Everest is 8,848 meters tall. The diameter of the earth at the equator, on the other hand, is 12,756.8 km. All we have to do is calculate the volume of water to fill a sphere with a radius of the Earth + Mount Everest; then we subtract the volume of a sphere with a radius of the Earth. Now, I know this won’t yield a perfect result, because the Earth isn’t a perfect sphere, but it will serve to give a general idea about the amounts involved.
So, here are the calculations:
V= 4/3 * pi * r cubed
= 4/3 * pi * 6387.248 km cubed
= 1.09151 x 10 to the 12 cubic kilometres (1.09151×102 km3)
Now, the Earth at sea level
V = 4/3 * pi * r cubed
= 4/3 * pi * 6378.4 km cubed
= 1.08698 x 10 to the 12 cubic kilometres (1.08698×1012 km3)
The difference between these two figures is the amount of water needed to just cover the Earth:
4.525 x 10 to the ninth cubic kilometres (4.525×1009 km3) Or, to put into a more sensible number, 4,525,000,000,000 cubic kilometres
This is one helluva lot of water.
For those who think it might come from the polar ice caps, please don’t forget that water is more dense than ice, and thus that the volume of ice present in those ice caps would have to be more than the volume of water necessary.
Some interesting physical effects of all that water, too. How much weight do you think that is? Well, water at STP weighs in at 1 gram/cubic centimetre (by definition)…so,
4.252×1009 km3 of water,
X 106 (= cubic meters),
X 106 (= cubic centimetres),
X 1 g/cm3 (= grams),
X 10-3 (= kilograms),
(turn the crank)
equals 4.525E+21 kg.
Ever wonder what the effects of that much weight would be? Well, many times in the near past (i.e., the Pleistocene), continental ice sheets covered many of the northern states and most all of Canada. For the sake of argument, let’s call the area covered by the Wisconsinian advance (the latest and greatest) was 10,000,000,000 (ten million) km2, by an average thickness of 1 km of ice (a good estimate…it was thicker in some areas [the zones of accumulation] and much thinner elsewhere [at the ablating edges]). Now, 1.00×1007 km2 X 1 km thickness equals 1.00E+07 km3 of ice.
Now, remember earlier that we noted that it would take 4.525×1009 km3 of water for the flood? Well, looking at the Wisconsinian glaciation, all that ice (which is frozen water, remember?) would be precisely 0.222% […do the math](that’s zero decimal two hundred twenty two thousandths) percent of the water needed for the flood.
Well, the Wisconsinian glacial stade ended about 25,000 YBP (years before present), as compared for the approximately supposedly 4,000 YBP flood event.
Due to these late Pleistocene glaciations (some 21,000 years preceding the supposed flood), the mass of the ice has actually depressed the crust of the Earth. That crust, now that the ice is gone, is slowly rising (called glacial rebound); and this rebound can be measured, in places (like northern Wisconsin), in centimetres/year. Sea level was also lowered some 10’s of meters due to the very finite amount of water in the Earth’s hydrosphere being locked up in glacial ice sheets (geologists call this glacioeustacy).
Now, glacial rebound can only be measured, obviously, in glaciated terranes, i.e., the Sahara is not rebounding as it was not glaciated during the Pleistocene. This lack of rebound is noted by laser ranged interferometery and satellite geodesy [so there], as well as by geomorphology. Glacial striae on bedrock, eskers, tills, moraines, rouche moutenees, drumlins, kame and kettle topography, fjords, deranged fluvial drainage and erratic blocks all betray a glacier’s passage. Needless to say, these geomorphological expressions are not found everywhere on Earth (for instance, like the Sahara). Therefore, although extensive, the glaciers were a local (not global) is scale. Yet, at only 0.222% the size of the supposed flood, they have had a PROFOUND and EASILY recognisable and measurable effects on the lands.
Yet, the supposed flood of Noah, supposedly global in extent, supposedly much more recent, and supposedly orders of magnitude larger in scale; has exactly zero measurable effects and zero evidence for it’s occurrence.
Golly, Wally. I wonder why that may be…?
Further, Mount Everest extends through 2/3 of the Earth’s atmosphere. Since two forms of matter can’t occupy the same space, we have an additional problem with the atmosphere. Its current boundary marks the point at which gasses of the atmosphere can escape the Earth’s gravitational field. Even allowing for partial dissolving of the atmosphere into our huge ocean, we’d lose the vast majority of our atmosphere as it is raised some 5.155 km higher by the rising flood waters; and it boils off into space.
Yet, we still have a quite thick and nicely breathable atmosphere. In fact, ice cores from Antarctica (as well as deep-sea sediment cores) which can be geochemically tested for paleoatmospheric constituents and relative gas ratios; and these records extend well back into the Pleistocene, far more than the supposed 4,000 YBP flood event. Strange that this major loss of atmosphere, atmospheric fractionation (lighter gasses (oxygen, nitrogen, fluorine, neon, etc.) would have boiled off first in the flood-water rising scenario, enriching what remained with heavier gasses (argon, krypton, xenon, radon, etc.)), and massive extinctions from such global upheavals are totally unevidenced in these cores.
Even further, let us take a realistic and dispassionate look at the other claims relating to global flooding and other such biblical nonsense.
Particularly, in order to flood the Earth to the Genesis requisite depth of 10 cubits (~15′ or 5 m.) above the summit of Mt. Ararat (16,900′ or 5,151 m AMSL), it would obviously require a water depth of 16,915′ (5,155.7 m), or over three miles above mean sea level. In order to accomplish this little task, it would require the previously noted additional 4.525 x 109 km3 of water to flood the Earth to this depth. The Earth’s present hydrosphere (the sum total of all waters in, on and above the Earth) totals only 1.37 x 109 km3. Where would this additional 4.525 x 109 km3 of water come from? It cannot come from water vapour (i.e., clouds) because the atmospheric pressure would be 840 times greater than standard pressure of the atmosphere today. Further, the latent heat released when the vapour condenses into liquid water would be enough to raise the temperature of the Earth’s atmosphere to approximately 3,570 C (6,460 F).
Someone, who shall properly remain anonymous, suggested that all the water needed to flood the Earth existed as liquid water surrounding the globe (i.e., a “vapour canopy”). This, of course, it staggeringly stupid. What is keeping that much water from falling to the Earth? There is a little property called gravity that would cause it to fall.
Let’s look into that from a physical standpoint. To flood the Earth, we have already seen that it would require 4.252 x 109 km3 of water with a mass of 4.525 x 1021 kg. When this amount of water is floating about the Earth’s surface, it stored an enormous amount of potential energy, which is converted to kinetic energy when it falls, which, in turn, is converted to heat upon impact with the Earth. The amount of heat released is immense:
Potential energy: E=M*g*H, where
M = mass of water,
g = gravitational constant and,
H = height of water above surface.
Now, going with the Genesis version of the Noachian Deluge as lasting 40 days and nights, the amount of mass falling to Earth each day is 4.525 x 1021 kg/40 24 hr. periods. This equals 1.10675 x 1020 kilograms daily. Using H as 10 miles (16,000 meters), the energy released each day is 1.73584 x 1025 joules. The amount of energy the Earth would have to radiate per m2/sec is energy divided by surface area of the Earth times number of seconds in one day. That is: e = 1.735384 x 1025/(4*3.14159* ((6386)2*86,400)) = 391,935.0958 j/m2/s.
Currently, the Earth radiates energy at the rate of approximately 215 joules/m2/sec and the average temperature is 280 K. Using the Stefan- Boltzman 4’th power law to calculate the increase in temperature:
E (increase)/E (normal) = T (increase)/T4 (normal)
E (normal) = 215 E (increase) = 391,935.0958 T (normal) = 280.
Turn the crank, and T (increase) equals 1800 K.
The temperature would thusly rise 1800 K, or 1,526.84 C (that’s 2,780.33 F…lead melts at 880 F…ed note). It would be highly unlikely that anything short of fused quartz would survive such an onslaught. Also, the water level would have to rise at an average rate of 5.5 inches/min; and in 13 minutes would be in excess of 6′ deep.
Finally, at 1800 K water would not exist as liquid.
Noah’s flood simply did not happen – unless you appeal to miracles. But appealing to miracles is epistemically worthless since they are unfalsifiable.
This is the end of the ‘skeptical’ article.
In my opinion, it is disputable because evidence can be fabricated by whomever wants to provide a specific narrative. The only way to be sure is to go in the past and see for yourself.
There is historical narrative that overlaps the Flood. Some consider it fact, some consider it fairy tales.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yellow_Emperor (2697–2597 or 2698–2598 BC)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emperor_Ku (2436-2366 BCE)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emperor_Yao (2333-2234 BCE)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emperor_Shun (2233-2184 BC)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yu_the_Great (2200-2101 BC)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Three_Sovereigns_and_Five_Emperors (from circa 2852 BC to 2070 BC)
Also, in these chinese legends, there is a Flood:
The Great Flood of Gun-Yu (traditional Chinese: 鯀禹治水), also known as the Gun-Yu myth, was a major flood event in ancient China that allegedly continued for at least two generations, which resulted in great population displacements among other disasters, such as storms and famine. People left their homes to live on the high hills and mounts, or nest on the trees. According to mythological and historical sources, it is traditionally dated to the third millennium BCE, during the reign of Emperor Yao. Archaeological evidence of an outburst flood on the Yellow River (possibly among the worst anywhere in the world in the past 10,000 years) has been dated to about 1920 BCE (several centuries later than the traditional recorded beginning of the Xia dynasty), and is suggested to have been the basis for the myth.
Treated either historically or mythologically, the story of the Great Flood and the heroic attempts of the various human characters to control it and to abate the disaster is a narrative fundamental to Chinese culture. Among other things, the Great Flood of China is key to understanding the history of the founding of both the Xia dynasty and the Zhou dynasty, it is also one of the main flood motifs in Chinese mythology, and it is a major source of allusion in Classical Chinese poetry.
More about China’s timeline:
Now, for the Hindu timeline:
|How to Read the TimelineNot all major ruling dynasties are included, for at times India was divided into dozens of small independent
kingdoms. Approximate dates are preceded by the letter “ca,” an abbreviation of the word “circa,” which
denotes “about,” “around” or “in approximately.” all dates prior to Buddha (624 bce) are considered estimates.
bce: Abbreviation for “before common era,” referring to dating prior to the year
ce: Abbreviation for “common era.” Equivalent to the abbreviation ad. Following a
Hindu Timeline Part 1
-2 m: Stone artifacts are made and used by hominids in North India, an area rich in
-500,000: Stone hand axes and other tools are used in N. India.
-470,000: India’s hominids are active in Tamil Nadu and Punjab.
-400,000: Soan culture in India is using primitive chopping tools.
-360,000: Fire is first controlled by homo erectus in China.
-300,000: Homo sapiens roams the earth, from Africa to Asia.
-100,000: Homo sapiens sapiens (humans) with 20th-century man’s brain size
-75,000: Last ice age begins. Human population is 1.7 million.
-45,000: After mastery of marine navigation, migrations from Southeast Asia settle
-40,000: Groups of hunter-gatherers in Central India are living in painted rock
-35,000: Migrations of separated Asian populations settle Europe.
-30,000: American Indians spread throughout the Americas.
-10,000: Last ice age ends after 65,000 years; earliest signs of agriculture. World
-10,000: Taittiriya Brahmana 3.1.2 refers to Purvabhadrapada nakshatra’s rising
-10,000: Vedic culture, the essence of humanity’s eternal wisdom, Sanatana
-9000: Old Europe, Anatolia and Minoan Crete display a Goddess-centered culture
-8500: Taittiriya Samhita 6.5.3 places Pleiades asterism at winter solstice,
-7500: Excavations at Neveli Cori in Turkey reveal advanced civilization with
-7000: Proto-Vedic period ends. Early Vedic period begins.
-7000: Time of Manu Vaivasvata, “father of mankind,” of Sarasvati-Drishadvati
-7000: Early evidence of horses in the Ganga region (Frawley).
-7000: Indus-Sarasvati area residents of Mehrgarh grow barley, raise sheep and
-6776: Start of Hindu lists of kings according to ancient Greek references that give
-6500: Rig Veda verses (e.g., 1.117.22, 1.116.12, 184.108.40.206) say winter solstice
-6000: Early sites on the Sarasvati River, then India’s largest, flowing west of Delhi
-5500: Mehrgarh villagers are making baked pottery and thousands of small, clay of
-5500: Date of astrological observations associated with ancient events later
-5000: World population, 5 million, doubles every 1,000 years.
-5000: Beginnings of Indus-Sarasvati civilizations of Harappa and Mohenjo-daro.
-5000: Rice is harvested in China, with grains found in baked bricks. But its
-4300: Traditional dating for Lord Rama’s time.
-4000: Excavations from this period at Sumerian sites of Kish and Susa reveal
-4000: India’s population is 1 million.
-4000: Date of world’s creation (Christian genealogies).
-3928: July 25th, the earliest eclipse mentioned in the Rig Veda (according to Indian
-3200: Hindu astronomers called nakshatra darshas record in Vedic texts their
-3102: Kali Era Hindu calendar starts. Kali Yuga begins.
-3100: Reference to vernal equinox in Rohini (middle of Taurus) from some
-3100: Early Vedic period ends, late Vedic period begins.
-3100: India includes Afghanistan and parts of Central Asia.
-3100: Aryan people inhabit Iran, Iraq and Western Indus-Sarasvati Valley frontier.
-3000: Weaving in Europe, Near East and Indus-Sarasvati Valley is primarily coiled
-3000: Evidence of horses in South India.
-3000: People of Tehuacan, Mexico, are cultivating corn.
-3000: Saiva Agamas are recorded in the time of the earliest Tamil Sangam. (A
-2700: Seals of Indus-Sarasvati Valley indicate Siva worship, in depictions of Siva
-2600: Indus-Sarasvati civilization reaches a height it sustains until 1700 bce.
-2600: Major portions of the Veda hymns are composed during the reign of
-2600: Drying up of Drishadvati River of Vedic fame, along with possible shifting of
-2600: First Egyptian pyramid is under construction.
-2500: Main period of Indus-Sarasvati cities. Culture relies heavily on rice and
-2500: Reference to vernal equinox in Krittika (Pleiades or early Taurus) from
-2300: Sargon founds Mesopotamian kingdom of Akkad, trades with
-2300: Indo-Europeans in Russia’s Ural steppelands develop efficient spoked-wheel
-2050: Vedic people are living in Persia and Afghanistan.
-2051: Divodasa reigns to -1961, has contact with Babylon’s King Indatu
ca -2040: Prince Rama is born at Ayodhya, site of future Rama temple. (This and
-2033: Reign of Dasharatha, father of Lord Rama. King Ravana, villain of the
-2000: Indo-Europeans (Celts, Slavs, Lithuanians, Ukranians) follow cosmology,
-2000: Probable date of first written Saiva Agamas.
-2000: World population: 27 million. India: 5 million or 22%. India has roughly G of
-1915: All Madurai Tamil Sangam is held at Thiruparankundram (according to
-1900: Late Vedic period ends, post Vedic period begins.
-1900: Drying up of Sarasvati River, end of Indus-Sarasvati culture, end of the
-1500: Egyptians bury their royalty in the Valley of the Kings.
-1500: Polynesians migrate throughout Pacific islands.
-1500: Submergence of the stone port city of Dwarka near Gujarat, where early
-1500: Indigenous iron technology in Dwarka and Kashmir.
-1500: Cinnamon is exported from Kerala to Middle East.
-1472: Reign of Dhritarashtra, father of the Kauravas. Reign of Yudhisthira, king of
-1450: End of Rig Veda Samhita narration.
-1450: Early Upanishads are composed during the next few hundred years, also
-1424: Bharata battle is fought, as related in the Mahabharata. (Professor Subash
-1424: Birth of Parikshit, grandson of Arjuna, and next king.
-1350: At Boghaz Koi in Turkey, stone inscription of the Mitanni treaty lists as
-1316: Mahabharata epic poem is composed by Sage Vyasa.
-1300: Panini composes Ashtadhyayi, systematizing Sanskrit grammar in 4,000
-1300: Changes are made in the Mahabharata and Ramayana through 200 bce.
-1255: King Shuchi of Magadha writes Jyotisha Vedanga, including astronomical
-1250: Moses leads 600,000 Jews out of Egypt.
-1200: Probable time of the legendary Greek Trojan War celebrated in Homer’s
-1124: Elamite Dynasty of Nebuchadnezzar (-1124-1103) moves capital to
-1000: Late Vedic period ends. Post-Vedic period begins.
Hindu Timeline Part 2
-1000: World population is 50 million, doubling every 500 years.
-975: King Hiram of Phoenicia, for the sake of King Solomon of Israel, trades with
-950: Jewish people arrive in India in King Solomon’s merchant fleet. Later Jewish
-950: Gradual breakdown of Sanskrit as a spoken language occurs over the next
-925: Jewish King David forms an empire in what is present-day Israel and
-900: Iron Age in India. Early use dates to at least -1500.
ca -900: Earliest records of the holy city of Varanasi (one of the world’s oldest
-900: Use of iron supplements bronze in Greece.
-850: The Chinese are using the 28-nakshatra zodiac called Shiu, adapted from the
ca -800: Later Upanishads are recorded.
-800: Later smriti, secondary Hindu scripture, is composed, elaborated and
-776: First Olympic Games are held in Greece.
-750: Prakrits, vernacular or “natural” languages, develop among India’s common
-750: Priestly Sanskrit is gradually refined over next 500 years, taking on its
-700: Life of Zoroaster of Persia, founder of Zoroastrianism. His holy book, Zend
-700: Early Smartism emerges from the syncretic Vedic brahminical (priestly caste)
-623-543: Life of Siddhartha Gautama, the Buddha, born in Uttar Pradesh in a
ca -600: Life of Sushruta, of Varanasi, the father of surgery. His ayurvedic treatises
ca -600: The Ajivika sect, an ascetic, atheistic group of naked sadhus reputated for
ca -600: Lifetime of Lao-tzu, founder of Taoism in China, author of Tao-te Ching.
-599-527: Lifetime of Mahavira Vardhamana, 24th Tirthankara and revered
-560: In Greece, Pythagoras teaches math, music, vegetarianism and yoga-drawing
-551-478: Lifetime of Confucius, founder of Confucianist faith. His teachings on
-518: Darius I of Persia (present Iran) invades Indus Valley. This Zoroastrian king
ca -500: Lifetime of Kapila, founder of Sankhya Darshana, one of six classical
ca -500: Dams to store water are constructed in India.
-500: World population is 100 million. India population is 25 million (15 million of
ca -500: Over the next 300 years (according to the later dating of Muller) numerous
ca -500: Tamil Sangam age (500 bce-500 ce) begins. Sage Agastya writes
ca -486: Ajatashatru (reign -486-458) ascends Magadha throne.
-480: Ajita, a nastika (atheist) who teaches a purely material explanation of life and
-478: Prince Vijaya, exiled by his father, King Sinhabahu, sails from Gujarat with
-450: Athenian philosopher Socrates flourishes (ca -470-400).
-428-348: Lifetime of Plato, Athenian disciple of Socrates. This great philosopher
ca -400: Panini composes his Sanskrit grammar, the Ashtadhyayi. (Date accepted
ca -400: Lifetime of Hippocrates, Greek physician and “father of medicine,”
ca -350: Rainfall is measured by Indian scientists.
-326: Alexander the Great of Greece invades, but fails to conquer, Northern India.
305: Chandragupta Maurya, founder of first pan-Indian empire (-324-184), defeats
ca -302: Kautilya (Chanakya), minister to Chandragupta Maurya, writes
-302: In Indica, Megasthenes, envoy to King Seleucus, reveals to Europe in colorful
ca -300: Chinese discover cast iron, known in Europe by 1300 ce.
ca -300: Pancharatra Vaishnava sect is prominent. All later Vaishnava sects are
ca -300: Pandya kingdom (-300-1700 ce) of S. India is founded, constructs
-297: Emperor Chandragupta abdicates to become a Jain monk.
-273: Ashoka (-273-232 reign), greatest Mauryan Emperor, grandson of
-251: Emperor Ashoka sends his son Mahendra (-270-204) to spread Buddhism in
ca -250: Lifetime of Maharishi Nandinatha, first known satguru in the Kailasa
ca -221: Great Wall of China is built, ultimately 2,600 miles long, the only
ca -200: Lifetime of Rishi Tirumular, shishya of Maharishi Nandinatha and author
ca -200: Lifetime of Patanjali, shishya of Nandinatha and gurubhai (brother monk)
ca -200: Lifetime of Bhogar Rishi, one of eighteen Tamil siddhas. This mystic
ca -200: Lifetime of Saint Tiruvalluvar, poet-weaver who lived near present-day
ca -200: Jaimini writes the Mimamsa Sutras.
ca -150: Ajanta Buddhist Caves are begun near present-day Hyderabad.
-145: Chola Empire (-145-1300 ce) of Tamil Nadu is founded, rising from modest
-140: Emperor Wu begins three-year reign of China; worship of the Mother
-130: Reign ends of Menander (Milinda), Indo-Greek king who converts to
-58: Vikrama Samvat Era Hindu calendar begins.
-50: Kushana Empire begins (-50-220 ce). This Mongolian Buddhist dynasty rules
ca -10: Ilangovadikal, son of King Cheralathan of the Tamil Sangam age, writes the
Western Calendar Begins. C.E. – Common Era
-4: Jesus of Nazareth (-4-30 ce), founder of Christianity, is born in Bethlehem
10: World population is 170 million. India population is 35 million: 20.5% of world.
ca 50: South Indians occupy Funan, Indochina. Kaundinya, an Indian brahmin, is
53: Legend records Saint Thomas’ death in Madras, one of the twelve Apostles of
ca 60: Buddhism is introduced in China by Emperor Ming Di (reign: 58-76) after he
ca 75: A Gujarat prince named Ajishaka invades Java.
78: Shaka Hindu calendar begins.
ca 80: Jains divide, on points of rules for monks, into the Shvetambara,
ca 80-180: Lifetime of Charaka. Court physician of the Kushan king, he formulates
ca 100: Lifetime of Shandilya, first systematic promulgator of the ancient
100: Zhang Qian of China establishes trade routes to India and as far west as Rome,
105: Paper is invented in China.
117: The Roman Empire reaches its greatest extent.
125: Shatakarni (ca 106-130 reign) of Andhra’s Satavahana
(-70-225) dynasty destroys Shaka kingdom of Gujarat.
ca 175: Greek astronomer Ptolemy, known as Asura Maya in India, explains solar
180: Mexican city of Teotihuacan has 100,000 population and covers 11 square
ca 200: Lifetime of Lakulisha, famed guru who leads a reformist movement within
ca 200: Hindu kingdoms established in Cambodia and Malaysia.
205-270: Lifetime of Plotinus, Egyptian-born monistic Greek philosopher and
ca 250: Pallava dynasty (ca 250-885) is established in Tamil Nadu, responsible for
ca 275: Buddhist monastery Mahavihara is founded in Anuradhapura, capital of Sri
350: Imperial Gupta dynasty (320-540) flourishes. During this “Classical Age”
ca 350: Lifetime of Kalidasa, the great Sanskrit poet and dramatist, author of
ca 350: Licchavi dynasty (ca 350-900) establishes Hindu rule in Nepal. Small
358: Huns, excellent archers and horsemen possibly of Turkish origin, invade
375: Maharaja Chandragupta II Vikramaditya, greatest Hindu monarch, reigns to
391: Roman Emperor Theodosius destroys Greek Hellenistic temples in favor of
ca 400: Laws of Manu (Manu Dharma Shastras) written. Its 2,685 verses codify
ca 400: Polynesians sailing in open outrigger canoes reach as far as Hawaii and
ca 400: Shaturanga, Indian forerunner of chess, has evolved from Ashtapada, a
ca 400: Vatsyayana writes Kamasutra, famous text on erotics.
419: Moche people of Peru build a Sun temple 150 feet high using 50 million
438-45: Council of Ferrara-Florence, Italy, strengthens Roman Catholic stance
ca 440: Ajanta cave frescoes (long before Islam) depict Buddha as Prince
450-535: Life of Bodhidharma of South India, 28th patriarch of India’s Dhyana
ca 450: Hephtalite invasions (ca 450-565) take a great toll in North India. These
ca 450: As the Gupta Empire declines, Indian sculptural style evolves and continues
453: Attila the Hun dies after lifetime of plundering Europe.
499: Aryabhata I (476-ca 550), Indian astronomer and mathematician, using Hindu
ca 500: Mahavamsa, chronicling Sri Lankan history from -500 is written in Pali,
ca 500: Sectarian folk traditions are revised, elaborated and reduced to writing as
500: World population is 190 million. India population is 50 million: 26.3% of
510: Hephtalite Mihirakula from beyond Oxus River crushes imperial Gupta power.
ca 533: Yashovarman of Malva and Ishanavarman of Kanauj defeat and expel the
ca 543: Pulakeshin I founds Chalukya Dynasty (ca 543-757; 975-1189) in Gujarat
548: Emperor Kimmei officially recognizes Buddhism in Japan by accepting a gift
553: Council of Constantinople II denies doctrine of soul’s existence before
565: The Turks and Persians defeat the Hephtalites.
570-632: Lifetime of Mohammed, preacher of the Quraysh Bedoin tribe, founder of
ca 590-671: Lifetime of Saiva saint Nayanar Tirunavukkarasu, born into a farmer
ca 598-665: Lifetime of Brahmagupta, preeminent Indian astronomer, who writes
ca 600: Religiously tolerant Pallava King Narasinhavarman builds China Pagoda, a
ca 610: Muhammed begins prophecies, flees to Mecca in 622.
ca 600-900: Twelve Vaishnava Alvar saints of Tamil Nadu flourish, writing 4,000
ca 600: Life of Banabhatta, Shakta master of Sanskrit prose, author of
606: Buddhist Harshavardhana, reigning 606-644, establishes first great kingdom
ca 630: Vagbhata writes Ashtanga Sangraha on ayurveda.
630-34: Chalukya Pulakeshin II becomes Lord of South India by defeating
630-44: Chinese pilgrim Hiuen-Tsang (Huan Zang) travels in India, recording
641-45: Arab Muslims conquer Mesopotamia, Egypt and Persia.
ca 650: Lifetime of Nayanar Saiva saint Tirujnana Sambandar. Born a brahmin in
ca 650: More than 60 Chinese monks have traveled to India and her colonies. Four
686-705: Reign of Pallava King Rajasinha. He inherits the stone-carving legacy of
ca 700: Over the next 100 years the Indonesian island of Bali receives Hinduism
712: Muslims conquer Sind region (Pakistan), providing base for pillaging
732: French prevent Muslim conquest of Europe, stopping Arabs at Poitiers,
739: Chalukya armies beat back Arab Muslim invasions at Navasari in modern
ca750-1159: Pala dynasty arises in Bihar and Bengal, last royal patrons of
ca 750: Kailasa temple is carved out of a hill of rock at Ellora.
ca 750: Hindu astronomer and mathematician travels to Baghdad, with
ca 750: Lifetime of Bhavabhuti, Sanskrit dramatist, second only to Kalidasa. Writes
ca 750: Valmiki writes 29,000-verse Yoga Vasishtha.
ca 750: A necklace timepiece, kadikaram in Tamil, is worn by an Emperor
788: Adi Shankara (788-820) is born in Malabar, famous monk philosopher of
ca 800: Bhakti revival curtails Buddhism in South India. In the North, Buddha is
ca 800: Life of Nammalvar, greatest of Alvar saints. His poems shape the beliefs of
ca 800: Lifetime of Vasugupta, modern founder of Kashmir Saivism, a monistic,
ca 800: Lifetime of Auvaiyar, woman saint of Tamil Nadu, great devotee of Lord
ca 800: Lifetime of Karaikkal Ammaiyar, one of the 63 Saiva saints of Tamil Nadu.
ca 825: Nayanar Tamil saint Sundarar is born into a family of Adishaiva temple
ca 800: Lifetime of Andal, woman saint of Tamil Nadu. Writes devotional poetry to
ca 825: Vasugupta discovers the rock-carved Siva Sutras.
846: Vijayalaya reestablishes his Chola dynasty, which over the next 100 years
ca 850: Shri Vaishnava sect established in Tamil Nadu by Acharya Nathamuni,
ca 850: Life of Manikkavasagar, Saiva Samayacharya saint, born in Tiruvadavur,
875: Muslim conquests extend from Spain to Indus Valley.
885: Cholas kill Aparajita, king of the Pallavas, in battle.
ca 900: Lifetime of Matsyendranatha, exponent of the Natha sect emphasizing
ca 900: Under the Hindu Malla dynasty (ca 900-1700) of Nepal, legal and social
ca 900-1001: Lifetime of Sembiyan Ma Devi, queen of Maharaja Gandaraditta
900: Mataramas dynasty in Indonesia reverts to Saivism after a century of
ca 950: Lifetime of Gorakshanatha, Natha yogi who founds the order of Kanphatha
ca 950-1015: Lifetime of Kashmir Saiva guru Abhinavagupta.
960: Chola King Vira, after having a vision of Siva Nataraja dancing, commences
985: Rajaraja I (reign 985-1014) ascends the South Indian Chola throne and ushers
ca 1000: Gorakshanatha writes Siddha Siddhanta Paddhati, “Tracks on the
Hindu Timeline Part 3
1000: World population is 265 million. India population is 79 million, 29.8% of
ca 1000: A few Hindu communities from Rajasthan, Sindh and other areas, the
ca 1000: Vikings reach North America, landing in Nova Scotia.
ca 1000: Polynesians arrive in New Zealand, last stage in the greatest migration and
1001: Turkish Muslims sweep through the Northwest under Mahmud of Ghazni,
ca 1010: Tirumurai, Tamil devotional hymns of Saiva saints, is collected as an
1017: Mahmud of Ghazni sacks Mathura, birthplace of Lord Krishna, and
1017-1137: Life of Ramanuja of Kanchipuram, Tamil philosopher-saint of Shri
1018-1060: Lifetime of Bhojadeva Paramara, Gujarati king, poet, artist and
1024: Mahmud of Ghazni plunders Somanath Siva temple, destroying the Linga and
1025: Chola ruler Maharaja Rajendra I sends victorious naval expeditions to Burma,
ca 1040: Chinese invent the compass and moveable type and perfect the use of
ca 1050: Lifetime of Shrikantha, promulgator of Siva Advaita, a major philosophical
ca 1130-1200: Lifetime of Nimbarka, Telegu founder of the Vaishnava Nimandi
ca 1130: Lifetime of Sekkilar, Tamil chief minister under Chola Emperor
ca 1150: Life of Basavanna, renaissance guru of the Vira Saiva sect, stressing free
ca 1150: Khmer ruler Suryavarman II completes Angkor Wat temple (in
ca 1162: Mahadevi is born, female Saiva ascetic saint of Karnataka, writes 350
1175: Toltec Empire of Mexico crumbles.
1185: Mohammed of Ghur conquers Punjab and Lahore.
1191: Eisai founds Rinzai Zen sect in Japan after study in China.
1193: Qutb ud-Din Aybak founds first Muslim Sultanate of Delhi, establishing the
1197: Great Buddhist university of Nalanda is destroyed by Muslim Ikhtiyar ud-din.
1200: All of North India is under Muslim domination.
1200: India population reaches 80 million.
ca 1200: An unknown author writes Yoga Yajnavalkya.
1215: King John is forced to sign the Magna Carta, giving greater rights to citizens
1227: Mongolian Emperor Genghis Khan, conqueror of a vast area from Beijing,
1230-60: Surya temple at Konarak, Orissa, India, is constructed.
1238-1317: Lifetime of Ananda Tirtha, Madhva, venerable Vaishnava dualist and
ca 1250: Lifetime of Meykandar, Saiva saint who founds the Meykandar school of
1260: Meister Eckhart, the German mystic, is born.
1268-1369: Lifetime of Vedanta Deshikar, gifted Tamil scholar and poet who
1270-1350: Lifetime of Namadeva, foremost poet saint of Maharashtra’s Varkari
1272: Marco Polo visits India en route to China.
1274: Council of Lyons II declares that souls go immediately to heaven, purgatory
1275-96: Lifetime of Jnanadeva, Natha-trained Vaishnava saint, founder of the
1279: Muktabai is born, Maharashtrian Varkari saint and Natha yogini, writes 100
1280: Mongol (Yuen) dynasty (1280-1368) begins in China, under which occurs the
1296: Ala-ud-din, second king of Khalji dynasty, rules most of India after his
ca 1300: Lifetime of Janabai, Maharashtrian Varkari Vaishnava woman saint who
ca 1300: The Ananda Samucchaya is written, 277 stanzas on hatha yoga, with
1300: Muslim conquerors reach Cape Comorin at the southernmost tip of India and
1317-72: Life of Lalla of Kashmir. Saiva renunciate, mystic poetess contributes
1336: Vijayanagara Empire (1336-1565-1646) of South India is founded. European
1345: Aztecs establish great civilization in Mexico.
1346-90: Life of Krittivasa, translator of Ramayana into Bengali.
1347: Plague called the Black Death spreads rapidly, killing 75 million worldwide
ca 1350: Svatmarama writes Hatha Yoga Pradipika.
ca 1350: Lifetime of Appaya Dikshita, South Indian philosoper saint whose writings
1398: Tamerlane (Timur) invades India with 90,000 cavalry and sacks Delhi
1399: Hardwar, Ganga pilgrimage town, is sacked by Timur.
ca 1400: Goraksha Upanishad is written.
1414: Hindu prince Parameshvara of Malaysia converts to Islam.
1414-80: Life of Gujarati Vaishnava poet-saint Narasinha Mehta.
1415: Bengali poet-singer Baru Chandidas writes Shrikrishnakirtana, a collection of
1429: Joan of Arc, age 17, leads the French to victory over the English.
ca 1433: China cloisters itself from outside world by banning further voyages to the
1440-1518: Lifetime of Kabir, Vaishnava reformer with who has both Muslim and
ca 1440: Johannes Gutenberg (ca 1400-1468) invents the West’s first
1450?-1547: Lifetime of Mirabai, Vaishnava Rajput princess saint who, married at
1469-1538: Lifetime of Guru Nanak, founder of Sikhism, originally a reformist
1478: Spanish Inquisition begins. Over the next 20 years, Christians burn several
1479-1531: Lifetime of Vallabhacharya, a married Telegu brahmin saint who
1483-1563: Lifetime of Surdas, sightless Hindi bard of Agra, whose hymns to
1486-1543: Life of Chaitanya, Bengali founder of popular Vaishnava sect which
1492: Looking for India, Christopher Columbus lands on San Salvador island in the
1498: Portugal’s Vasco da Gama sails around Cape of Good Hope to Calicut,
ca 1500: Life of Arunagirinathar, Tamil saint, author of Tiruppugal hymns;
ca 1500: Buddhist and Saiva Hindu princes are forced off Java by invading
Hindu Timeline Part 4
1500: World population 425 million; 105 million live in India.
1503-1566: Lifetime of Nostradamus, French physician and astrologer who wrote
1509-1529: Reign of Maharaja Krishnadevaraya of the Vijayanagara Empire in
1510: Portuguese Catholics conquer Goa to serve as capital of their Asian maritime
1517: Luther begins Protestant reformation in Europe.
ca 1520: Poet-saint Purandardas (1480-1564) of the Vijayanagara court
1526: Mughal conqueror Babur (1483-1530) defeats the Sultan of Delhi and
1528: Emperor Babur destroys temple at Lord Rama’s birthplace in Ayodhya,
1532-1623: Life of Monk-poet Tulasidasa. Writes Ramacharitamanasa (1574-77),
1542: Portuguese Jesuit priest Francis Xavier (1506-1552), most successful
1544-1603: Life of Dadu, ascetic saint of Gujarat, founder of Dadupantha, which is
1556: Akbar (1542-1605), grandson of Babur, becomes third Mughal Emperor at
1565: Muslim forces defeat and completely destroy the city of Vijayanagara.
1565: Polish astronomer Copernicus’ (1473-1543) Heliocentric system, in which the
1569: Akbar captures fortress of Ranthambor, ending Rajput independence. Soon
ca 1570: Ekanatha (1533-99), Varkari Vaishnava saint and mystic composer, edits
1588: British ships defeat the Spanish Armada off the coast of Calais, France, to
1589: Akbar rules half of India, shows tolerance for all faiths.
1595: Construction is begun on Chidambaram Temple’s Hall of a Thousand Pillars
ca 1600: “Persian wheel” to lift water by oxen is adopted, one of few farming
1600: Royal Charter forms the East India Company, setting in motion a process that
1603-4: Guru Arjun compiles Adi Granth, Sikh scripture.
1605: Akbar the Great dies at age 63. His son Jahangir succeeds him as fourth
1605: Sikh Golden Temple (Harimandir) at Amritsar, Punjab, is finished,
1608-49: Lifetime of Tukaram, beloved Varkari sant famed for his abhangas,
1608-81: Lifetime of Ramdas, mystic poet, Sivaji’s guru, Marathi saint, who gives
1610: Galileo of Italy (1564-1642) perfects the telescope, with which he confirms
1613-14: British East India Company sets up trading post at Surat.
1615-18: Mughals grant Britain right to trade and establish factories in exchange for
1619: Jaffna kingdom is annexed and Sri Lanka’s ruling dynasty deposed by
1619: First black slaves from Africa are sold in the USA.
1620: European pilgrims land and settle at Plymouth Rock, US.
1627-80: Life of Sivaji, valiant general and tolerant founder of Hindu Maratha
ca 1628-88: Lifetime of Kumaraguruparar, prolific poet-saint of Tamil Nadu who
1630: Over the next two years, millions starve to death as Shah Jahan (1592-1666),
1647: Shah Jahan completes Taj Mahal in Agra beside Yamuna River. Its
1649: Red Fort is completed in Delhi by Shah Jahan.
ca 1650: Dharmapuram Aadheenam, Saiva monastery, founded near Mayuram,
ca 1650: Robert de Nobili (1577-1656), Portuguese Jesuit missionary noted for
ca 1650: Two yoga classics, Siva Samhita and Gheranda Samhita, are written.
1654: A Tamil karttanam is written and sung to celebrate recovery installation of
1658: Zealous Muslim Aurangzeb (1618-1707) becomes Mughal Emperor. His
1660: Frenchman Francois Bernier reports India’s peasantry is living in misery
1664: Great Plague of London kills 70,000, 15% of the population.
1675: Aurangzeb executes Sikh Guru Tegh Bahadur, beginning the Sikh-Muslim
1679: Aurangzeb levies Jizya tax on non-believers, Hindus.
1688: Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb demolishes all temples in Mathura, said to
1700: World population is 610 million. India population is 165 million: 27% of
1705-42: Lifetime of Tayumanavar, Tamil Saiva poet saint and devotional yogic
1708: Govind Singh, tenth and last Sikh guru, is assassinated.
1708-37: Jai Singh II builds astronomical observatories in Delhi, Jaipur, Ujjain,
1718-75: Lifetime of Ramprasad, Bengali Shakta poet-saint.
1722: Peter the Great rules in Russia.
ca 1725: Jesuit Father Hanxleden compiles first Sanskrit grammar in a European
ca 1750: Shakta songs of Bengali poets Ramprasad Sen and Kamalakanta
1751: Robert Clive, age 26, seizes Arcot in modern Tamil Nadu as French and
1760: Saiva sannyasis fight Vaishnava vairagis in tragic battle at Hardwar Kumbha
1760: Eliezer (Besht), liberal founder of Hasidic Judaism, dies.
1761: Afghan army of Ahmad Shah Durrani routs Hindu Maratha forces at Panipat,
1764: British defeat the weak Mughal Emperor to become rulers of Bengal, richest
1769: Prithivi Narayan Shah, ruler of Gorkha principality, conquers Nepal Valley;
ca 1770-1840: Life of Rishi from the Himalayas, guru of Kadaitswami and first
1773: British East India Company obtains monopoly on the production and sale of
ca 1780-1830: Golden era of Karnatik music. Composers include Tyagaraja,
1781: George Washington defeats British at Yorktown, US.
1781-1830: Lifetime of Sahajanandaswami, Gujarati founder of the Swaminarayan
1784: Judge and linguist Sir William Jones founds Calcutta’s Royal Asiatic Society.
1786: Sir William Jones uses the Rig Veda term Aryan (“noble”) to name the parent
1787-95: British Parliament impeaches Warren Hastings, Governor General of
1787: British Committee for the Abolition of the Slave Trade is formed, marking
1789: French revolution begins with storming of the Bastille.
1792: Britain’s Cornwallis defeats Tipu Sahib, Sultan of Mysore and most powerful
1793: Eli Whitney invents the cotton gin in the US, greatly affecting the institution
1796: Over two million worshipers compete for sacred Ganga bath at Kumbha Mela
1799: Sultan Tipu is killed in battle against 5,000 British soldiers who storm and
Hindu Timeline Part 5
1803: Second Anglo-Maratha war results in British Christian capture of Delhi and
1803: India’s population is 200 million.
1803-82: Lifetime of Ralph Waldo Emerson, American poet who helps popularize
1807: Importation of slaves is banned in the US through an act of Congress
1809: British strike a bargain with Ranjit Singh for exclusive areas of influence.
ca 1810-75: Lifetime of renaissance guru Kadaitswami, born near Bangalore, sent
1812: Napoleon’s army retreats from Moscow. Only 20,000 soldiers survive out of
1814: First practical steam locomotive is built.
1817-92: Lifetime of Bahaullah, Mirza Husayn ‘Ali, founder of Baha’i faith (1863),
1818-78: Lifetime of Sivadayal, renaissance founder of the esoteric reformist
1820: First Indian immigrants arrive in the US.
1822-79: Life of Arumuga Navalar of Jaffna, Sri Lanka, renaissance activist who
1823-74: Life of Ramalingaswami, Tamil saint, renaissance founder of Vadalur’s
1824-83: Lifetime of Swami Dayananda Sarasvati, renaissance founder of Arya
1825: First massive immigration of Indian workers from Madras is to Reunion and
1828: Ram Mohan Roy (1772-1833) founds Adi Brahmo Samaj in Calcutta, first
1831-91: Lifetime of Russian mystic Madame H.P. Blavatsky, founder of
1831: British Christians defeat Ranjit Singh’s forces at Balakot, in Sikh attempt to
1833: Slavery is abolished in British Commonwealth countries, giving impetus to
1835: Civil service jobs in India are opened to Indians.
1835: Macaulay’s Minute furthers Western education in India. English is made
1835: Mauritius receives 19,000 immigrant indentured laborers from India. Last
1836-86: Lifetime of Shri Ramakrishna, God-intoxicated Bengali Shakta saint, guru
1837: Britain formalizes emigration of Indian indentured laborers to supply cheap
1837: Kali-worshiping Thugees are suppressed by British.
1838: British Guyana receives its first 250 Indian laborers.
1838-84: Lifetime of Keshab Chandra Sen, Hindu reformer who founds Brahma
1840-1915: Lifetime of Satguru Chellappaswami of Jaffna, Sri Lanka, initiated at
1840: Joseph de Goubineau (1816-1882), French scholar, writes The Inequality of
1842-1901: Life of Eknath Ranade, founder of Prarthana Samaj. His social-reform
1843: British conquer the Sind region (present-day Pakistan).
1845: Trinidad receives its first 197 Indian immigrant laborers.
1846: British forcibly separate Kashmir from the Sikhs and sell it to the Maharaja of
1849: Sikh army is defeated by the British at Amritsar.
1850: First English translation of the Rig Veda by H.H. Wilson, first holder of
1851: Sir M. Monier-Williams (1819-99) publishes English-Sanskrit Dictionary. His
1853-1920: Lifetime of Shri Sharada Devi, wife of Shri Ramakrishna.
1853: Max Muller (1823-1900), German Christian philologist and Orientalist,
1856: Catholic missionary Bishop Caldwell coins the term Dravidian to refer to
1857: First Indian Revolution, called the Sepoy Mutiny, ends in a few months with
1858: India has 200 miles of railroad track. By 1869 5,000 miles of steel track have
1859: Charles Darwin, releases controversial book, The Origin of Species,
1860: S.S. Truro and S.S. Belvedere dock in Durban, S. Africa, carrying first
1861: American Civil War begins in Charleston, S. Carolina.
1861-1941: Lifetime of Bengali poet Rabindranath Tagore, awarded the Nobel
1863-1902: Life of Swami Vivekananda, dynamic renaissance missionary to West
1869-1948: Lifetime of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, Indian nationalist and
1870: Papal doctrine of infallibility is asserted by the Vatican.
1872-1964: Lifetime of Satguru Yogaswami, Natha renaissance sage of Sri Lanka,
1872-1950: Life of Shri Aurobindo Ghosh, Bengali Indian nationalist and
1873-1906: Lifetime of Swami Rama Tirtha, who lectures throughout Japan and
1875: Madame Blavatsky founds Theosophical Society in New York, later
1876: British Queen Victoria (1819-1901), head of Church of England, is
1876: Alexander Graham Bell invents the telephone.
1876-1990: Max Muller, pioneer of comparative religion as a scholarly discipline,
1877-1947: Lifetime of Sri Lanka’s Ananda Coomaraswamy, foremost interpreter
1879: Incandescent lamp is invented by Thomas Edison (1847-1931). The
1879: The “Leonidas,” first emigrant ship to Fiji, adds 498 Indian indentured
1879-1966: Lifetime of Sadhu T.L. Vaswani, altruistic Sindhi poet and servant of
1879-1950: Lifetime of Shri Ramana Maharshi, Hindu Advaita renunciate
1882-1927: Lifetime of Hazrat Inayat Khan, Indian-born Muslim mystic,
1884-1963: Lifetime of Swami Ramdas, known as “Papa,” Indian saint and devotee
1885: A group of middle-class intellectuals in India, some of them British, found the
1885: First automobile powered by an internal combustion engine is produced by
1886: Rene Guenon is born, first European philosopher to become a Vedantin, says
1887-1963: Life of Swami Sivananda, Hindu universalist renaissance guru, author
1888: Max Muller, revising his stance, writes, “Aryan, in scientific language, is
1888-1975: Lifetime of Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, renowned Tamil panentheist,
1891: Maha Bodhi Society, an organization to encourage Buddhist studies in India
1893: Swami Vivekananda represents Hinduism at Chicago’s Parliament of the
1893-1952: Life of Paramahamsa Yogananda, universalist Hindu, renaissance
1894: Gandhi drafts first petition protesting the indentured servant system. Less
1894-1994: Lifetime of Swami Chandrashekarendra, venerated Shankaracharya
1894-1969: Life of Meher Baba of Poona, silent sage whose mystical teachings
1896-1982: Lifetime of Anandamayi Ma, God-intoxicated yogini and mystic Bengali
1896: Nationalist leader, Marathi scholar Bal Bangadhar Tilak (1857-1920) initiates
1896-1977: Lifetime of Vaishnava Hindu renaissance activist Bhaktivedanta Swami
1896: American humorist Mark Twain writes Following the Equator, describing his
1897: Swami Vivekananda founds Ramakrishna Mission.
1898-1907: Cholera epidemic claims 370,000 lives in India.
1900: World population is 1.6 billion. India population is 290 million: 17.8% of
1900: India’s tea exports to Britain reach 137 million pounds.
1900-77: Uday Shankar of Udaipur, dancer and choreographer, adapts Western
1905: Lord Curzon, arrogant British Viceroy of India, resigns.
1905: Sage Yogaswami, age 33, is initiated by Chellappaswami at Nallur, Sri Lanka;
1906: Muslim League political party is formed in India.
1906: Dutch Christians overtake Bali after Puputan massacres in which Hindu
1908-82: Lifetime of Swami Muktananda, global Kashmir Saiva renaissance satguru
1909-69: Lifetime of Dada Lekhraj (1909-1969), Hindu renaissance founder of
1909: Gandhi and assistant Maganlal agitate for better working conditions and
1912: Anti-Indian racial riots on the US West Coast expel large Hindu immigrant
1913: New law prohibits Indian immigration to S. Africa, primarily in answer to
1914: US government excludes Indian citizens from immigration. Restriction stands
1914: Austria’s Archduke Ferdinand is assassinated by Christian Serb nationalists.
1914: Swami Satchidananda is born, founder of Integral Yoga Institute and Light of
1917: Communists under Lenin seize power in Russia, 1/6th of the Earth’s land
1917: Last Hindu Indian indentured laborers are brought to British Christian
1917-93: Life of Swami Chinmayananda, Vedantist writer, lecturer, Hindu
1918: World War I ends. Death toll is estimated at ten million.
1918: Spanish Influenza epidemic kills 12.5 million in India, 21.6 million worldwide.
1918: Shirdi Sai Baba, saint to both Hindus and Muslims, dies at approximately age
1919: Brigadier Dyer orders Gurkha troops to shoot unarmed demonstrators in
1920: Gandhi formulates the satyagraha, “firmness in truth,” strategy of
1920: System of indentured servitude is abolished by India, following grassroots
1920: Ravi Shankar is born in Varanasi, sitar master, composer and founder of
1922: Pramukh Swami is born, renaissance traditionalist Hindu, head of
1922: Tagore’s school at Shantineketan (founded 1901) is made into Vishva Bharati
1923: US law excludes citizens of India from naturalization.
1924: Sir John Marshall (1876-1958) discovers relics of the Indus Valley Hindu
1925: Dr. Keshav Baliram (K B) Hedgewar (1889 – 1940) founds Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS), a
1926: Satya Sai Baba is born, Hindu universalist renaissance charismatic guru,
1927: Sivaya Subramuniyaswami is born, present-day satguru in the Nandinatha
1927: Maharashtra bars tradition of dedicating girls to temples as Devadasis, ritual
1927 & 34: Indians permitted to sit as jurors and court magistrates.
1928: Hindu leader Jawaharlal Nehru drafts plan for a free India; becomes president
1929: Chellachiamman, woman saint of Sri Lanka, dies. She was mentor to Sage
1931: Shri Chinmoy is born in Bengal, yogi, artist, self-transcendence master and
1931: 2.5 million Indians reside overseas; largest communities are in Sri Lanka,
1931: Dr. Karan Singh is born, son and heir apparent of Kashmir’s last Maharaja;
1934: Paul Brunton’s instantly popular A Search in Secret India makes known to
1936-1991: Lifetime of Shrimati Rukmini Devi, founder of Kalakshetra-a school of
1938: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan is founded in Bombay by K.M. Munshi to conserve,
1939: Adolph Hitler’s Mein Kampf (“My Struggle”), manifesto of Nazism,
1939: World War II begins September 3, as France and Britain declare war on
1939: Maria Montessori (1870-1952), first Italian female physician and “discoverer
1939: Mohammed Ali Jinnah calls for a separate Muslim state.
1941: First US chair of Sanskrit and Indology established at Yale Univ.; American
1942: At sites along the lost Sarasvati River in Rajasthan, archeologist Sir Aurel
1945: Germany surrenders to Allied forces. Ghastly concentration camps that killed
1945: US drops atomic bombs on Nagasaki and Hiroshima, Japan, ending World
1945: United Nations founded by 4 Allied nations and China to “save succeeding
1947: India gains independence from Britain August 15. Pakistan emerges as a
1948: Britain grants colony of Sri Lanka Dominion status and self-government
1948: Establishment of Sarva Seva Sangh, Gandhian movement for new social
1948: Mahatma Gandhi is assassinated January 30th by Nathuram Godse, 35,
1949: Sri Lanka’s Sage Yogaswami initiates Sivaya Subramuniyaswami as his
1949: India’s new constitution, authored chiefly by B.R. Ambedkar, declares there
1950: Wartime jobs in West, taking women out of home, have led to weakened
1950: India is declared a secular republic. Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru
1951: India’s Bharatiya Janata Sangh (BJP) party is founded.
1955-6: Indian government enacts social reforms on Hindu marriage, succession,
1950-60s Tours of Ravi Shankar and Ali Akbar Khan lead to worldwide
1955: Albert Einstein (1879-1955), German physicist formulator of the relativity
1956: Indian government reorganizes states according to linguistic principles and
1956: Swami Satchidananda makes first visit to America.
1957: Sivaya Subramuniyaswami founds Himalayan Academy and opens US’s first
1959: Dalai Lama flees Tibet and finds refuge in North India as China invades his
1959: The transistor makes computers smaller and faster than prototypes like the
1960: Since 1930, 5% of immigrants to US have been Asians, while European
1960: Border war with China shakes India’s nonaligned policy.
1961: India forcibly reclaims Goa, Damao and Diu from the Portuguese. Goa
1963: US President Kennedy is assassinated in Dallas, Texas.
1963: Hallucinogenic drug culture arises in US. Hindu gurus decry the false promise
1964: India’s Vishva Hindu Parishad (VHP), a Hindu religious nationalist
1964: Rock group, the Beatles, practice Transcendental Meditation (TM), bringing
1965: US immigration cancels racial qualifications and restores naturalization rights.
1966: J. Nehru’s daughter, Indira Gandhi, becomes Prime Minister of India, world’s
1968: US Civil Rights leader Martin Luther King is assassinated.
1969: US astronaut Neil Armstrong sets foot on the moon.
1970: Kauai Aadheenam, Hindu monastery, site of Kadavul Hindu Temple, Saiva
1971: Rebellion in East Pakistan (formerly Bengal). Ten million Bengalis, mainly
1972: A Historical Atlas of South Asia is produced by Joseph E. Schwartzberg, Siva
1972: Muslim dictator Idi Amin expels Indians from Uganda.
1973: Neem Karoli Baba, Hindu mystic and siddha, dies.
1974: India detonates a “nuclear device.”
1974: Watergate scandal. US President Nixon resigns.
1975: Netherlands gives independence to Dutch Guyana, which becomes Suriname;
1977: One hundred thousand Tamil Hindu tea-pickers expatriated from Sri Lanka
1979: Sivaya Subramuniyaswami founds Hinduism Today international newspaper
1980: Grand South Indian counterpart to Kumbha Mela of Prayag, the
1981: India has one-half world’s cattle: 8 cows for every 10 Indians.
1981: Deadly AIDS disease is conclusively identified.
1981: First bharata natyam dance in a temple since 1947 Christian-British ban on
1983: Violence between Hindu Tamils and Buddhist Singhalese in Sri Lanka marks
1984: Balasarasvati, eminent classical Karnatic singer and bharata natyam dancer of
1984: Since 1980, Asians have made up 48% of immigrants to the US, with the
1984: Indian soldiers under orders from Prime Minister Indira Gandhi storm Sikh
1986: Swami Satchidananda dedicates Light of Truth Universal Shrine (LOTUS) at
1986: Jiddha Krishnamurti, anti-guru guru, semi-existentialist philosophical Indian
1986: World Religious Parliament in New Delhi bestows the title Jagadacharya,
1987: Colonel S. Rabuka, a Methodist, leads coup deposing Fiji’s Indian-dominated
1988: General Ershad declares Islam state religion of Bangladesh, outraging
1988: US allows annual influx of 270,000 Asian immigrants.
1988: First Global Forum of Spiritual and Parliamentary Leaders on Human
1989: Christian missionaries are spending US%165 million per year to convert
1990: The Berlin Wall is taken down February 12. Germany is reunited over the
1990: Under its new democratic constitution, Nepal remains the world’s only Hindu
1990: Hindus flee Muslim persecution in Kashmir Valley.
1990: Foundation stones are laid in Ayodhya for new temple at the birthplace of
1990: Vatican condemns Eastern mysticism as false doctrine in letter by Cardinal
1990: Second Global Forum of Spiritual Leaders and Parliamentarians for Human
1990: Communist leadership of USSR collapses, to be replaced by 12 independent
1991: Hindu Renaissance Award is founded by Hinduism Today and declares
1991: Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi is assassinated in Tamil Nadu in May. India
1991: Indian tribals, adivasis, are 45 million strong.
1991: In Bangalore, India, Satguru Sivaya Subramuniyaswami authorizes renowned
1992: Swami Chidananda Saraswati, spiritual head of Parmarth Niketan Trust, with
1992: World population is 5.2 billion; 17% or 895 million, live in India. Of these,
1992: Third Global Forum of Spiritual Leaders and Parliamentarians for Human
1992: Hindu radicals demolish Babri Masjid built in 1548 on Rama’s birthplace in
1993: Fourth Global Forum of Spiritual and Parliamentary Leaders on Human
1993: Swami Chinmayananda is named 1992 Hindu of the Year, for lifetime of
1993: Swami Brahmananda Sarasvati, renowned yoga scholar, and Swami
1993: Chicago’s historic centenary Parliament of the World’s Religions convenes in
1994: Harvard University research identifies over 800 Hindu temples open for
1994: Mata Amritanandamayi (1953-) charismatic woman saint of Kerala, is named
1994: All India pays homage to Kanchi’s beloved peripatetic tapasvin sage, Shri la
1994: Hindu Heritage Endowment, first Hindu international trust, founded by
2000: World population is 6.2 billion. India population is 1.2 billion: 20% of world
2050: British historian Arnold Toynbee (1889-1975) predicted that at the close of
2094: Bharat (formerly India) is world’s most populous nation. Sanatana Dharma,
Aum. Shanti, Shanti, Shanti. Aum.
A less detailed timeline:
1600–1400 B.C.E. —The Aryan warrior culture conquers the Indus River Valley, bringing with it the Sanskrit language and major influences in the development of Hinduism.
1500–1200 B.C.E. —The Vedic Age in which the Rig Veda is written, reflecting the influence of joining the Aryan and Indus River Valley cultures.
1000–300 B.C.E. —The Brahmanas and Upanishads are written and added to the original Vedas.
600–500 B.C.E. —The Age of Protest as Buddhism and Jainism break away from the main flow of Hinduism.
400 B.C.E.–800 C.E. —The Hindu response to Buddhism and Jainism results in further changes to the main teachings of Hinduism.
326 B.C.E. —Alexander the Great brings his army and the influence of Greek civilization into the northernmost regions of India. The Indian Mauryan Empire is created to counter this Greek invasion of culture and ideas.
250 B.C.E. —Ashoka becomes Emperor of the Mauryan Dynasty.
400–500 C.E. — Hinduism returns as the dominant religion of India. Temples and monuments are built to honor Hindu ideas, gods and beliefs. This is the era of the Hindu Renaissance.
800–1000 C.E. — Bhakti movements begin to develop in India.
900 C.E. — Shankara teaches the reality of One Brahman or One God, introducing significant monotheistic beliefs into Hinduism.
1100 C.E. — Muslims arrive in India and influence the evolution of the Hindu faith.
1400–1700 C.E. — Europeans arrive in India to pursue colonization and commercial goals within the Hindu world.
1919–1948 C.E. — The era of Mahatma Gandhi’s profound influence on Hinduism and India.
1948–1990 C.E. — India and Pakistan become independent countries and enter the modern era. Both possess nuclear weapons and suffer from religious tension among their Muslim and Hindu populations.
Now, for a timeline for islam:
Timeline of Islam
|c. 570 CE||Birth of Muhammad.|
|c. 610 CE||Muhammad receives first vision in a cave near Mecca.|
|c. 610-22 CE||Muhammad preaches in Mecca.|
|622 CE||Hijira – Muhammad and followers flee to Medina.
Islamic calendar (AH, Anno Hegirae) begins.
|624 CE||Muslims successfully attack Meccan caravans at Badr.|
|625||Muslims are defeated by Meccans at Uhud.|
|630||Muslims capture Mecca. Ka’ba is cleansed, pilgrimage rites are Islamicized, tribes of Arabia vow allegiance to Muhammad|
|632||Death of Muhammad. Abu Bakr chosen as caliph.|
|632-33||Wars of ridda (apostasy) restore allegiance to Islam|
|633||Muslim conquests (Futuhat) begin.|
|633-42||Muslim armies take the Fertile Crescent (Egypt, Syria, Palestine, Mesopotamia), North African coast, parts of Persian and Byzantine Empires|
|c. 650||Caliph Uthman has the Qur’an written down.|
|656||Uthman is murdered; Ali becomes fourth caliph.|
|657||Battle of Siffin. Mu’awiya, governor of Syria, claims the caliphate.|
|659||Arbitration at Adruh is opposed by Ali’s supporters.|
|661||Ali is murdered; Mu’awiya becomes caliph. Beginning of Umayyad Caliphate (661-750).|
|680||Death of Husayn marks beginning of the Shi’at Ali (“party of Ali”) or Shi’a sect.|
|685-705||Reign of Abd al-Malik. Centralization of administration – Arabic becomes official written language (instead of Greek and Persian) and Arab coinage is established.|
|late 600s||Ruling classes in East and West Africa convert to Islam.|
|700-800s||Groups of ascetics and mystics begin to form|
|710||Arab armies enter Spain from North Africa.|
|732||Muslim empire reaches its furthes extent. Battle of Tours prevents further advance northwards.|
|747||Revolt defeats the Umayyads.|
|750||Abu l’Abbas becomes caliph in Iraq|
|754||Baghdad (Madinat al-Salam, “city of peace”) becomes the new capital of the Abbasid empire.|
|755||Abd ar-Rahman founds an Umayyad Dynasty in Cordoba, Spain.|
|765||Division within Shi’ites – majority are the modern Imamiyya (Twelvers) who co-exist with Abbasid caliphs; minority are more extreme Isma’iliyaa (Seveners).|
|786-809||Reign of Harun ar-Rashid, best known through the stories of The Thousand and One Nights.|
|800s||Written collections of Hadith (sayings of the Prophet) are compiled. Sicily comes under Muslim rule.|
|813-33||Reign of Ma’mun. Theological controversy over whether the Qur’an is created or uncreated and eternal. Center for translation of texts from Greek to Arabic founded in Baghdad.|
|869-883||Uprisings of black slaves (Zanj) are eventually defeated.|
|908||First Fatimid caliph in Tunisia.|
|928||Umayyad Abd ar-Rahman III declares himself caliph in Cordoba.|
|940||Muhammad al-Mahdi, the twelfth imam, disappears. Twelvers still await the future return of the “Hidden Imam.”|
|945||The Buyids (Persian) invade Baghdad and take power from caliph.|
|969||Fatimids gain power in Egypt and attack Palestine, Syria, and Arabia. Cairo (Al-Qahira, “the victorious city”) is founded.|
|980-1037||Life of Avicenna, Iranian physician and Aristotelian philosopher.|
|996-1021||Reign of Fatimid al-Hakim. Hamza ibn Ali forms basis of esoteric Druze religion.|
|late 900s||West Africa begins to convert to Islam|
|1030||Umayyad caliphate in Cordoba defeated by the Christian Reconquista.|
|1055||Seljuk Turks take Baghdad; Abbasids now only nominal rulers.|
|1000s||Reconquista takes more of Spain, Sicily falls to the Normans, Crusader kingdoms are briefly established in Palestine and Syria.|
|1071||Seljuk Turks defeat Byzantines at Battle of Manzikert.|
|1090||Hasan-i Sabbah takes Alamut in the Persian mountains, the Assassin sect forms around him.|
|1099||Christian Crusaders take Jerusalem.|
|1100-1200s||Sufi orders (turuq) are founded.|
|1126-98||Life of Averroës, Muslim philosopher from Cordoba who sought to integrate Islam with Greek thought.|
|1171||Fatimid power ends in Egypt with the conquests of Saladin.|
|1174||Saladin declares himself sultan of Egypt and Syria.|
|1193||Death of Saladin; most of Crusader states have returned to Islam.|
|1200s||Assassins wipes out by the Mongols. Indian rulers in Delhi take title of Sultan. Spanish mystic Muhyi al-Din ibn al-Arabi (1165-1240) flourishes.|
|1221||Genghis Khan and the Mongols enter Persia.|
|1241||Mongols take the Punjab.|
|1258||Mongols capture Baghdad; city is sacked and caliph is killed. End of Abbasid caliphate.|
|1281-1324||Reign of Uthman (Osman), who founds the Ottoman Empire. Muslim merchants and missionary Sufis settle in SE Asia.|
|mid-1300s||Ottomans capture Bursa and Iznik and move into Europe.|
|1366||Capital of Ottoman Empire moved from Bursa to Adrianople.|
|late 1300s||Ottomas take control of the Balkans.|
|1400s||Islam reaches the Philippines.|
|1453||Mehmet Fatih (rules 1451-81) conquers Constantinople. The two halves of the Ottoman Empire are united and the sultan becomes Byzantine emperor.|
|1492||Castile and Aragon capture Granada. All Muslims (and Jews) expelled from Spain.|
|1501||Isma’il (1487-1524) claims to be the Hidden Imam and is proclaimed Shah (king) of Persia. Twelver Shi’ism becomes official religion of Persia.|
|1516||Ottomans conquer Syria and Egypt.|
|1517||Ottomans control Mecca and Medina.|
|1520-66||Reign of Suleyman the Magnificent; Ottoman Empire reaches its zenith. Hungary and coastlands of Algeria and Tunisia come under Ottoman rule.|
|1526||Babur (Mongolian) seizes the Delhi sultanate and takes control of northern India.|
|1556||Akbar founds the Mughal dynasty in northern India.|
|1600-1700s||Venetians, Habsburgs, and Russians divide European Ottoman lands between them.|
|1625||Java comes under rule of Muslim kingdom of Mataram.|
|1699||Treaty of Karlowitz confirms first substantial losses of Ottoman Empire in Europe.|
|1700s||Muhammad Abd al-Wahhab rejects Sufism and all innovation (bid’a). Founds what becomes the Saudi Arabian kingdom. Hindus regain power from Mughals in northern India.|
|1738||Mughal empire invaded by the Afghans.|
|1779||Afghans ousted by Qajar dynasty, which rules Persia until 1925.|
|1798||Napoleon’s expedition to Egypt.|
|1805||Muhammad Ali becomes governor of Egypt, which becomes independent of the Ottomans, gains control of western Arabia and extends into the Sudan.|
|1807-76||Tanzimat period. Ottoman Empire undergoes extensive program of modernization in government, law, and medicine.|
|1830||Greece regains independence from Ottomans.|
|1850s||Non-Muslim Ottoman citizens granted equality with Muslims.|
|1858||Last Mughal in India is deposed and India comes under British rule.|
|1876-1908||Reign of Abd al-Hamid II; autocratic and religiously conservative period in Ottoman rule.|
|1878||Congress of Berlin recognizes independence of Balkan states previously under Muslim rule.|
|1882-1952||Egypt occupied by the British.|
|1908-18||Last decade of Ottoman rule. Rise of nationalistic “Young Turks.” More liberal policies develop.|
|1912||Founding of Islamic Union (Sareket Islam), a modernizing movement in SE Asia.|
|1918||Fall of Ottoman Empire. League of Nations grants Britain mandatory status over Palestine and Iraq, and France over Lebanon and Syria.|
|1923||Republic of Turkey established. Mustafa Kemal (Ataturk) is first president.|
|1927||Tablighi Jamaat reform movement founded in India.|
|1928||Ikhwan al-Muslimun (Muslim Brothers) founded in Egypt.|
|1941||Jamaat-i Islami reform movement founded in Lahore, India.|
|1945||Indonesia becomes independent republic.|
|1945-60s||Islam spreads to the West with mass migrations from Asia, Africa, and India.|
|1947||Pakistan founded as an Islamic nation. Islam becomes a minority religion in India.|
|1957||Independent Malayan state established with Islam as the official religion but guaranteed tolerance.|
|1960s||Familes from SE Asia and North Africa emigrate to Europe and the Americas.|
|1979||Shah of Iran is overthrown by Ayatullah Ruhullah Khumayni, who establishes strict fundamentalist rule of Shi’a principles.|
|late 1990s||Taliban come to power in Afghanistan.|
|2001||Muslim extremists attack the United States.|
|2003||Saddam Hussein ousted by Western forces.|
|8 Jun 632||Death of the Prophet Muhammad|
Islam looks to be a religion more violent than other religions, a religion that generally had much more military conflict than other religions. There is one video that shows the amount of conflicts created by each religion over time:
A map that shows the spread of religions around the world:
And, The History of The World, a very detailed, good video!
Disclaimer: I don’t guarantee that the informations provided in the video above^(it’s not made by me) is 100% accurate. As all historical data, whether they are all 100% accurate. You(the reader) may have heard the quoute: “History is a Lie!”.
This has been a long post, which probably achieved it’s first purpose to review The Flood and the Timelines.
Now, for second purpose, it would be about the so called “Israel vs Palestine situation”.
Ideally, for this conflict to be solved, the best solution would be to have one state, one religion in that area. By default, the religion with ‘almost’ the best mentality and logic in the world, is Judaism. The ‘Kosher’ rules are correct, the Noahide Laws, the 10 Commandments are also correct, but somehow the 613 Commandments are contradictory with both the Noahide Laws and the Ten Commandments, in regard to the “Thou shalt not kill.”. One of the 613 commandments sometimes encourages the eliminating entire people and entire nations and they still apply capital punishments ( See commandment 596. Destroy the seven Canaanite nations,597. Not to let any of them remain alive, 544-548. The courts must carry out the death penalty of stoning, burning, strangulation, of the sword; 549.The courts must hang those stoned for blasphemy or idolatry; Which are against the “Thou shalt not kill” from the 10 commandments).
However, both Judaism and Islam apply capital punishments and thus their war will continue. The emphasis was that the religion with best logic would be Judaism, but the people of Palestine have suffered a lot, are less educated and lack the knowledge and the resources necessary and pretty much no one helps them. And there is a lot of ‘hatemongering’ fueling either the palestinian people and it’s citizens. And let’s not forget, palestinians and the people of israel are more than likely to share similar blood(palestinians to have been with israeli origins). The real problem is, still, lack of proper education and religion.
The Islam religion has one of the most practical, simple and efficient cleansing rituals, and that is Wudu(ablution), Ghusl and Tayammum(dry ablution). As for the rest…
Halal vs Kosher. Halal is good for prohibiting alcohol, while Kosher tells to consume in moderation. Kosher is better in terms of which animals should be eaten and also to not consume dairy products with meat. Kosher in general is better in many aspects.
Still, the ideal food would be vegetarian, something that is not suggested in either religion(as far as I am aware). In halal, the animal is sacrificed in front of the idol, which would count as sacrifice to idols, something that both jews and christians does not consider correct.
Jainism and Buddhism have the advantages of recommending a vegan diet, but who to follow?
Thus, Islam has the most to offer so far, the cleansing rituals.
The ideal solution to have a long term solving for palestine conflict, is for palestinians to be happy, thus being the underdog winner, by not killing, but by building good relations, it would be a good idea of a combined religion that accepts jewish tradition while adding the wudu/ghusl and tayammum to it, plus the prayers that the islam practices(like salat), to be not mandatory, only once a day, just like at Judaism.
So, for palestine to win, they have to accept jewish tradition and habits, recognise most/all of their writings, except those who encourage violence, killing and murder. They are encouraged to practice ablution(Wudu/Ghusl/Tayammum) and pray to either YHVH/Elah/Allah, from their religious texts.
The alternative would only further stretch conflict, which is not necessary.
In the long run, the practices of religions that encourage spiritual development and a clean diet(Like Buddhism, Jainism and sometimes Hinduism) will be the religions or schools of thought of the future!